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1.
Kardiologiia ; 62(3): 21-27, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789754

ABSTRACT

Aim      To evaluate the incidence and features of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombosis in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) after novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19).Material and methods  Percutaneous echocardiography (pcEchoCG) was performed for 128 patients with persistent AF prepared for cardioversion, 36 (28.1 %) of whom had had COVID-19. In 3 (8.3 %) patients, the lung lesion area was 50-75 %; in 31 (86.1 %) patients, 25-50 %; in 1 (2.8 %) patient, less than 25 %. One patient had no lung lesion. Median time from the onset of COVID-19 to the patient enrollment in the study was 76.5 days. At the time of enrollment, the polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all patients.Results Patients after COVID-19 and those who had not had COVID-19 were comparable by age (62.5±9.2 and 62.4±9.1 years, respectively; р=0.956), gender (men 52.8 and 59.8 %, respectively; р=0.471), and risk of stroke (score 2.19±1.28 and score 1.95±1.35, respectively; р=0.350). Duration of the last arrhythmia episode was longer for patients after COVID-19 than for the comparison group (76.5 and 45.0 days, respectively; р=0.011). All patients received oral anticoagulants. 55.6 % of COVID-19 patients received rivaroxaban, whereas 62.0% of patients who had not had COVID-19 were treated with apixaban. Median duration of the anticoagulant treatment was longer for COVID-19 patients than for the comparison group (61.5 and 32.0 days; р=0.051). LAA thrombus was detected in 7 (19.4 %) patients after COVID-19 and in 6 (6.5 %) patients of the comparison group (р=0.030). In COVID-19 patients, the thrombus adhered to LAA wall over the entire thrombus length whereas in patients who had not have COVID-19, the thrombus had a free part that formed a sharp angle with LAA walls. In the presence of LAA thrombus, the LAA blood flow velocity was considerably higher for COVID-19 patients than for the comparison group (31.0±8.9 and 18.8±4.9 cm/sec, respectively; p=0.010). At the follow-up examination performed at 24.0 days on the average, the thrombus was found to be dissolved in 80 and 50% of patients after and without COVID-19, respectively (р=0.343).Conclusion      In patients with persistent AF after the novel coronavirus infection, LAA thrombosis was detected more frequently than in patients who had never had COVID-19; it was characterized by mural localization and was not associated with a decrease in LAA blood flow velocity.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Thrombosis , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/adverse effects , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447987

ABSTRACT

Right-to-left (RTL) interatrial shunt (IAS) may complicate select cases of COVID-19 pneumonia. We describe the use of serial imaging to monitor shunt in critically ill patients. A 52-year-old man presented with COVID-19 pneumonia. Hypoxia worsened despite maximal medical therapy and non-invasive ventilation. On day 8, saline microbubble contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with RTLIAS. Invasive ventilation was initiated the next day. The course was complicated by intermittent severe desaturation without worsening aeration or haemodynamic instability, so PFO closure was considered. However, on day 12, saline microbubble contrast-enhanced transoesophageal echocardiography excluded RTLIAS. The patient was extubated on day 27 and discharged home 12 days later. Thus, RTLIAS may be dynamic and changes can be detected and monitored by serial imaging. Bedside echocardiography with saline microbubble contrast, a simple, minimally invasive bedside test, may be useful in the management of patients with severe hypoxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 38(2): 351-362, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427312

ABSTRACT

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for assessing left atrial appendage (LAA) mechanic and thrombosis (LAAT); however, TEE is a high-risk procedure for viral transmission during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We investigated whether deformation indices of left atrium (LA) at transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) correlate with those of LAA assessed by TEE in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients undergoing electrical cardioversion (ECV). Consecutive patients with NVAF of ≥ 48 h or unknown duration, who underwent TEE and TTE at our Institution before ECV were retrospectively investigated. Standard echo-Doppler and LA and LAA myocardial strain and strain rate parameters were analyzed. A total of 115 NVAF patients (71.3 ± 8.1 yr/o, 59.1% men) were included: LAAT was diagnosed in 25 (21.7%) patients. Compared to patients without LAAT, those with LAAT had significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc Risk score (4.5 ± 1.4 vs. 3.5 ± 1.1, p < 0.001), and lower ejection fraction (46.0 ± 14.8 vs. 57.6 ± 8.6%, p < 0.001). In LAAT patients, global strain of LA (8.7 ± 2.6 vs. 16.3 ± 4.5%, p < 0.001) and LAA (7.0 ± 1.7 vs. 11.7 ± 2.0%, p < 0.001) was significantly reduced compared to non-LAAT patients. A close relationship between left atrial strain reservoir (LASr) and LAA-global strain was demonstrated (r = 0.81). By univariable analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc Risk Score (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.34-3.00), NT-proBNP (OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.19-1.54), ejection fraction (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.88-0.96), E/e' ratio (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.51-2.85), and LASr (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.25-0.62) were strongly associated with LAAT presence at TEE. By multivariable analysis, only LASr (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.24-0.70) retained statistical significance. ROC curve analysis revealed that an LASr cut-off value ≤ 9.3% had 98.9% sensibility and 100% specificity to identify LAAT by TEE (AUC = 0.98). In patients with NVAF of ≥ 48 h or unknown duration, scheduled to undergo ECV, LA deformation assessment by TTE might substitute invasive measurement of LAA function by TEE, simplifying diagnostic approach and possibly contributing to reduce COVID-19 infection diffusion.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Electric Countershock/adverse effects , Female , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(12): 3125-3134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is variably performed before atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation to evaluate left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus. We describe our experience with transitioning to the pre-ablation cardiac computed tomography (CT) approach for the assessment of LAA thrombus during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients undergoing AF ablation at our center. The study cohort was divided into pre- versus post-COVID groups. The pre-COVID cohort included ablations performed during the 1 year before the COVID-19 pandemic; pre-ablation TEE was used routinely to evaluate LAA thrombus in high-risk patients. Post-COVID cohort included ablations performed during the 1 year after the COVID-19 pandemic; pre-ablation CT was performed in all patients, with TEE performed only in patients with LAA thrombus by CT imaging. The demographics, clinical history, imaging, and ablation characteristics, and peri-procedural cerebrovascular events (CVEs) were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 637 patients (pre-COVID n = 424, post-COVID n = 213) were studied. The mean age was 65.6 ± 10.1 years in the total cohort, and the majority were men. There was a significant increase in pre-ablation CT imaging from pre- to post-COVID cohort (74.8% vs. 93.9%, p ≤ .01), with a significant reduction in TEEs (34.6% vs. 3.7%, p ≤ .01). One patient in the post-COVID cohort developed CVE following negative pre-ablation CT. However, the incidence of peri-procedural CVE between both cohorts remained statistically unchanged (0% vs. 0.4%, p = .33). CONCLUSION: Implementation of pre-ablation CT-only imaging strategy with selective use of TEE for LAA thrombus evaluation is not associated with increased CVE risk during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Catheter Ablation , Thrombosis , Aged , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Tomography
10.
Echocardiography ; 38(6): 892-900, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in prone position is challenging. Innovative use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe to perform TTE for such patients has been described; but reproducibility and correlation of the TTE measurements by this technique with those obtained by the standard supine TTE study are still unknown. METHODS: We enrolled 30 non-COVID-19 individuals, with a mean (SD) age 35 (10.9) years and 11 females, to study the agreement between the transthoracic measurements of the left ventricular (LV), left atrial (LA), aortic dimensions, and ejection fraction (EF) obtained in prone position using an external TEE probe versus the standard supine position using the conventional TTE probe. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between LV end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, septal wall thickness, posterior wall thickness, and aortic root dimensions in the prone versus the supine positions, while the mean EF (60.3% vs 63.1%, P = .014) and mean LA dimensions (1.8 vs 1.9 cm/m2 , P < .001) were significantly lower in the prone position. The mean time of scans was significantly longer in the prone as compared to the supine position (12.5 vs 4.5 minutes, P < .001). All supine studies had good quality while in the prone position four studies were of poor quality, and one was nondiagnostic. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of cardiac dimensions and systolic function in the prone position using transthoracic TEE probe was feasible. LV and aortic dimensions agreed well with the standard TTE in supine position; however, LA dimensions and EF were lower in the prone position.


Subject(s)
Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Echocardiography , Adult , Diastole , Female , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Supine Position
11.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 106, 2021 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular free wall rupture (LVFWR) is a rare complication after myocardial infarction and usually occurs 1 to 4 days after the infarct. Over the past decade, the overall incidence of LVFWR has decreased given the advancements in reperfusion therapies. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant delay in hospital presentation of patients suffering myocardial infarctions, leading to a higher incidence of mechanical complications from myocardial infarctions such as LVFWR. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case in which a patient suffered a LVFWR as a mechanical complication from myocardial infarction due to delay in seeking care over fear of contracting COVID-19 from the medical setting. The patient had been having chest pain for a few days but refused to seek medical care due to fear of contracting COVID-19 from within the medical setting. He eventually suffered a cardiac arrest at home from a massive inferior myocardial infarction and found to be in cardiac tamponade from a left ventricular perforation. He was emergently taken to the operating room to attempt to repair the rupture but he ultimately expired on the operating table. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of LVFWR has been on a more significant rise over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic as patients delay seeking care over fear of contracting COVID-19 from within the medical setting. Clinicians should consider mechanical complications of MI when patients present as an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, as delay in seeking care is often the exacerbating factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Rupture/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Aged , Comorbidity , Computed Tomography Angiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Electrocardiography , Heart Rupture/diagnosis , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105731, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the potential usefulness of delayed-phase, low-dose, non-gated, chest spectral CT scans (DSCT) for the early triage of cardioembolic (CE) sources in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and for the simultaneous detection of myocardial disease and thrombotic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since July 2020 and promoted by the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented the use of DSCT after cerebrovascular CT angiography (CTA) among patients with AIS using a dual-layer spectral CT. We explored the presence of CE sources, as well as late myocardium iodine enhancement (LIE) and pulmonary thromboembolism. Among patients further undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) or cardiac CTA, we explored the diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Fifty consecutive patients with AIS who underwent DSCT after cerebrovascular CTA comprised the patient population. The confidence degree for excluding cardiac thrombi was significantly higher than for LIE (4.4±0.8 vs. 3.4±1.3, p<0.0001). DSCT identified a CE source in 4 (8%) and LIE in 24 (48%) patients. The iodine ratio of CE sources was significantly lower compared to the left atrial appendage of patients with no CE sources (0.25±0.1 mg/mL vs. 0.91±0.2 mg/mL, p<0.0001). TEE/cardiac CT, performed in 20 (40%) patients, identified a CE source in 5 (25%) cases, whereas DSCT identified 4 (20%), leading to a sensitivity and specificity of 80% (95% CI 28-99%) and 100% (95% CI 78-100%) respectively (kappa 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we identified DSCT as a potential unsophisticated approach for the early triage of CE sources among patients with AIS undergoing CTA upon admission.


Subject(s)
Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Embolism/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thorax
16.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(4): 304-312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082297

ABSTRACT

Increasing data have accumulated on the role of Cardiac Computed Tomography (CCT) in infective endocarditis (IE) with high accuracy for large vegetations, perivalvular complications and for exclusion of coronary artery disease to avoid invasive angiography. CCT can further help to clarify the etiology of infective prosthetic valve dysfunction (e.g. malposition, abscess, leak, vegetation or mass). Structural interventions have increased the relevance of CCT in valvular heart disease and have amplified its use. CCT may be ideally integrated into a multimodality approach that incorporates a central role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with 18-FDG PET and/or cardiac magnetic resonance in individually selected cases, guided by the Heart Team. The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in renewed attention to CCT as a safe alternative or adjunct to TEE in selected patients. This review article provides a comprehensive, contemporary review on CCT in IE to include scan optimization, characteristics of common IE findings on CCT, published data on the diagnostic accuracy of CCT, multimodality imaging comparison, limitations and future technical advancements.


Subject(s)
Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013027

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 75-year-old woman with Austrian syndrome: pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis all due to Streptococcus pneumoniae Transoesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated a large mitral valve vegetation with severe mitral regurgitation. She was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and listed for surgical repair of her mitral valve. Preoperatively, she developed an idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis secondary to ceftriaxone, which resolved on cessation of the medication. However, while awaiting neutrophil recovery, she developed an acute deterioration, becoming critically unwell. This deterioration was multifactorial, with acute decompensated heart failure alongside COVID-19. After multidisciplinary discussion, she was considered too unwell for surgery and palliated.


Subject(s)
Agranulocytosis/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ceftriaxone/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Agranulocytosis/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Comorbidity , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Female , Humans , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Syndrome
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