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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(4): e023220, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685779

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19-related pulmonary effects may negatively impact pulmonary hemodynamics and right ventricular function. We examined the prognostic relevance of right ventricular function and right ventricular-to-pulmonary circulation coupling assessed by bedside echocardiography in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia and a large spectrum of disease independently of indices of pneumonia severity and left ventricular function. Methods and Results Consecutive COVID-19 subjects who underwent full cardiac echocardiographic evaluation along with gas analyses and computed tomography scans were included in the study. Measurements were performed offline, and quantitative analyses were obtained by an operator blinded to the clinical data. We analyzed 133 patients (mean age 69±12 years, 57% men). During a mean hospital stay of 26±16 days, 35 patients (26%) died. The mean tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion/pulmonary artery systolic pressure (TAPSE/PASP) ratio was 0.48±0.18 mm/Hg in nonsurvivors and 0.72±0.32 mm/Hg in survivors (P=0.002). For each 0.1 mm/mm Hg increase in TAPSE/PASP, there was a 27% lower risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.59-0.89]; P=0.003). At multivariable analysis, TAPSE/PASP ratio remained a predictor of in-hospital death after adjustments for age, oxygen partial pressure at arterial gas analysis/fraction of inspired oxygen, left ventricular ejection fraction, and computed tomography lung score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify the cutoff value of the TAPSE/PASP ratio, which best specified high-risk from lower-risk patients. The best cutoff for predicting in-hospital mortality was TAPSE/PASP <0.57 mm/mm Hg (75% sensitivity and 70% specificity) and was associated with a >4-fold increased risk of in-hospital death (HR, 4.8 [95% CI, 1.7-13.1]; P=0.007). Conclusions In patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, the assessment of right ventricular to pulmonary circulation coupling appears central to disease evolution and prediction of events. TAPSE/PASP ratio plays a mainstay role as prognostic determinant beyond markers of lung injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Circulation , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography, Doppler , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
4.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cardiac abnormalities and their relationship to markers of myocardial injury and mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective and prospective observational study of inpatients referred for transthoracic echocardiography for suspected cardiac pathology due to COVID-19 within a London NHS Trust. Echocardiograms were performed to assess left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary variables along with collection of patient demographics, comorbid conditions, blood biomarkers and outcomes. RESULT: In the predominant non-white (72%) population, RV dysfunction was the primary cardiac abnormality noted in 50% of patients, with RV fractional area change <35% being the most common marker of this RV dysfunction. By comparison, LV systolic dysfunction occurred in 18% of patients. RV dysfunction was associated with LV systolic dysfunction and the presence of a D-shaped LV throughout the cardiac cycle (marker of significant pulmonary artery hypertension). LV systolic dysfunction (p=0.002, HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.624 to 8.982), pulmonary valve acceleration time (p=0.024, HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.964 to 0.997)-marker of increased pulmonary vascular resistance, age (p=0.047, HR 1.027, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.055) and an episode of tachycardia measured from admission to time of echo (p=0.004, HR 6.183, 95% CI 1.772 to 21.575) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this predominantly non-white population hospitalised with COVID-19, the most common cardiac pathology was RV dysfunction which is associated with both LV systolic dysfunction and elevated pulmonary artery pressure. The latter two, not RV dysfunction, were associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Heart Diseases/ethnology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Population Surveillance , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
5.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of echocardiography in patients hospitalised with suspected coronavirus infection and to assess its impact on clinical management. METHODS: We studied 79 adults from a prospective registry of inpatients with suspected coronavirus infection at a single academic centre. Echocardiographic indications included abnormal biomarkers, shock, cardiac symptoms, arrhythmia, worsening hypoxaemia or clinical deterioration. Study type (limited or complete) was assessed for each patient. The primary outcome measure was echocardiography-related change in clinical management, defined as intensive care transfer, medication changes, altered ventilation parameters or subsequent cardiac procedures within 24 hours of echocardiography. Coronavirus-positive versus coronavirus-negative patient groups were compared. The relationship between echocardiographic findings and coronavirus mortality was assessed. RESULTS: 56 patients were coronavirus-positive and 23 patients were coronavirus-negative with symptoms attributed to other diagnoses. Coronavirus-positive patients more often received limited echocardiograms (70% vs 26%, p=0.001). The echocardiographic indication for coronavirus-infected patients was frequently worsening hypoxaemia (43% vs 4%) versus chest pain, syncope or clinical heart failure (23% vs 44%). Echocardiography changed management less frequently in coronavirus-positive patients (18% vs 48%, p=0.01). Among coronavirus-positive patients, 14 of 56 (25.0%) died during hospitalisation. Those who died more often had echocardiography to evaluate clinical deterioration (71% vs 24%) and had elevated right ventricular systolic pressures (37 mm Hg vs 25 mm Hg), but other parameters were similar to survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiograms performed on hospitalised patients with coronavirus infection were often technically limited, and their findings altered patient management in a minority of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
6.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 25(8): 555-564, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cytokine storm with elevated levels of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory system activation underlie the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether increased interleukin (IL)-6 levels can predict right ventricular (RV) systolic impairment in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective, observational study included 100 consecutive patients hospitalized with mild and moderate COVID-19. All the patients underwent chest computerized tomography, detailed laboratory tests including IL-6, and two dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with assessment of 2D conventional and Doppler echocardiography parameters and RV systolic functions. RESULTS: After the elimination of six patients with exclusion criteria, the remaining patients were classified into two groups, namely normal RV systolic functions (n=60) and impaired RV systolic functions (n=34). IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with impaired RV systolic functions than in those with normal RV systolic functions (20.3, 4.6, p<0.001, respectively). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV derived tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) S' measurements were similar between the two groups. RV fractional area change was significantly lower, and RV TDI derived index of myocardial performance was significantly higher in patients with impaired RV systolic functions. In multivariate analysis, IL-6 levels independently predicted deterioration in RV systolic function at a significant level (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.20, p=0.003). CONCLUSION: IL-6 is an independent predictor of RV systolic impairment in patients hospitalized with mild and moderate COVID-19 suggesting a possible pathogenetic mechanism. IL-6 levels can be used to predict RV systolic impairment in patients suffering from this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Doppler , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Echocardiography ; 38(8): 1345-1351, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently involves cardiovascular manifestations such as right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and alterations in pulmonary hemodynamics. We evaluated the application of the critical care ultrasonography ORACLE protocol to identify the most frequent alterations and their influence on adverse outcomes, especially those involving the RV (dilatation and dysfunction). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 204 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted at three centers. Echocardiography and lung ultrasound images were acquired on admission using the ORACLE ultrasonography algorithm. RESULTS: Two-hundred and four consecutive patients were evaluated: 22 (11.9%) demonstrated a fractional shortening of < 35%; 33 (17.1%) a tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) of < 17 mm; 26 (13.5%) a tricuspid peak systolic S wave tissue Doppler velocity of < 9.5 cm/sec; 69 (37.5%) a RV basal diameter of > 41 mm; 119 (58.3%) a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) of > 35 mm Hg; and 14 (11%) a TAPSE/PASP ratio of < .31. The in-hospital mortality rate was 37.6% (n = 71). Multiple logistic regression modeling showed that PASP > 35 mm Hg, RV FS of < 35%, TAPSE < 17 mm, RV S wave < 9.5, and TAPSE/PASP ratio < .31 mm/mm Hg were associated with this outcome. PASP and the TAPSE/PASP ratio had the lowest feasibility of being obtained among the investigators (62.2%). CONCLUSION: The presence of RV dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and alteration of the RV-arterial coupling conveys an increased risk of in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with COVID-19 upon admission; therefore, searching for these alterations should be routine. These parameters can be obtained quickly and safely with the ORACLE protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Right
8.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 635-641, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005370

ABSTRACT

To investigate the right heart function in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a retrospective analysis of 49 COVID-19 patients with ARDS was performed. Patients were divided into severe group and critically-severe group according to the severity of illness. Age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. The cardiac cavity diameters, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid valve regurgitation pressure gradient biggest (TRPG), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP), maximum inferior vena cava diameter (IVCmax) and minimum diameter (IVCmin), and inferior vena cava collapse index (ICV-CI) were measured using echocardiography. We found that the TAPSE was significantly decreased in pneumonia patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.0001), and it was significantly lower in critically-severe patients (P = 0.0068). The TAPSE was less than 17 mm in three (8.6%) severe and five (35.7%) critically-severe patients. In addition, the TAPSE was significantly decreased in severe ARDS patients than in mild ARDS patients. The IVCmax and IVCmin were significantly increased in critically-severe patients compared to healthy subjects and severe patients (P < 0.01), whereas the ICV-CI was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). COVID-19 patients had significantly larger right atrium and ventricle than healthy controls (P < 0.01). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in critically-severe patients was significantly lower than that in severe patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05). Right ventricular function was impaired in critically-severe COVID-19 patients. The assessment and protection of the right heart function in COVID-19 patients should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Pandemics , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography, Doppler , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
9.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(7): 709-714, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232515

ABSTRACT

Recent EACVI recommendations described the importance of limiting cardiovascular imaging during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to reduce virus transmission, protect healthcare professionals from contamination, and reduce consumption of personal protective equipment. However, an elevated troponin remains a frequent request for cardiac imaging in COVID-19 patients, partly because it signifies cardiac injury due to a variety of causes and partly because it is known to convey a worse prognosis. The present paper aims to provide guidance to clinicians regarding the appropriateness of cardiac imaging in the context of troponin elevation and myocardial injury, how best to decipher the mechanism of myocardial injury, and how to guide patient management.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Troponin I/blood , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Management , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/statistics & numerical data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Role
10.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(11): 2287-2299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133405

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) was independently predictive of higher mortality in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Background: RVLS obtained from 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography has been recently demonstrated to be a more accurate and sensitive tool to estimate right ventricular (RV) function. The prognostic value of RVLS in patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. Methods: One hundred twenty consecutive patients with COVID-19 who underwent echocardiographic examinations were enrolled in our study. Conventional RV functional parameters, including RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and tricuspid tissue Doppler annular velocity, were obtained. RVLS was determined using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. RV function was categorized in tertiles of RVLS. Results: Compared with patients in the highest RVLS tertile, those in the lowest tertile were more likely to have higher heart rate; elevated levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein; more high-flow oxygen and invasive mechanical ventilation therapy; higher incidence of acute heart injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and deep vein thrombosis; and higher mortality. After a median follow-up period of 51 days, 18 patients died. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors displayed enlarged right heart chambers, diminished RV function, and elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Male sex, acute respiratory distress syndrome, RVLS, RV fractional area change, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were significant univariate predictors of higher risk for mortality (p < 0.05 for all). A Cox model using RVLS (hazard ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15 to 1.53; p < 0.001; Akaike information criterion = 129; C-index = 0.89) was found to predict higher mortality more accurately than a model with RV fractional area change (Akaike information criterion = 142, C-index = 0.84) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (Akaike information criterion = 144, C-index = 0.83). The best cutoff value of RVLS for prediction of outcome was -23% (AUC: 0.87; p < 0.001; sensitivity, 94.4%; specificity, 64.7%). Conclusions: RVLS is a powerful predictor of higher mortality in patients with COVID-19. These results support the application of RVLS to identify higher risk patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Echocardiography, Doppler , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Right , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 311: 116-121, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan has caused an outbreak and become a major public health issue in China and great concern from international community. Myocarditis and myocardial injury were suspected and may even be considered as one of the leading causes for death of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we focused on the condition of the heart, and sought to provide firsthand evidence for whether myocarditis and myocardial injury were caused by COVID-19. METHODS: We enrolled patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 retrospectively and collected heart-related clinical data, mainly including cardiac imaging findings, laboratory results and clinical outcomes. Serial tests of cardiac markers were traced for the analysis of potential myocardial injury/myocarditis. RESULTS: 112 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. There was evidence of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients and 14 (12.5%) patients had presented abnormalities similar to myocarditis. Most of patients had normal levels of troponin at admission, that in 42 (37.5%) patients increased during hospitalization, especially in those that died. Troponin levels were significantly increased in the week preceding the death. 15 (13.4%) patients have presented signs of pulmonary hypertension. Typical signs of myocarditis were absent on echocardiography and electrocardiogram. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical evidence in our study suggested that myocardial injury is more likely related to systemic consequences rather than direct damage by the 2019 novel coronavirus. The elevation in cardiac markers was probably due to secondary and systemic consequences and can be considered as the warning sign for recent adverse clinical outcomes of the patients.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronary Angiography/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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