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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875807

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment options for long COVID-19, and it is known that SARS-CoV-2 can persist in part of the infected patients, especially those with immunosuppression. Since there is a robust secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific highly-neutralizing IgA antibodies in breast milk, and because this immunoglobulin plays an essential role against respiratory virus infection in mucosa cells, being, in addition, more potent in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 than IgG, here we report the clinical course of an NFκB-deficient patient chronically infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant, who, after a non-full effective treatment with plasma infusion, received breast milk from a vaccinated mother by oral route as treatment for COVID-19. After such treatment, the symptoms improved, and the patient was systematically tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we hypothesize that IgA and IgG secreted antibodies present in breast milk could be useful to treat persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunodeficient patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Eating , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Milk, Human , NF-kappa B , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(8): 1212-1215, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864584

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old woman, who started on hemodialysis 7 months before for end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy and was diagnosed with symptomatic multiple myeloma 1 month before, was admitted to our hospital with critical coronavirus disease 2019 and treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapy such as steroids and tocilizumab. During treatment, Bacillus subtilis was detected in the blood cultures. We could not exclude the association of natto (fermented soybeans) with B. subtilis var. natto, which the patient had been eating every day from 8 days after admission. She was prohibited from eating natto and treated with vancomycin. Later, B. subtilis detected in the blood culture was identified as B. subtilis var. natto, which was identical with those contained in the natto that the patient consumed daily using a next-generation sequencer. Gut dysbiosis due to old age, malignant tumor, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, and intestinal inflammation caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 increased intestinal permeability and the risk of bacterial translocation, causing B. subtilis var. natto bacteremia. Therefore, careful consideration might be given to the intake of fermented foods containing live bacteria in patients with severe immunocompromised conditions.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Multiple Myeloma , Soy Foods , Aged , Bacillus subtilis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Eating , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Renal Dialysis , Soy Foods/microbiology
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 680-688, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833671

ABSTRACT

Temporary expansion of the Child Tax Credit (CTC) during the COVID-19 pandemic provided additional monthly income for US families, with no restrictions on use, from July through December 2021. This study examined food security and children's dietary intake after three months of expanded CTC payments. Parents completed online surveys before and after three months of CTC payments. Among parents participating in the expansion, food and beverage purchases were the most common use of expanded CTC funds (45.9 percent), particularly in households with very low food security (63.0 percent). From before to midway through the CTC expansion, very low food security decreased from 12.7 percent to 5.6 percent, and simultaneously, food security increased from 57.4 percent to 66.4 percent. The CTC expansion was also associated with decreases in children's consumption of added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweetened fruit beverages. No changes were observed in children's intake of other dietary components. Our findings suggest that the expanded CTC payments may have helped lessen food insecurity and supported reductions in children's intake of added sugar in participating households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Eating , Food Security , Humans , Sugars
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e061660, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816769

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Poor diet is a leading preventable risk for the global burden of non-communicable disease. Robust measurement is needed to determine the effect of COVID-19 on dietary intakes and consumer purchasing, given the widespread changes to consumer food environments and economic precarity. The research objectives are as follows: (1) describe dietary intakes of foods, beverages and nutrients of concern during the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) quantify change in diet during COVID-19 as compared with prepandemic, previously captured in the provincial samples of the population-representative 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition and (3) examine how household purchasing practices predict dietary intakes during COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Observational study of diet, using a population-based stratified probability sampling strategy allocated via dual-frame (landline and cellphone) calls to random-digit dialled numbers, followed by age-sex group quotas. The base population comprises the four provinces of the Atlantic region of Canada, jurisdictions with an excess burden of pre-existing dietary risk, compared with the rest of Canada. Our aim is n=1000 to obtain reliable estimates at a regional level to describe intakes and compare with prepandemic baseline. Data collection entails 12 weeks participation: (1) enrolment with sociodemographics (key dietary risk predictors such as age, sex, gender, pre-COVID-19 income, employment, household composition, receipt of economic relief, rural residence); (2) two 24hour diet recalls using the online ASA-24 Canada 2018 tool; and (3) online uploads of household food purchase receipts over the 12 weeks enrolled. Participation incentives will be offered. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research protocol received funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (FRN VR5 172691) and ethics review approval from the Dalhousie University Research Ethics Board. Study protocol and instruments and a de-identified dataset will be made publicly available. We will submit the findings to peer-reviewed journals, as well as conferences geared towards scientific and decision-maker audiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Diet , Eating , Female , Humans , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809928

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of research using objective measures about teachers' physical characteristics and lifestyle. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between frequency of breakfast consumption and body size, body composition, blood pressure and lifestyle factors in teachers from Hungary. The study analyzed data collected from 99 female primary school teachers (50.6 ± 6.6 year) before the COVID-19 pandemic. Anthropometric and resting blood pressure measurements were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to assess lifestyle factors (i.e., physical activity level, smoking status and eating breakfast). The frequency of eating breakfast was classified as rarely or never (0-2 days), some days (3-5 days) and regularly (6-7 days). Sixty-five percent of female teachers consumed breakfast 6-7 days/week, and this regular eating habit was positively associated with a lower risk of obesity (OR 0.29; CI: 0.10-0.80). In our sample, a higher frequency of breakfast consumption was not significantly associated with smoking (OR 2.65; CI: 0.17-1.37), hypertension (OR 0.61; CI: 0.23-1.65) and inactivity (OR 2.80; CI: 0.26-1.84). A beneficial effect of eating breakfast regularly was found on body composition in female teachers. Further studies should focus on the health behaviors of teachers and their relationship with physical activity or diagnosed diseases in urban and rural areas.


Subject(s)
Breakfast , COVID-19 , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Schools
6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775454

ABSTRACT

Strict lockdown measures were introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which caused mass disruption to adolescent swimmers' daily routines. To measure how lockdown impacted nutritional practices in this cohort, three-day photograph food diaries were analysed at three time points: before (January), during (April), and after (September) the first UK lockdown. Thirteen swimmers (aged 15 ± 1 years) from a high-performance swimming club submitted satisfactory food diaries at all time points. During lockdown, lower amounts of energy (45.3 ± 9.8 vs. 31.1 ± 7.7 kcal∙kg BM∙day-1, p<0.001), carbohydrate (5.4 ± 1.2 vs. 3.5 ± 1.1 g∙kg BM∙day-1, p<0.001), protein (2.3 ± 0.4 vs. 1.7 ± 0.4 g∙kg BM∙day-1, p = 0.002), and fat (1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.3 g∙kg BM∙day-1, p = 0.011) were reported. After lockdown, no nutritional differences were found in comparison compared to before lockdown (energy: 44.0 ± 12.1 kcal∙kg BM∙day-1; carbohydrate: 5.4 ± 1.4 g∙kg BM∙day-1; protein: 2.1 ± 0.6 g∙kg BM∙day-1; fat: 1.5 ± 0.6 g ∙kg BM∙day-1, all p>0.05), despite fewer training hours being completed (15.0 ± 1.4 vs. 19.1 ± 2.2 h∙week-1, p<0.001). These findings highlight the ability of adolescent swimmers to alter their nutrition based on their changing training circumstances when receiving sport nutrition support. However, some individuals displayed signs of suboptimal nutrition during lockdown that were not corrected once training resumed. This warrants future research to develop interactive education workshops that maintain focus and motivation towards optimal nutrition practices in isolated periods away from training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbohydrates , Communicable Disease Control , Eating , Humans , Pandemics
7.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 281-289, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1668087

ABSTRACT

Conocer la asociación específica de las enfermedades metabólicas en la mortalidad por COVID-19, ocurrida en México durante el año crítico de la pandemia de marzo 2020 a marzo 2021. Método. Se utilizó la base nacional de COVID-19 de la Dirección General de Epidemiología. Se analizaron los casos positivos que presentaron las enfermedades metabólicas: cardiovasculares, hipertensión, diabetes y obesidad. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo para conocer la distribución de los casos fallecidos y no fallecidos. Se empleó la prueba de ji cuadrada para la diferencia de las proporciones. Se utilizaron análisis de regresión logística para conocer la asociación entre las enfermedades metabólicas y la mortalidad por COVID-19 en personas positivas al virus SARS-CoV-2. Los datos fueron ajustados por edad y sexo. Resultados. Se observó la asociación de las enfermedades metabólicas en la mortalidad. La diabetes tuvo mayor porcentaje de letalidad 18,4%. Cuando se conjuntaron las enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes el porcentaje de letalidad subió a 31,5%; la conjunción de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, con hipertensión y diabetes fue la de mayor porcentaje de letalidad 38,7%. La obesidad fue la que tuvo menor incidencia. Conclusiones. Las enfermedades metabólicas en México son un problema de salud pública que afectó la mortalidad por covid-19. Es prioritario atender con políticas públicas preventivas y efectivas en favor de un modelo de consumo alimentario sano, acorde con las necesidades nutrimentales de la población(AU)


To know the specific association of metabolic disease on COVID-19 mortality, occurred during the critical year of the pandemic, from march 2020 to march 2021. Method: The Covid-19 national base of the General Directorate of Epidemiology was used. Positive cases of metabolic diseases were analyzed: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. A descriptive analysis was carried out to find out the distribution of deceased and non-deceased cases. The chi-square test was used for the difference in proportions. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between metabolic diseases and COVID 19 mortality in people who tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The data were adjusted for age and gender. Results: The association of metabolic diseases on mortality was observed. Diabetes had a higher percentage of lethality 18,4%. When cardiovascular disease and diabetes were combined, the fatality rate rose to 31,5%; the combination of cardiovascular diseases, with hypertension and diabetes was the highest percentage of lethality 38,7%. Obesity had the least incidence. Conclusions: Metabolic diseases in México are a public health problem that affected COVID-19 mortality. It is a priority to deal with preventive and effective public policies in favor of a healthy food consumption model, in line with the nutritional needs of the population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Eating , COVID-19/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated , Epidemiology , Industrialized Foods , Pandemics , Hypertension
9.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667259

ABSTRACT

The U.S. and Japan are both democratic industrialized societies, but the numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths per million people in the U.S. (including Japanese Americans) are 12.1-times and 17.4-times higher, respectively, than those in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diet on preventing COVID-19 infection. An analysis of dietary intake and the prevalence of obesity in the populations of both countries was performed, and their effects on COVID-19 infection were examined. Approximately 1.5-times more saturated fat and less eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid are consumed in the U.S. than in Japan. Compared with food intakes in Japan (100%), those in the U.S. were as follows: beef 396%, sugar and sweeteners 235%, fish 44.3%, rice 11.5%, soybeans 0.5%, and tea 54.7%. The last four of these foods contain functional substances that prevent COVID-19. The prevalence of obesity is 7.4- and 10-times greater in the U.S. than in Japan for males and females, respectively. Mendelian randomization established a causal relationship between obesity and COVID-19 infection. Large differences in nutrient intakes and the prevalence of obesity, but not racial differences, may be partly responsible for differences in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 between the U.S. and Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Diet , Eating , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667258

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused changes in the family food environment, resulting in more families relying on convenience food options. This study aimed to investigate diet quality by convenience food options (namely instant, frozen, and take-out foods) among Japanese school children during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the relationship between the frequency of consumption of convenience food options and nutritional status of the school children. The participants (671 children, 10-14 years old) were chosen to form a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population. Using questionnaires completed by the participants' guardians, information was collected on the frequency of instant, frozen, and take-out food consumption. Habitual food and nutrient intake were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire, completed by the children with help from their guardian(s). "Frequent" consumption was defined as consumption of instant, frozen, and/or take-out foods on more than 5 days per week. Using 19 nutrients and their respective dietary reference intake (DRI) values, an index was created to label each child's nutrient intake as "Adequate", "Inadequate", "Excess", or "Deficient." Compared to children with non-frequent consumption, school children with frequent instant food consumption had significantly higher rates of inadequate nutrient intake (risk ratio (RR) = 3.0 [95% CI: 1.6-5.6]) and excess nutrient intake (RR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3-4.2]), while school children with frequent take-out food consumption had significantly higher rates of inadequate nutrient intake (RR = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3-3.3]). There were no significant differences for children with frequent frozen-food intake. These associations did not change when adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Our results suggest that the frequent consumption of instant or take-out foods among school children results in non-adequate nutritional intake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fast Foods , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Eating , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Emerg Med ; 62(3): 332-336, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine overdose is rare but potentially lethal. Hydroxychloroquine overdose symptoms are characterized by central nervous system toxicity, cardiac toxicity, and hypokalemia. Recommended treatment consists of epinephrine, high-dose diazepam, and careful potassium repletion. Few pediatric hydroxychloroquine overdoses have been reported. CASE REPORT: We describe a 14-year-old girl who ingested 10 g (172 mg/kg) of hydroxychloroquine. She developed tachycardia, hypotension, and hypokalemia. She was intubated and treated with diazepam and epinephrine infusions and potassium supplementation. Her serum hydroxychloroquine concentration obtained 10 h after ingestion was 13,000 ng/mL (reference range 500-2000 ng/mL). The patient made a full medical recovery. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Pediatric hydroxychloroquine overdoses are reported rarely, and the toxic and lethal doses of hydroxychloroquine ingestion have not been established. This case of a teenaged patient who ingested 10 g of hydroxychloroquine and survived provides additional information that may be used to help establish toxic and lethal doses of ingestion.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Hypokalemia , Adolescent , Child , Diazepam/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Eating , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Potassium/therapeutic use
12.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3-18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020-August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (ß = -109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (ß = -95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Records , Eating/psychology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Nutrients/analysis , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595299

ABSTRACT

Few Australians consume diets consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. A major problem is high intake of discretionary food and drinks (those not needed for health and high in saturated fat, added sugar, salt and/or alcohol). Low socioeconomic groups (SEGs) suffer particularly poor diet-related health. Surprisingly, detailed quantitative dietary data across SEGs was lacking. Analysis of the most recent national nutrition survey data produced habitual intakes of a reference household (two adults and two children) in SEG quintiles of household income. Cost and affordability of habitual and recommended diets for the reference household were determined using methods based on the Healthy Diets Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing protocol. Low SEGs reported significantly lower intakes of healthy food and drinks yet similarly high intakes of discretionary choices to high SEGs (435 serves/fortnight). Total habitual diets of low SEGs cost significantly less than those of high SEGs (AU$751/fortnight to AU$853/fortnight). Results confirmed low SEGs cannot afford a healthy diet. Lower intakes of healthy choices in low SEGs may help explain their higher rates of diet-related disease compared to higher SEGs. The findings can inform potential policy actions to improve affordability of healthy foods and help drive healthier diets for all Australians.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Nutrition Policy , Adult , Australia , Child , Costs and Cost Analysis , Diet , Eating , Energy Intake , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(3): 734-742, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adequate nutrition during infectious outbreaks require a personal management strategy, especially when there are emotional factors involved. To evaluate the association between lifestyle and emotional aspects of food consumption during the pandemic COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cross-sectional study using online self-applied questionnaire with 15,372 active schoolteachers who worked in primary education (kindergarten, elementary and high school) from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Poisson Regression model with robust variance was used to determine the association between lifestyle and emotional aspects and food consumption. Greater adherence to the healthy consumption profile showed a statistically significant association with decreased weight (PR = 1.58; p = 0.000), decreased physical activity (PR = 1.27; p = 0.000), reduced income, (PR = 1.26; p = 0.000), reduced alcohol consumption (PR = 1.22; p = 0.000), and changes in mental health (PR = 1.19; p = 0.000). Unhealthy consumption profile was significantly correlated with weight gain (PR = 1.54; p = 0.000), consuming more alcohol, or started drinking during the pandemic (PR = 1.44; p = 0.000), increased physical activity (PR = 1.43; p = 0.000); increased cigarette consumption (PR = 1.17; p = 0.000), and being a younger adult (PR = 1.17; p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic influenced the food profiles of basic education teachers in the Minas Gerais state education system in a bidirectional manner, favoring the practice of consuming healthy or unhealthy foods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eating , Emotions , Life Style , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573692

ABSTRACT

This study examines the correlation of acute and habitual dietary intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins, and their main food sources with the urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Participants (N = 419, men and women) provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using a standardized 24-HDR software and a validated dietary questionnaire, respectively. Intake of flavan-3-ols was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in 24-h urine were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry after enzymatic deconjugation. Simple and partial Spearman's correlations showed that urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and their sum were more strongly correlated with acute than with habitual intake of individual and total monomers (acute rpartial = 0.13-0.54, p < 0.05; and habitual rpartial = 0.14-0.28, p < 0.01), proanthocyanidins (acute rpartial = 0.24-0.49, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.10-0.15, p < 0.05), theaflavins (acute rpartial = 0.22-0.31, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.20-0.26, p < 0.01), and total flavan-3-ols (acute rpartial = 0.40-0.48, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001). Similarly, urinary concentrations of flavan-3-ols were weakly correlated with both acute (rpartial = 0.12-0.30, p < 0.05) and habitual intake (rpartial = 0.10-0.27, p < 0.05) of apple and pear, stone fruits, berries, chocolate and chocolate products, cakes and pastries, tea, herbal tea, wine, red wine, and beer and cider. Moreover, all comparable correlations were stronger for urinary (-)-epicatechin than for (+)-catechin. In conclusion, our data support the use of urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, especially as short-term nutritional biomarkers of dietary catechin, epicatechin and total flavan-3-ol monomers.


Subject(s)
Biflavonoids/analysis , Catechin/urine , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Flavonoids/analysis , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/urine , Catechin/analysis , Diet Surveys , Eating , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
16.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488686

ABSTRACT

The primary aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with changes in food-preparation practices during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan and its associations to food-group intake. To examine this, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in July 2020. Participants were 2285 adults aged 20-69 years who resided in any of 13 prefectures in Japan where specific COVID-19 regulations had been implemented. Self-reported changes in food-preparation practices when compared to the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period were measured as "increased" (24.6%), "decreased" (7.3%), and "no change" (68.1%), respectively. Stepwise logistic regression analyses indicated that participants who increased the time and effort for food preparation were younger in age, partially working remotely, experiencing reduced household income due to COVID-19, but highly concerned the importance of diet. On the other hand, participants whose household income decreased, and household economic status worsened, as well as those whose importance of diet deteriorated due to COVID-19 were more likely to decrease time and effort for cooking. Although the increased group were more likely to prepare meals with raw ingredients, the decreased group showed higher frequency of using takeout. These results indicated major determinants of changes in time spending on food preparation in consequence of COVID-19, and highlighted essential targets for future nutrition education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cooking , Diet , Eating , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cooking/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/economics , Employment , Female , Humans , Income , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
17.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488685

ABSTRACT

Physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic have been decreasing and this may be a risk factor for development of emotional eating and its associated factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors associated with emotional eating among individuals with different physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data relating to the pandemic on physical activity, emotional eating, sociodemographic data, perceptions about lifestyle habits, body satisfaction, and perceptions about eating habits and food consumption were collected. Factors associated with emotional eating in the group of active and inactive individuals were observed using multiple linear regression controlled for age, sex, BMI, and monthly income. Emotional eating for the active group was associated with perceived stress, body dissatisfaction, and increased consumption of sweets and desserts. In addition to these factors found among the active group, working or studying >8 h/day, sleep worsening, increased amount of food consumed, increased purchase of food through delivery, and increased vegetable consumption were also associated with emotional eating for the inactive group. These findings suggest a potential protective role of physical activity in the appearance of factors associated with emotional eating during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Emotions , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Healthy Lifestyle , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Body Dissatisfaction/psychology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Eating , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480895

ABSTRACT

The improper dietary behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with lockdowns and reduced physical activity, are a complex problem, potentially resulting in increased risk of diet-related diseases, including overweight and obesity and their consequences. The aim of the study was to assess the food habits during the COVID-19 pandemic and to define their association with physical activity and body mass changes in a Polish population of primary school adolescents within the Diet and Activity of Youth During COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study was conducted in June 2020 in a national cohort of 1334 primary school students aged 10-16 years, recruited based on a stratified random sampling of schools (sampling counties from voivodeships and schools from counties). The Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) was used to assess food habits, associated with food purchase, preparation, and consumption, which in the studied group were analyzed separately for the period before (retrospective data) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (prospective data). The recognizable physical activity changes and recognizable body mass changes were also assessed (retrospective data) and respondents were classified as those declaring that their physical activity and body mass decreased, remained stable, or increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was observed that during the COVID-19 pandemic the majority of food habits changed in a statistically significant way (p < 0.05). Within food purchase habits, the number of respondents who declared choosing a low-fat lunch away from home decreased, often buying pastries or cakes decreased, and buying a low-fat crisps brand increased (p < 0.05). Within food preparation habits, the number of respondents who declared trying to keep overall fat intake down increased, trying to keep overall sugar intake down increased, eating at least one serving of vegetables or salad with evening meal increased, and usually including some chocolate and/or biscuits in a packed lunch decreased (p < 0.05). Within food consumption habits, the number of respondents who declared making sure that they eat at least one serving of fruit a day increased, eating at least three servings of fruit most days increased, making sure that they eat at least one serving of vegetables or salad a day increased, trying to ensure that they eat plenty of fruit and vegetables increased, often choosing a fruit when they have a snack between meals increased, eating at least three servings of fruit most days increased, and generally trying to have a healthy diet increased (p < 0.05). It was concluded that in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and resultant remote education, adolescents in Poland presented different food habits than before, while the majority of changes were positive. The positive food purchase, preparation, and consumption habits were observed mainly in sub-groups of adolescents declaring decreased body mass or increased physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. It may be suggested that physical activity may support positive changes of dietary behaviors and while combined positive changes of diet and increased physical activity, they may effectively promote body mass reduction in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Child Behavior , Diet , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Checklist , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritive Value , Poland , Prospective Studies , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Retrospective Studies , Weight Loss
19.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001042, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476623

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there were many changes in the provision of healthcare as well as home and educational environments for children. We noted an apparent increase in the number of children presenting with ingested foreign bodies and due to the potential impact of injury from this, further investigated this phenomenon. Method: Using a prospective electronic record, data were retrospectively collected for patients referred to our institution with foreign body ingestion from March 2020 to September 2020 and compared with the same period the year prior as a control. Results: During the 6-month pandemic period of review, it was observed that 2.5 times more children were referred with foreign body ingestion (n=25) in comparison to the control period (n=10). There was also a significant increase in the proportion of button battery and magnet ingestions during the COVID-19 pandemic (p 0.04). Conclusion: These findings raise concerns of both increased frequency of foreign body ingestion during the COVID-19 pandemic and the nature of ingested foreign bodies linked with significant morbidity. This may relate to the disruption of home and work environments and carries implications for ongoing restrictions. Further awareness of the danger of foreign body ingestion, especially batteries and magnets, is necessary (project ID: 2956).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foreign Bodies , Child , Eating , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Hum Biol ; 34(5): e23692, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Further evidence on how the Great Recession was associated with childhood obesity is needed, particularly when the world is facing a new and severe economic downturn caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores: (1) the direct association of the 2008's economic crisis with eating patterns and body mass index (BMI), among children, independently of their socioeconomic status (SES), and (2) the indirect association between the crisis and children's BMI, by using eating patterns as mediators. METHODS: A sample of children (n = 8472, mean age: 7.17 years old, 50.8% male) was recruited in schools from the cities of Porto, Coimbra and Lisbon, Portugal. Children's height and weight were objectively measured; BMI was calculated. Other data were collected by a parental questionnaire. A structural equation modeling studied the associations between the economic crisis impact, eating patterns, and BMI; model was adjusted for SES. RESULTS: Children in families that reported a greater impact of the economic crisis showed higher consumption of unhealthy food items and lower consumption of healthy foods, regardless of SES. Indirectly, children whose parents scored higher in the economic crisis impact had higher BMI mediated by a higher consumption of cakes/chocolates and lower intake of vegetables/salads. CONCLUSIONS: The economic crisis was associated with higher BMI and unhealthy eating patterns. Efforts to promote healthy diets and weight are needed at a population level rather than for specific social classes, particularly in the face of a new economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Portugal/epidemiology
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