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1.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1205-E1212, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, was deferred during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and a prioritization framework to resume services according to breast cancer risk was developed. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic within the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP) by comparing total volumes of screening mammographic examinations and volumes of screening mammographic examinations with abnormal results before and during the pandemic, and to assess backlogs on the basis of adherence to the prioritization framework. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among women aged 50 to 74 years at average risk and women aged 30 to 69 years at high risk, who participated in the OBSP. Percentage change was calculated by comparing observed monthly volumes of mammographic examinations from March 2020 to March 2021 with 2019 volumes and proportions by risk group. We plotted estimates of backlog volumes of mammographic examinations by risk group, comparing pandemic with prepandemic screening practices. Volumes of mammographic examinations with abnormal results were plotted by risk group. RESULTS: Volumes of mammographic examinations in the OBSP showed the largest declines in April and May 2020 (> 99% decrease) and returned to prepandemic levels as of March 2021, with an accumulated backlog of 340 876 examinations. As of March 2021, prioritization had reduced the backlog volumes of screens for participants at high risk for breast cancer by 96.5% (186 v. 5469 expected) and annual rescreens for participants at average risk for breast cancer by 13.5% (62 432 v. 72 202 expected); there was a minimal decline for initial screens. Conversely, the backlog increased by 7.6% for biennial rescreens (221 674 v. 206 079 expected). More than half (59.4%) of mammographic examinations with abnormal results were for participants in the higher risk groups. INTERPRETATION: Prioritizing screening for those at higher risk for breast cancer may increase diagnostic yield and redirect resources to minimize potential long-term harms caused by the pandemic. This further supports the clinical utility of risk-stratified cancer screening.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Mammography , Aged , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Priorities/standards , Health Priorities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mammography/standards , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors
3.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 1028-1033, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468135

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined changes in prostate disease screening (prostatic-specific antigen [PSA] testing), prostate biopsy testing, and prostate cancer diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic through December 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analysis included test results from men ≥ 40 years, without prior International Classification of Diseases-10 record of prostate cancer since January 2016, who received PSA or prostate biopsy testing at Quest Diagnostics during January 2018-December 2020. Monthly trends were evaluated for three periods: prepandemic (January 2018-February 2020), early-pandemic (March-May 2020), and late-pandemic (June-December 2020). RESULTS: Meeting inclusion criteria were 16,365,833 PSA and 48,819 prostate biopsy results. The average monthly number of PSA tests declined from 465,187 prepandemic to 295,786 early-pandemic (36.4% decrease; P = .01) before rebounding to 483,374 (3.9% increase; P = .23) late-pandemic. The monthly average number of PSA results ≥ 50 ng/mL (23,356; 0.14% of all PSA results) dipped from 659 prepandemic to 506 early-pandemic (23.2% decrease; P = .02) and rebounded to 674 late-pandemic (2.3% increase; P = .65). The average monthly number of prostate biopsy results decreased from 1,453 prepandemic to 903 early-pandemic (37.9% decrease; P = .01) before rebounding to 1,190 late-pandemic (18.1% decrease; P = .01). The average monthly number for Gleason score ≥ 8 (6,241; 12.8% of all prostate biopsies) declined from 182 prepandemic to 130 early-pandemic (28.6% decrease; P = .02) and decreased to 161 late-pandemic (11.5% decrease; P = .02). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that a substantial number of prostate screening opportunities and cancer diagnoses have been missed. Efforts are needed to bring such patients back for screening and diagnostic testing and to restore appropriate care for non-COVID-19-related medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms , Biopsy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology
4.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 71(6): 466-487, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430676

ABSTRACT

The Hispanic/Latino population is the second largest racial/ethnic group in the continental United States and Hawaii, accounting for 18% (60.6 million) of the total population. An additional 3 million Hispanic Americans live in Puerto Rico. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society reports on cancer occurrence, risk factors, and screening for Hispanic individuals in the United States using the most recent population-based data. An estimated 176,600 new cancer cases and 46,500 cancer deaths will occur among Hispanic individuals in the continental United States and Hawaii in 2021. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), Hispanic men and women had 25%-30% lower incidence (2014-2018) and mortality (2015-2019) rates for all cancers combined and lower rates for the most common cancers, although this gap is diminishing. For example, the colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rate ratio for Hispanic compared with NHW individuals narrowed from 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.78) in 1995 to 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89-0.93) in 2018, reflecting delayed declines in CRC rates among Hispanic individuals in part because of slower uptake of screening. In contrast, Hispanic individuals have higher rates of infection-related cancers, including approximately two-fold higher incidence of liver and stomach cancer. Cervical cancer incidence is 32% higher among Hispanic women in the continental US and Hawaii and 78% higher among women in Puerto Rico compared to NHW women, yet is largely preventable through screening. Less access to care may be similarly reflected in the low prevalence of localized-stage breast cancer among Hispanic women, 59% versus 67% among NHW women. Evidence-based strategies for decreasing the cancer burden among the Hispanic population include the use of culturally appropriate lay health advisors and patient navigators and targeted, community-based intervention programs to facilitate access to screening and promote healthy behaviors. In addition, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer trends and disparities in the Hispanic population should be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(9): 1161-1167, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a near-total cessation of mammography services in the United States in mid-March 2020. It is unclear if screening and diagnostic mammography volumes have recovered to prepandemic levels and whether use has varied by women's characteristics. METHODS: We collected data on 461 083 screening mammograms and 112 207 diagnostic mammograms conducted during January 2019 through July 2020 at 62 radiology facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. We compared monthly screening and diagnostic mammography volumes before and during the pandemic stratified by age, race and ethnicity, breast density, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Screening and diagnostic mammography volumes in April 2020 were 1.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5% to 2.4%) and 21.4% (95% CI = 18.7% to 24.4%) of the April 2019 prepandemic volumes, respectively, but by July 2020 had rebounded to 89.7% (95% CI = 79.6% to 101.1%) and 101.6% (95% CI = 93.8% to 110.1%) of the July 2019 prepandemic volumes, respectively. The year-to-date cumulative volume of screening and diagnostic mammograms performed through July 2020 was 66.2% (95% CI = 60.3% to 72.6%) and 79.9% (95% CI = 75.4% to 84.6%), respectively, of year-to-date volume through July 2019. Screening mammography rebound was similar across age groups and by family history of breast cancer. Monthly screening mammography volume in July 2020 for Black, White, Hispanic, and Asian women reached 96.7% (95% CI = 88.1% to 106.1%), 92.9% (95% CI = 82.9% to 104.0%), 72.7% (95% CI = 56.5% to 93.6%), and 51.3% (95% CI = 39.7% to 66.2%) of the July 2019 prepandemic volume, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a strong overall rebound in mammography volume by July 2020, the rebound lagged among Asian and Hispanic women, and a substantial cumulative deficit in missed mammograms accumulated, which may have important health consequences.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
6.
Cancer ; 127(23): 4512-4515, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening utilization steeply dropped at the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the effects on breast cancer screening in lower income populations are unknown. This study examined changes in breast cancer screening rates (BCSRs) during the pandemic among 32 community health centers (CHCs) that provided health care to lower income populations. METHODS: Secondary data from 32 CHCs participating in an American Cancer Society grant program to increase breast cancer screening services were used. BCSRs were defined as the percentage of women aged 50 to 74 years who had a medical visit in the past 12 months (142,207 in 2018, 142,003 in 2019, and 150,630 in 2020) and received a screening mammogram within the last 27 months. BCSRs in July 2020, July 2019, and June 2018 were compared with screening rate ratios (SRRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: BCSRs significantly rose by 18% between 2018 and 2019 (from 45.8% to 53.9%; SRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.17-1.18) and then declined by 8% between 2019 and 2020 (from 53.9% to 49.6%; SRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.92-0.93). If the 2018-2019 BCSR trends had continued through 2020, 63.3% of women would have been screened in 2020 in contrast to the 49.6% who were; this potentially translated into 47,517 fewer mammograms and 242 missed breast cancer diagnoses in this population. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of 32 CHCs, BCSRs declined by 8% from July 2019 to 2020, and this reversed an 18% improvement between July 2018 and 2019. Declining BCSRs among CHCs during the COVID-19 pandemic call for policies to support and resources to identify women in need of screening.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Community Health Centers , Female , Humans , Mammography , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
7.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 22(10): 93, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368525

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: The COVID-19 pandemic forced us to rapidly and dramatically shift our medical priorities and decision making. With little literature or experience to rely on, the initial priority was to minimize patient exposure to the hospital and to others. It remains unclear whether cancer patients are at higher risk of infection or serious complications, or if it is our traditional therapies that place them to be at higher risk. By far, the greatest negative impact was on screening. Routine colonoscopies were considered elective, and as a result, delays in diagnosis will be felt for years to come. The most positive changes were the incorporation of tele-visits, increased use of oral therapies, alterations in treatment schedules of both chemotherapy and radiation, and an increased emphasis on neoadjuvant therapy. These too will be felt for years to come. The colorectal cancer medical community has responded collaboratively and effectively to maintain treatment and to optimize outcomes for our patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Colonoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Disease Management , Humans
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359430

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the leading gynaecological malignancy in Zimbabwe, constituting 33% of all female cancers in 2016. Primary prevention through vaccination and secondary prevention through screening are important public health interventions to reduce the cervical cancer burden. Unfortunately, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to healthcare delivery, posing threats to prevention efforts at a time when the public health sector is extremely fragile. The fragility of the sector has complicated treatment for cervical cancer before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and is expected to worsen beyond the pandemic. A multi-sectoral intersection between public health experts, clinicians and communities is urgently required to restore preventive and treatment services for cervical cancer and reduce the increased burden, morbidity and mortality stemming indirectly from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Zimbabwe
10.
BJOG ; 128(9): 1503-1510, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cervical screening, colposcopy and treatment volumes in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. POPULATION: People with a cervix age of 21-69 years who completed at least one cervical screening cytology test, colposcopy or treatment procedure for cervical dysplasia between January 2019 and August 2020. METHODS: Administrative databases were used to compare cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment procedure volumes before (historical comparator) and during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-August 2020). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment volumes; individuals with high-grade cytology awaiting colposcopy. RESULTS: During the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the monthly average number of cervical screening cytology tests, colposcopies and treatments decreased by 63.8% (range: -92.3 to -41.0%), 39.7% (range: -75.1 to -14.3%) and 31.1% (range: -43.5 to -23.6%), respectively, when compared with the corresponding months in 2019. Between March and August 2020, on average 292 (-51.0%) fewer high-grade cytological abnormalities were detected through screening each month. As of August 2020, 1159 (29.2%) individuals with high-grade screening cytology were awaiting follow-up colposcopy. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on key cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario. As the pandemic continues, ongoing monitoring of service utilisation to inform system response and recovery is required. Future efforts to understand the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions on cervical cancer outcomes will be needed. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario, Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Colposcopy/statistics & numerical data , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Vaginal Smears/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Databases, Factual , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 9998379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314186

ABSTRACT

In recent years, computerized biomedical imaging and analysis have become extremely promising, more interesting, and highly beneficial. They provide remarkable information in the diagnoses of skin lesions. There have been developments in modern diagnostic systems that can help detect melanoma in its early stages to save the lives of many people. There is also a significant growth in the design of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems using advanced artificial intelligence. The purpose of the present research is to develop a system to diagnose skin cancer, one that will lead to a high level of detection of the skin cancer. The proposed system was developed using deep learning and traditional artificial intelligence machine learning algorithms. The dermoscopy images were collected from the PH2 and ISIC 2018 in order to examine the diagnose system. The developed system is divided into feature-based and deep leaning. The feature-based system was developed based on feature-extracting methods. In order to segment the lesion from dermoscopy images, the active contour method was proposed. These skin lesions were processed using hybrid feature extractions, namely, the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) methods to extract the texture features. The obtained features were then processed using the artificial neural network (ANNs) algorithm. In the second system, the convolutional neural network (CNNs) algorithm was applied for the efficient classification of skin diseases; the CNNs were pretrained using large AlexNet and ResNet50 transfer learning models. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperformed the state-of-art methods for HP2 and ISIC 2018 datasets. Standard evaluation metrics like accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, precision, recall, and F-score were employed to evaluate the results of the two proposed systems. The ANN model achieved the highest accuracy for PH2 (97.50%) and ISIC 2018 (98.35%) compared with the CNN model. The evaluation and comparison, proposed systems for classification and detection of melanoma are presented.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Computational Biology , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Deep Learning , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Image Enhancement/methods , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Neural Networks, Computer , Skin Diseases/classification , Skin Diseases/diagnostic imaging
12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(11): 1484-1494, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted breast cancer control through short-term declines in screening and delays in diagnosis and treatments. We projected the impact of COVID-19 on future breast cancer mortality between 2020 and 2030. METHODS: Three established Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network breast cancer models modeled reductions in mammography screening use, delays in symptomatic cancer diagnosis, and reduced use of chemotherapy for women with early-stage disease for the first 6 months of the pandemic with return to prepandemic patterns after that time. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the effect of key model parameters, including the duration of the pandemic impact. RESULTS: By 2030, the models project 950 (model range = 860-1297) cumulative excess breast cancer deaths related to reduced screening, 1314 (model range = 266-1325) associated with delayed diagnosis of symptomatic cases, and 151 (model range = 146-207) associated with reduced chemotherapy use in women with hormone positive, early-stage cancer. Jointly, 2487 (model range = 1713-2575) excess breast cancer deaths were estimated, representing a 0.52% (model range = 0.36%-0.56%) cumulative increase over breast cancer deaths expected by 2030 in the absence of the pandemic's disruptions. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the breast cancer mortality impact would be approximately double if the modeled pandemic effects on screening, symptomatic diagnosis, and chemotherapy extended for 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Initial pandemic-related disruptions in breast cancer care will have a small long-term cumulative impact on breast cancer mortality. Continued efforts to ensure prompt return to screening and minimize delays in evaluation of symptomatic women can largely mitigate the effects of the initial pandemic-associated disruptions.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/mortality , COVID-19/complications , Computer Simulation , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Survival Rate
13.
Breast Cancer ; 28(6): 1340-1345, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency in Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Osaka, Hyogo and Fukuoka prefectures on April 7, 2020; this was extended to the remaining prefectures on April 16, 2020. The state of emergency was lifted on May 25, 2020. Although it was known that breast cancer screening was postponed or canceled during this period, the actual extent of postponement or cancellation has not been clarified. METHODS: We investigated postponement or cancellation of breast cancer screening between April and May 2020 using a cross-sectional, web-based, self-reported questionnaire survey. In addition, we examined the association between socioeconomic and health-related factors and postponement or cancellation by multivariable log-binominal regression. RESULTS: Among 1874 women aged 30-79 years who had scheduled breast cancer screening during the study period, 493 women (26.3%) postponed or canceled screening. While women aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years postponed or canceled less frequently than women aged 40-49 years (prevalence ratio = 0.62 and 0.56, respectively), there was no significant difference between age groups in the women aged 40-69 years. Postponement or cancellation was more frequent in five prefectures, where the state of emergency was declared early (prevalence ratio = 1.25). Employment status, annual household income, family structure, academic background, smoking status, and fear of COVID-19 were not associated with postponement or cancellation. CONCLUSION: Although care should be taken with the interpretation of these findings due to possible biases, they suggest that the postponement or cancellation of breast cancer screening might be due more to facility suspension than to individual factors. It is necessary to explore the ideal way of encouraging breast cancer screening uptake, in an environment of coexistence with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer/psychology , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Fear , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report/statistics & numerical data
14.
Br J Cancer ; 125(6): 798-805, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The restructuring of healthcare systems to cope with the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a reduction in clinical services such as cancer screening and diagnostics. METHODS: Data from the four Northern Ireland pathology laboratories were used to assess trends in pathological cancer diagnoses from 1st March to 12th September 2020 overall and by cancer site, sex and age. These trends were compared to the same timeframe from 2017 to 2019. RESULTS: Between 1st March and 12th September 2020, there was a 23% reduction in cancer diagnoses compared to the same time period in the preceding 3 years. Although some recovery occurred in August and September 2020, this revealed inequalities across certain patient groups. Pathological diagnoses of lung, prostate and gynaecological malignancies remained well below pre-pandemic levels. Males and younger/middle-aged adults, particularly the 50-59-year-old patient group, also lagged behind other population demographic groups in terms of returning to expected numbers of pathological cancer diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: There is a critical need to protect cancer diagnostic services in the ongoing pandemic to facilitate timely investigation of potential cancer cases. Targeted public health campaigns may be needed to reduce emerging inequalities in cancer diagnoses as the COVID-19 pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Early Detection of Cancer/trends , Female , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/trends , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Northern Ireland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
17.
BJOG ; 128(9): 1503-1510, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cervical screening, colposcopy and treatment volumes in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. POPULATION: People with a cervix age of 21-69 years who completed at least one cervical screening cytology test, colposcopy or treatment procedure for cervical dysplasia between January 2019 and August 2020. METHODS: Administrative databases were used to compare cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment procedure volumes before (historical comparator) and during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-August 2020). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment volumes; individuals with high-grade cytology awaiting colposcopy. RESULTS: During the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the monthly average number of cervical screening cytology tests, colposcopies and treatments decreased by 63.8% (range: -92.3 to -41.0%), 39.7% (range: -75.1 to -14.3%) and 31.1% (range: -43.5 to -23.6%), respectively, when compared with the corresponding months in 2019. Between March and August 2020, on average 292 (-51.0%) fewer high-grade cytological abnormalities were detected through screening each month. As of August 2020, 1159 (29.2%) individuals with high-grade screening cytology were awaiting follow-up colposcopy. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on key cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario. As the pandemic continues, ongoing monitoring of service utilisation to inform system response and recovery is required. Future efforts to understand the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions on cervical cancer outcomes will be needed. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario, Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Colposcopy/statistics & numerical data , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Vaginal Smears/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Databases, Factual , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216454, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176229

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has decreased colorectal cancer screenings. Objective: To estimate the degree to which expanding fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening participation during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A previously developed simulation model was adopted to estimate how much COVID-19 may have contributed to colorectal cancer outcomes. The model included the US population estimated to have completed colorectal cancer screening pre-COVID-19 according the American Cancer Society. The model was designed to estimate colorectal cancer outcomes between 2020 and 2023. This analysis was completed between July and December 2020. Exposures: Adults screened for colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer cases detected by stage. Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimates of colorectal cancer outcomes across 4 scenarios: (1) 9 months of 50% colorectal cancer screenings followed by 21 months of 75% colorectal cancer screenings; (2) 18 months of 50% screening followed by 12 months of 75% screening; (3) scenario 1 with increased use of fecal immunochemical tests; and (4) scenario 2 with increased use of fecal immunochemical tests. Results: In our simulation model, COVID-19-related reductions in care utilization resulted in an estimated 1 176 942 to 2 014 164 fewer colorectal cancer screenings, 8346 to 12 894 fewer colorectal cancer diagnoses, and 6113 to 9301 fewer early-stage colorectal cancer diagnoses between 2020 and 2023. With an abbreviated period of reduced colorectal cancer screenings, increasing fecal immunochemical test use was associated with an estimated additional 588 844 colorectal cancer screenings and 2836 colorectal cancer diagnoses, of which 1953 (68.9%) were early stage. In the event of a prolonged period of reduced colorectal cancer screenings, increasing fecal immunochemical test use was associated with an estimated additional 655 825 colorectal cancer screenings and 2715 colorectal cancer diagnoses, of which 1944 (71.6%) were early stage. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that the increased use of fecal immunochemical tests during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased colorectal cancer screening participation and more colorectal cancer diagnoses at earlier stages. If our estimates are borne out in real-world clinical practice, increasing fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening participation during the COVID-19 pandemic could mitigate the consequences of reduced screening rates during the pandemic for colorectal cancer outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , United States
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