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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(5): 1497-1504, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to assess the pooled proportion of women screened for cervical cancer before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: After ruling out registered or ongoing systematic reviews in the PROSPERO database regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in cervical cancer screening, the protocol of our systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021279305). The electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between January 2020 and October 2021and the study was designed based on PRISMA guidelines updated in 2020. Meta-analysis was accomplished in STATA version 13.0 (College Station, Texas 77,845 USA). The pooled proportion of women who had undergone cervical cancer screening was reported with 95% CI. In order to quantify the heterogeneity, Chi2 statistic (Q statistic) and I2 index were used. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included seven studies from Slovenia, Italy, Ontario (Canada), Scotland, Belgium, and the USA, comprising 403,986 women and 199,165 women who were screened for cervical cancer before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 and during the pandemic in 2020, respectively. The pooled proportion of women screened for cervical cancer in 2019 was 9.79% (95% CI 6.00%-13.59%, 95% prediction interval 0.42%-23.81%). During the pandemic, the pooled proportion of screened women declined to 4.24% (95% CI 2.77%-5.71%, 95% prediction interval 0.9%-17.49%). CONCLUSION: There was a substantial drop in the cervical cancer screening rate due to lockdowns and travel restrictions to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. Scaling up cervical cancer screening strategies is essential to prevent the long-term impact of cervical cancer burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(9): e00272921, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089512

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the temporal trend and inequalities in self-reported cervical cancer screening in Brazilian capitals from 2011 to 2020. This is a trend study with Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance System for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Through Telephone Interview (Vigitel) data from 2011 to 2020. The outcome was the prevalence of cytopathological examination in the last three years. Slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX) were used to estimate inequalities. An increasing trend in the outcome was observed in Brazil in the period surveyed, as well as a decrease in most regions, capitals, and in all groups according to education. There was a decrease in coverage in most regions of Brazil. We highlight that SII presented its worst results in 2011 and 2012, reaching 15.8p.p. (95%CI: 14.1; 17.6) and 15.0p.p. (95%CI: 13.1; 16.9), respectively, among women with 12 years or more of education. There was a decrease in coverage of cervical cancer screening in most Brazilian regions and capitals from 2011 to 2020. In the period before and during the pandemic, a reduction in the outcome was observed in the South and Southeast regions, suggesting that the COVID-19 pandemic caused geographical inequalities in the coverage for this exam in Brazil.


Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a tendência temporal e desigualdades no rastreamento autorrelatado do câncer de colo de útero nas capitais brasileiras entre os anos de 2011 e 2020. Estudo de tendência com dados da Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) de 2011 a 2020. O desfecho foi a prevalência de realização de exame citopatológico nos últimos três anos. Para estimar as desigualdades, foram utilizados os índices de desigualdade de inclinação (slope index of inequality - SII) e de concentração (concentration index - CIX). Observou-se tendência crescente do desfecho no país no período pesquisado e queda na maioria das regiões, capitais e em todos os grupos de acordo com escolaridade. Houve uma queda da cobertura na maioria das regiões do Brasil. Destaca-se que o SII apresentou seus piores resultados em 2011 e 2012, alcançando 15,8p.p. (IC95%: 14,1; 17,6) e 15,0p.p. (IC95%: 13,1; 16,9), respectivamente, entre as mulheres com 12 anos ou mais de estudo. Houve queda na cobertura da realização do exame preventivo de câncer de colo de útero na maioria das regiões e capitais brasileiras entre os anos de 2011 e 2020. No período antes e durante a pandemia, houve redução do desfecho no país, nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, sugerindo que a pandemia de COVID-19 acarretou desigualdades geográficas na cobertura desse exame no país.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la tendencia temporal y las desigualdades en el seguimiento autoinformado de cáncer de cuello uterino en las capitales brasileñas entre 2011 y 2020. Estudio de tendencias con datos de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección de Enfermedades Crónicas por Encuesta Telefónica (Vigitel) en el período de 2011 a 2020. El desenlace fue la prevalencia del examen citopatológico en los últimos tres años. Para estimar las desigualdades se utilizaron los índices de inequidad absoluto (slope index of inequality - SII) y de concentración (concentration index - CIX). Hubo tendencia a un aumento del desenlace en el período en estudio y un descenso en la mayoría de las regiones, capitales y en todos los grupos según el nivel educativo. Se observó un descenso en la cobertura en la mayoría de las regiones de Brasil. Se destaca que el SII presentó un peor resultado en 2011 y 2012, alcanzando 15,8p.p. (IC95%: 14,1; 17,6) y 15,0p.p. (IC95%: 13,1; 16,9), respectivamente, entre mujeres con 12 años o más de escolaridad. Hubo un descenso en la cobertura de la detección de cáncer de cuello uterino en la mayoría de las regiones y capitales brasileñas entre 2011 y 2020. En el período anterior y durante la pandemia, hubo una reducción en el desenlace para el país, en las regiones Sur y Sudeste, lo que apunta que la pandemia del COVID-19 provocó desigualdades geográficas en la cobertura de este examen a nivel nacional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Self Report , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Elife ; 112022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067165

ABSTRACT

We evaluated how temporary disruptions to primary cervical cancer (CC) screening services may differentially impact women due to heterogeneity in their screening history and test modality. We used three CC models to project the short- and long-term health impacts assuming an underlying primary screening frequency (i.e., 1, 3, 5, or 10 yearly) under three alternative COVID-19-related screening disruption scenarios (i.e., 1-, 2-, or 5-year delay) versus no delay in the context of both cytology-based and human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening. Models projected a relative increase in symptomatically detected cancer cases during a 1-year delay period that was 38% higher (Policy1-Cervix), 80% higher (Harvard), and 170% higher (MISCAN-Cervix) for underscreened women whose last cytology screen was 5 years prior to the disruption period compared with guidelines-compliant women (i.e., last screen 3 years prior to disruption). Over a woman's lifetime, temporary COVID-19-related delays had less impact on lifetime risk of developing CC than screening frequency and test modality; however, CC risks increased disproportionately the longer time had elapsed since a woman's last screen at the time of the disruption. Excess risks for a given delay period were generally lower for HPV-based screeners than for cytology-based screeners. Our independent models predicted that the main drivers of CC risk were screening frequency and screening modality, and the overall impact of disruptions from the pandemic on CC outcomes may be small. However, screening disruptions disproportionately affect underscreened women, underpinning the importance of reaching such women as a critical area of focus, regardless of temporary disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cervix Uteri , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
Curr Oncol ; 29(10): 7379-7387, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065745

ABSTRACT

Program ROSE (removing obstacles to cervical screening) is a primary HPV-based cervical screening program that incorporates self-sampling and digital technology, ensuring that women are linked to care. It was developed based on the principles of design thinking in the context of Malaysia. The program illustrates the importance of collaborative partnerships and addressing the multi-faceted barriers from policy changes, and infrastructure readiness to the implementation of a radically new cervical screening program in communities. The paradigm shift in cervical cancer requires a monumental and concerted effort in educating both the healthcare providers and the general public. In this short review, we highlight how Pilot Project ROSE incorporated evidence-based tools that rapidly scaled up to Program ROSE. These ideas and solutions can be adapted and adopted by other countries. Notwithstanding the impact of COVID-19, it is incumbent on countries to pave the road towards the elimination of cervical cancer with pre-existing footpaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Self-Testing , Pilot Projects , Malaysia
6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(13): 3525-3528, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060019

ABSTRACT

Shared decision-making (SDM) can help patients make good decisions about preventive health interventions such as cancer screening. We illustrate the use of SDM in the case of a 53-year-old man who had a new patient visit with a primary care physician and had never been screened for colorectal cancer (CRC). The patient had recently recovered from a serious COVID-19 infection requiring weeks of mechanical ventilation. When the primary care physician initially offered a screening colonoscopy, the man expressed great reluctance to return to the hospital for the exam. The PCP then offered a stool test, which could be completed at home, but emphasized that if it were positive, a colonoscopy would be required. He agreed to complete the stool test, and unfortunately, it was positive. He then agreed to undergo colonoscopy, which uncovered a large rectal cancer. The carcinoma had invaded the mesorectal fat but there were no metastases. After undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by a low anterior resection of the tumor, he has no evidence of recurrence so far. Many clinicians favor colonoscopy for CRC screening, but evidence suggests that patients who are offered more than one reasonable option are more likely to undergo screening. If screening had been delayed in this patient until he was willing to accept a screening colonoscopy, there was the potential the cancer may have been more advanced when diagnosed, with a worse outcome. Shared decision-making was a key approach to understanding the patient's feelings related to this screening decision and making a decision consistent with his preferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Occult Blood , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(6): 988-996, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. Screening mammography facilities closed during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. Recovery of screening volumes has varied across patient subgroups and facilities. OBJECTIVE. We compared screening mammography volumes and patient and facility characteristics between periods before COVID-19 and early and later postclosure recovery periods. METHODS. This retrospective study included screening mammograms performed in the same 2-month period (May 26-July 26) in 2019 (pre-COVID-19), 2020 (early recovery), and 2021 (late recovery after targeted interventions to expand access) and across multiple facility types (urban, suburban, community health center). Suburban sites had highest proportion of White patients and the greatest scheduling flexibility and expanded appointments during initial reopening. Findings were compared across years. RESULTS. For White patients, volumes decreased 36.6% from 6550 in 2019 (4384 in 2020) and then increased 61.0% to 6579 in 2021; for patients with races other than White, volumes decreased 53.9% from 1321 in 2019 (609 in 2020) and then increased 136.8% to 1442 in 2021. The percentage of mammograms in patients with races other than White was 16.8% in 2019, 12.2% in 2020, and 18.0% in 2021. The proportion performed at the urban center was 55.3% in 2019, 42.2% in 2020, and 45.9% in 2021; the proportion at suburban sites was 34.0% in 2019, 49.2% in 2020, and 43.5% in 2021. Pre-COVID-19 volumes were reached by the sixth week after reopening for suburban sites but were not reached during early recovery for the other sites. The proportion that were performed on Saturday for suburban sites was similar across periods, whereas the proportion performed on Saturday for the urban site was 7.6% in 2019, 5.3% in 2020, and 8.8% in 2021; the community health center did not offer Saturday appointments during recovery. CONCLUSION. After reopening, screening shifted from urban to suburban settings, with a disproportionate screening decrease in patients with races other than White. Initial delayed access at facilities serving underserved populations exacerbated disparities. Interventions to expand access resulted in late recovery volumes exceeding prepandemic volumes in patients with races other than White. CLINICAL IMPACT. Interventions to support equitable access across facilities serving diverse patient populations may mitigate potential widening disparities in breast cancer diagnosis during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Architectural Accessibility , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Int Med Res ; 50(9): 3000605221125047, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053626

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer, considered one of the most common causes of cancer deaths worldwide, is a complex disease with its own challenges. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), compounded these challenges and forced the medical healthcare system to alter its approach to lung cancer. This narrative review aims to identify the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on lung cancer screening, diagnosis and management. During this public health crisis, various medical societies have worked on developing guidelines to protect patients with lung cancer from the deleterious effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as from the complications imposed by treatment delays. The different therapeutic approaches, such as surgery, radiation oncology and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, along with the latest international recommendations, will be discussed. Protecting patients with lung cancer from COVID-19 complications, while avoiding barriers in treatment delays, has brought unique challenges to healthcare facilities. Prompt modifications to guidelines, and constant evaluation of their efficacy, are thus needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19 Testing , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(12): 1465-1472, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our research sought to describe barriers to mammography screening among a sample of predominantly Black women in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. METHODS: The Pink Panel project convened community leaders from faith-based institutions to administer an offline survey to women via convenience sampling at fourteen churches in Atlanta in late 2019 and early 2020. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the research team switched to an online survey. The survey included seven questions about breast cancer awareness, barriers to breast cancer screening, and screening status. We used residence information to attain the 9-digit zip code to link to the Area Deprivation Index at the Census Block Group neighborhood level. We report results as descriptive statistics of the barriers to mammography screening. RESULTS: The 643 women represented 21 counties in Georgia, predominantly from metropolitan Atlanta, and 86% identified as Black. Among women aged 40 and older, 90% have ever had a mammogram. Among all women, 79% have ever had a mammogram, and 86% indicated that they would get a mammogram if offered in their neighborhood. The top barriers to mammography screening were lack of health insurance and high cost. Barriers to mammography screening did not differ substantially by Area Deprivation Index. CONCLUSION: Among metropolitan Atlanta women aged 40+ , nearly all reported ever having a mammogram. However, addressing the barriers, including lack of health insurance and high cost, that women reported may further improve mammography screening rates.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Pandemics , Mammography , Mass Screening
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2233267, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047370

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite its rapid adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is unknown how telemedicine augmentation of in-person office visits has affected quality of patient care. Objective: To examine whether quality of care among patients exposed to telemedicine differs from patients with only in-person office-based care. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, standardized quality measures were compared between patients with office-only (in-person) visits vs telemedicine visits from March 1, 2020, to November 30, 2021, across more than 200 outpatient care sites in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Exposures: Patients completing telemedicine (video) visits. Main Outcomes and Measures: χ2 tests determined statistically significant differences in Health Care Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality performance measures between office-only and telemedicine-exposed groups. Multivariable logistic regression controlled for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. Results: The study included 526 874 patients (409 732 office-only; 117 142 telemedicine exposed) with a comparable distribution of sex (196 285 [49.7%] and 74 878 [63.9%] women), predominance of non-Hispanic (348 127 [85.0%] and 105 408 [90.0%]) and White individuals (334 215 [81.6%] and 100 586 [85.9%]), aged 18 to 65 years (239 938 [58.6%] and 91 100 [77.8%]), with low overall health risk scores (373 176 [91.1%] and 100 076 [85.4%]) and commercial (227 259 [55.5%] and 81 552 [69.6%]) or Medicare or Medicaid (176 671 [43.1%] and 52 513 [44.8%]) insurance. For medication-based measures, patients with office-only visits had better performance, but only 3 of 5 measures had significant differences: patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) receiving antiplatelets (absolute percentage difference [APD], 6.71%; 95% CI, 5.45%-7.98%; P < .001), patients with CVD receiving statins (APD, 1.79%; 95% CI, 0.88%-2.71%; P = .001), and avoiding antibiotics for patients with upper respiratory infections (APD, 2.05%; 95% CI, 1.17%-2.96%; P < .001); there were insignificant differences for patients with heart failure receiving ß-blockers and those with diabetes receiving statins. For all 4 testing-based measures, patients with telemedicine exposure had significantly better performance differences: patients with CVD with lipid panels (APD, 7.04%; 95% CI, 5.95%-8.10%; P < .001), patients with diabetes with hemoglobin A1c testing (APD, 5.14%; 95% CI, 4.25%-6.01%; P < .001), patients with diabetes with nephropathy testing (APD, 9.28%; 95% CI, 8.22%-10.32%; P < .001), and blood pressure control (APD, 3.55%; 95% CI, 3.25%-3.85%; P < .001); this was also true for all 7 counseling-based measures: cervical cancer screening (APD, 12.33%; 95% CI, 11.80%-12.85%; P < .001), breast cancer screening (APD, 16.90%; 95% CI, 16.07%-17.71%; P < .001), colon cancer screening (APD, 8.20%; 95% CI, 7.65%-8.75%; P < .001), tobacco counseling and intervention (APD, 12.67%; 95% CI, 11.84%-13.50%; P < .001), influenza vaccination (APD, 9.76%; 95% CI, 9.47%-10.05%; P < .001), pneumococcal vaccination (APD, 5.41%; 95% CI, 4.85%-6.00%; P < .001), and depression screening (APD, 4.85%; 95% CI, 4.66%-5.04%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with telemedicine exposure, there was a largely favorable association with quality of primary care. This supports telemedicine's value potential for augmenting care capacity, especially in chronic disease management and preventive care. This study also identifies a need for understanding relationships between the optimal blend of telemedicine and in-office care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Diabetes Mellitus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Lipids , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , United States
13.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(3, may-jun): 333-339, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040566

ABSTRACT

Desde el comienzo de la pandemia de Covid-19 los servi-cios de prevención de cáncer de mama han sido aplazados gravemente. Esta acción provocó la reducción en el número acumulado de mastografías de detección a nivel mundial e incrementó las disparidades en salud, sobre todo entre las mujeres vulnerables. Si bien la evidencia que respalda las es-trategias para rescatar el tamizaje con mastografía en la fase de resolución de la pandemia no es suficiente, hay algunas consideraciones pragmáticas que pueden guiar su recupera-ción y garantizar su continuidad. Una de estas estrategias es prever los retrasos en el tamizaje y abordarlos a través de programas seguros que se alineen con la situación epidemio-lógica actual. Las acciones planteadas en el presente ensayo están en consonancia con las iniciativas internacionales de garantizar la continuidad de los programas de tamizaje de cáncer de mama en atención a que el cuidado de las mujeres sea una acción prioritaria, continua y permanente.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 24(1): 211, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease that can lead to damage of multiple organs and, along with certain treatments, increase the risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and infections. Preventive services are particularly important in patients with SLE to mitigate the aforementioned risks. We aimed to evaluate the trends of preventive services utilization in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, compared with non-SLE population. METHODS: All ≥19-year-old patients in the Lupus Midwest Network (LUMEN) registry, a population-based cohort, with SLE on January 1, 2015, were included and matched (1:1) by sex, age, race, and county to non-SLE comparators. Among both groups, we compared the rates of screenings for breast and cervical cancer, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis as well as immunizations. RESULTS: We included 440 SLE patients and 430 non-SLE comparators. The probability of breast cancer screening among women with SLE was similar to comparators (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% CI 0.85-1.39), while cervical cancer screening was lower (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96). Hypertension screening was higher among patients with SLE (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62); however, hyperlipidemia screening was similar to comparators (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.41). Diabetes and osteoporosis screenings were more likely to be performed for SLE patients than for comparators (HR 2.46, 95% CI 2.11-2.87; and HR 3.19, 95% CI 2.31-4.41; respectively). Influenza and pneumococcal immunizations were higher among SLE patients (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.12-1.54; and HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.38-3.09; respectively), while zoster vaccination was similar (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.81-1.69). CONCLUSIONS: The trends of utilization of preventive services by SLE patients vary according to screening or vaccine compared with the general population. Considering these differences, we demonstrate an opportunity for improvement, particularly in cervical cancer, hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis screenings and vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Osteoporosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Young Adult
16.
Curr Oncol ; 29(8): 5644-5654, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032870

ABSTRACT

Quality medical practice is based on science and evidence. For over a half-century, the efficacy of breast cancer screening has been challenged, particularly for women aged 40-49. As each false claim has been raised, it has been addressed and refuted based on science and evidence. Nevertheless, misinformation continues to be promoted, resulting in confusion for women and their physicians. Early detection has been proven to save lives for women aged 40-74 in randomized controlled trials of mammography screening. Observational studies, failure analyses, and incidence of death studies have provided evidence that there is a major benefit when screening is introduced to the general population. In large part due to screening, there has been an over 40% decline in deaths from breast cancer since 1990. Nevertheless, misinformation about screening continues to be promoted, adding to the confusion. Despite claims to the contrary, a careful reading of the guidelines issued by major groups such as the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American College of Physicians shows that they all agree that most lives are saved by screening starting at the age of 40. There is no scientific support for using the age of 50 as a threshold for screening. All women should be provided with the facts and not false information about breast cancer screening so that they can make "informed decisions" for themselves about whether to participate.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Communication , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Mammography/methods , Mass Screening/methods
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(3): 470-476, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess concordance and acceptability of a modified menstrual pad compared with a clinician-collected high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) sample. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. Women presenting for either cervical cancer screening or with a history of high-risk HPV positivity were eligible. Three samples were requested from participants: 1) clinician-collected cervical specimens; 2) self-collected vaginal swabs; and 3) a modified menstrual pad, which was taken home for use during the next menstruation. All samples were processed using the Cobas HPV test. Menstrual pad dried blood spots were eluted, then similarly processed. RESULTS: Of 153 women enrolled in the study, 106 provided menstrual pad samples and clinician-collected cervical specimens for high-risk HPV analysis. For samples in which the interval between the clinician-collected specimen and the menstrual pad sample was less than 2 months, the concordance was 94% (95% CI 83-98). For women who tested positive for high-risk HPV who presented for general screening and those with more than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2, menstrual pad and clinician-collected specimen agreement was 100% (95% CI 32.5-100). Among participants, 22.9% expressed discomfort with the self-collected vaginal swabs and opted out of collection. Overall, 94.0% of participants preferred the menstrual pad over clinician-collected sampling. Twelve patients were found to be positive for HPV on the menstrual pad sample but negative on the clinician-collected specimen. CONCLUSION: Among women who tested positive for HPV, the menstrual pad showed highly concordant results compared with clinician-collected sampling. This collection approach shows promise for integration into cervical cancer prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Vaginal Smears/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E59, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030273

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant declines in cancer screening, including among women served by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). This study examined the spatial association between state-based COVID-19 test percent positivity and proportional change in NBCCEDP screening volume. METHODS: Using the COVID-19 Diagnostic Laboratory Testing dataset, we calculated state-based monthly COVID-19 test percent positivity from July through December 2020 and categorized rates into low, medium, and high groups. We used data from 48 NBCCEDP state awardees to calculate the state-based monthly proportional change in screening volume and compared data for July-December 2020 with the previous 5-year average for those months. We categorized changes in screening volume into large decrease, medium decrease, and minimal change and created maps of the associations between variable subgroups by using bivariate mapping in QGIS. RESULTS: Bivariate relationships between COVID-19 test percent positivity and proportional change in cancer screening volume varied over time and geography. In 5 of 6 months, 4 states had high COVID-19 test percent positivity and minimal change in breast or cervical cancer screening volume; 2 states had high COVID-19 test percent positivity and minimal change in breast and cervical cancer screening volume. CONCLUSION: Some states maintained pre-COVID-19 screening volumes despite high COVID-19 test percent positivity. Follow-up research will be conducted to determine how these states differ from those with consistent decreases in screening volume and identify factors that may have contributed to differences. This information could be useful for planning to maximize NBCCEDP awardees' ability to maintain screening volume during future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
19.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(9): 1536-1538, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025669

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a structured telephone reminder system on completion rates of screening fecal immunochemical tests. METHODS: Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) return rates were compared among patients who received a telephone reminder after 14 days and those who did not receive a reminder. RESULTS: There was a significantly higher return rate among patients who received a telephone reminder. Automated FIT tracking processes failed to capture a significant percentage of returned FITs compared with manual tracking processes. DISCUSSION: These results support telephone reminders as an effective modality to increase FIT return rates.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Occult Blood , Reminder Systems , Telephone
20.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals. RESULTS: The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
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