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1.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 23(8): 1066-1074, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873887

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with cardiovascular manifestations are frequent. However, there is lacking evidence regarding cardiological follow-up of this cohort of patients. The aim of our study was to describe the early and mid-term cardiac abnormalities assessed by standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), and cardiac MRI (CMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 32 patients (21 male, 11 female), mean age 8.25 ± 4years, with diagnosis of MIS-C. During admission, all children underwent TTE, STE with analysis of left ventricle global longitudinal strain (GLS) and CMR. Patients underwent cardiological evaluation at 2 (T1) and 6 months (T2) after discharge. Cardiac MRI was repeated at 6 months after discharge. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at baseline was 58.8 ± 10% with 10 patients (31%) below 55%. Speckle-tracking echocardiography showed reduced mean LV GLS (-17.4 ± 4%). On CMR, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with non-ischaemic pattern was evident in 8 of 23 patients (35%). Follow-up data showed rapid improvement of LVEF at T1 (62.5 ± 7.5 vs. 58.8 ± 10.6%, P-value 0.044) with only three patients (10%) below ≤ 55% at T1. Left ventricular (LV) GLS remained impaired at T1 (-17.2 ± 2.7 vs.-17.4 ± 4, P-value 0.71) and significantly improved at T2 (-19 ± 2.6% vs. -17.4 ± 4%, P-value 0.009). LV GLS was impaired (>-18%) in 53% of patients at baseline and T1, whereas only 13% showed persistent LV GLS reduction at T2. Follow-up CMR showed LGE persistence in 33.4% of cases. CONCLUSION: Early cardiac involvement significantly improves during follow-up of MIS-C patients. However, subclinical myocardial dysfunction seems to be still detectable after 6 months of follow-up in a not negligible proportion of them.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Contrast Media , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855596

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 infection, responsible for the COVID-19 disease, can determine cardiac as well as respiratory injury. In COVID patients, viral myocarditis can represent an important cause of myocardial damage. Clinical presentation of myocarditis is heterogeneous. Furthermore, the full diagnostic algorithm can be hindered by logistical difficulties related to the transportation of COVID-19 patients in a critical condition to the radiology department. Our aim was to study longitudinal systolic cardiac function in patients with COVID-19-related myocarditis with echocardiography and to compare these findings with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) results. Patients with confirmed acute myocarditis and age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Both patients with COVID-19-related myocarditis and healthy controls underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography and speckle-tracking analysis at the moment of admission and after 6 months of follow-up. The data of 55 patients with myocarditis (mean age 46.4 ± 15.3, 70% males) and 55 healthy subjects were analyzed. The myocarditis group showed a significantly reduced global longitudinal strain (GLS) and sub-epicardial strain, compared to the control (p < 0.001). We found a positive correlation (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) between total scar burden (TSB) on CMR and LV GLS. After 6 months of follow-up, GLS showed marked improvements in myocarditis patients on optimal medical therapy (p < 0.01). Furthermore, we showed a strong association between baseline GLS, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and TSB with LVEF at 6 months of follow-up. After a multivariable linear regression analysis, baseline GLS, LVEF and TSB were independent predictors of a functional outcome at follow-up (p < 0.0001). Cardiac function and myocardial longitudinal deformation, assessed by echocardiography, are associated with TSB at CMR and have a predictive value of functional recovery in the follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cicatrix/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
Echocardiography ; 39(5): 701-707, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Focus Echocardiography has routinely been used to offer quick diagnosis in critical care environments, predominantly by clinicians with limited training. During the COVID-19 pandemic, international guidance recommended all echocardiography scans were performed as focus studies to limit operator viral exposure in both inpatient and outpatient settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of eFoCUS, a focus scan performed by fully trained echocardiographers following a minimum dataset plus full interrogation of any pathology found. METHODS: All diagnostic echocardiograms, performed by fully trained echocardiographers during an 8-week period during the first UK COVID-19 wave, were included. The number of images acquired was compared in the following categories: admission status, COVID status, image quality, indication, invasive ventilation, pathology found, echocardiographer experience, and whether eFoCUS was deemed adequate to answer the clinical question. RESULTS: In 87.4% of the 698 scans included, the operator considered that the eFOCUS echo protocol, with additional images when needed, was sufficient to answer the clinical question on the request. Echocardiographer experience did not affect the number of images acquired. Less images were acquired in COVID-19 positive patients compared to negative/asymptomatic (38 ± 12 vs. 42 ± 12, p = .001), and more images were required when a valve pathology was identified. CONCLUSION: eFoCUS echocardiography is an effective protocol for use during the COVID-19 pandemic. It provides sufficient diagnostic information to answer the clinical question but differs from standard focus/limited protocols by enabling the identification and interrogation of significant pathology and incidental findings, preventing unnecessary repeat scans and viral exposure of operators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Echocardiography/methods , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Kardiologiia ; 62(3): 16-20, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789752

ABSTRACT

Aim      To study the relationship of echocardiographic right ventricular (RV) structural and functional parameters and indexes of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients 3 months after COVID-19 pneumonia.Material and methods  This cross-sectional, observational study included 96 patients aged 46.7±15.2 years. The inclusion criteria were documented diagnosis of COVID-19-associated pneumonia and patient's willing to participate in the observation. Patients were examined upon hospitalization and during the control visit (at 3 months after discharge from the hospital). Images and video loops were processed, including the assessment of myocardial longitudinal strain (LS) by speckle tracking, according to the effective guidelines. The equation [tricuspid regurgitation velocity/ time-velocity integral of the RV outflow tract × 10 + 0.16] was used to determine PRV. Patients were divided into group 1 (n=31) with increased PRV ≥1.5 Wood units and group 2 (n=65) with PRV <1.5 Wood units.Results At baseline, groups did not differ in main clinical functional characteristics, including severity of lung damage by computed tomography (32.7±22.1 and 36.5±20.4 %, respectively. р=0.418). Echocardiographic linear, planimetric and volumetric parameters did not significantly differ between the groups. In group 1 at the control visit, endocardial LS of the RV free wall (FW) (-19.3 [-17.9; -25.8] %) was significantly lower (р=0.048) than in group 2 (-23.4 [-19.8; -27.8] %), and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) according to C. Otto (32.0 [26.0; 35.0] mm Hg and 23.0 [20.0; 28.0] mm Hg) was significantly higher than in group 2 (р<0.001). According to the logistic regression, only endocardial RV FW LS (odds ratio, OR, 0.859; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.746-0.989; р=0.034) and sPAP (OR, 1.248; 95 % CI, 1.108-1405; р<0.001) were independently related with the increase in PVR. Spearman correlation analysis detected a moderate relationship between PVR and mean PAP according to G. Mahan (r=0.516; p=0.003) and between PVR and the index of right heart chamber functional coupling with the PA system (r=-0.509; p=0.007) in group 1 at the control visit.Conclusion      In patients 3 months after COVID-19 pneumonia, hidden RV systolic dysfunction defined as depressed endocardial RV FW LS to -19.3% is associated with increased PVR ≥1.5 Wood units.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Vascular Resistance , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
5.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 68, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pulmonary infection can have sequelae such as impaired exercise capacity. We aimed to determine the frequency of long-term exercise capacity limitation in survivors of severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection and the factors associated with this limitation. METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection were enrolled 3 months after hospital discharge in COVulnerability, a prospective cohort. They underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, pulmonary function test, echocardiography, and skeletal muscle mass evaluation. RESULTS: Among 105 patients included, 35% had a reduced exercise capacity (VO2peak < 80% of predicted). Compared to patients with a normal exercise capacity, patients with reduced exercise capacity were more often men (89.2% vs. 67.6%, p = 0.015), with diabetes (45.9% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.002) and renal dysfunction (21.6% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.006), but did not differ in terms of initial acute disease severity. An altered exercise capacity was associated with an impaired respiratory function as assessed by a decrease in forced vital capacity (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.0001), total lung capacity (p < 0.0001) and DLCO (p = 0.015). Moreover, we uncovered a decrease of muscular mass index and grip test in the reduced exercise capacity group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.047 respectively), whilst 38.9% of patients with low exercise capacity had a sarcopenia, compared to 10.9% in those with normal exercise capacity (p = 0.001). Myocardial function was normal with similar systolic and diastolic parameters between groups whilst reduced exercise capacity was associated with a slightly shorter pulmonary acceleration time, despite no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Three months after a severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection, more than one third of patients had an impairment of exercise capacity which was associated with a reduced pulmonary function, a reduced skeletal muscle mass and function but without any significant impairment in cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Tolerance/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
6.
Cardiol Young ; 32(10): 1657-1667, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the early myocardial dysfunction detected by strain echocardiography in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 47 patients diagnosed with MIS-C and 32 healthy age- and gender-matched children. All patients underwent two-dimensional, colour, pulsed, and tissue Doppler, and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography examination at admission, 2 weeks, and 2 months after discharge. The MIS-C patient group was compared with the control group. Echocardiographic changes in MIS-C patients during follow-up were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 47 patients, 30 (63.8%) were male and 17 (36.2%) were female. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 ± 4.3 (1.25-17) years. At admission, 25 patients had abnormal findings on conventional echocardiography. Among them, eight patients had left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening were significantly lower in the patient group at admission compared to controls (p = 0.013, p = 0.010, respectively). While the ejection fraction was <55% in eight patients, and global longitudinal strain was lower than -2SD in 29 patients at admission. Global longitudinal strain z-score <-2SD persisted in 13 patients at 2-month follow-up. Ejection fraction increased above 55% in 3.42 ± 0.53 days in 7 of 8 patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, ejection fraction was 51% at discharge in one patient, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction persisted at the 6-month of follow-up. CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that speckle tracking echocardiography is more likely to detect subclinical myocardial damage compared to conventional echocardiography. In addition, it is a valuable method for follow-up in this patient group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Child , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(8): e28971, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713783

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess whether tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) could be used as a prognostic tool in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). METHODS: Studies on the relationship between TAPSE and COVID-19 since February 2021. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect size. The potential for publication bias was assessed using a contour-enhanced funnel plot and Egger test. A meta-regression was performed to assess if the difference in TAPSE between survivors and nonsurvivors was affected by age, sex, hypertension or diabetes. RESULTS: Sixteen studies comprising 1579 patients were included in this meta-analysis. TAPSE was lower in nonsurvivors (SMD -3.24 (-4.23, -2.26), P < .00001; I2 = 71%), and a subgroup analysis indicated that TAPSE was also lower in critically ill patients (SMD -3.85 (-5.31, -2.38,), P < .00001; I2 = 46%). Heterogeneity was also significantly reduced, I2 < 50%. Pooled results showed that patients who developed right ventricular dysfunction had lower TAPSE (SMD -5.87 (-7.81, -3.92), P = .004; I2 = 82%). There was no statistically significant difference in the TAPSE of patients who sustained a cardiac injury vs those who did not (SMD -1.36 (-3.98, 1.26), P = .31; I2 = 88%). No significant publication bias was detected (P = .8147) but the heterogeneity of the included studies was significant. A meta-regression showed that heterogeneity was significantly greater when the incidence of hypertension was <50% (I2 = 91%) and that of diabetes was <30% (I2 = 85%). CONCLUSION: Low TAPSE levels are associated with poor COVID-19 disease outcomes. TAPSE levels are modulated by disease severity, and their prognostic utility may be skewed by pre-existing patient comorbidities. TRIAL RETROSPECTIVELY REGISTERED FEBRUARY ,: PROSPERO CRD42021236731.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography/methods , Tricuspid Valve/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Humans , Hypertension/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Tricuspid Valve/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology
8.
Microcirculation ; 29(3): e12750, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c) is associated with severe cardiovascular impairment and eventually death. Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in myocardial injury were scarcely investigated, and cardiovascular outcomes are uncertain. Autopsy studies suggested that microvascular dysfunction may be relevant to LV impairment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate segmental LV longitudinal strain by 2DST echocardiography and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by 13 N-ammonia PET-CT, in six surviving MIS-c patients. METHODS: Each patient generated 34 LV segments for combined 2DST and MRF analysis. MFR was considered abnormal when <2, borderline when between 2 and 2.5 and normal when >2.5. RESULTS: From July 2020 to February 2021, six patients were admitted with MIS-c: three males, aged 9.3 (6.6-15.7) years. Time from admission to the follow-up visit was 6.05 (2-10.3) months. Although all patients were asymptomatic and LV EF was ≥55%, 43/102 (42.1%) LV segments showed MFR <2.5. There was a modest positive correlation between segmental peak systolic longitudinal strain and MFR: r = .36, p = .03 for basal segments; r = .41, p = .022 for mid segments; r = .42, p = .021 for apical segments. Median peak systolic longitudinal strain was different among MRF categories: 18% (12%-24%) for abnormal, 18.5% (11%-35%) for borderline, and 21% (12%-32%) for normal MFR (p = .006). CONCLUSION: We provided preliminary evidence that surviving MIS-c patients may present subclinical impairment of myocardial microcirculation. Segmental cardiac strain assessment 2DST seems useful for MIS-c cardiovascular follow-up, given its good correlation with 13 N-ammonia PET-CT derived MFR.


Subject(s)
Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ammonia , Child , Echocardiography/methods , Humans , Male , Microcirculation , Myocardium , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging
9.
Med Princ Pract ; 31(3): 276-283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affects lung tissue, it may cause direct or indirect damage to the cardiovascular system, and permanent damage may occur. Arterial stiffness is an early indicator of cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of our study was to establish the potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the vascular system evaluated by transthoracic echocardiographic examination. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study compared arterial stiffness between the survivors of COVID-19 and those without a history of COVID-19 infection. The difference in aortic diameter was examined using echocardiography. RESULTS: The study included 50 patients who survived COVID-19 in the last 3-6 months and 50 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. In surviving COVID-19 patients, aortic diastolic diameter in cm ([3.1 ± 0.2] vs. [2.9 ± 0.1], p < 0.001), pulse pressure (PP) ([43.02 ± 14.05] vs. [35.74 ± 9.86], p = 0.004), aortic distensibility ([5.61 ± 3.57] vs. [8.31 ± 3.82], p < 0.001), aortic strain ([10.56 ± 4.91] vs. [13.88 ± 5.86], p = 0.003), PP/stroke volume index ([1.25 ± 0.47] vs. [0.98 ± 0.28], p = 0.001), and aortic stiffness index ([2.82 ± 0.47] vs. [2.46 ± 0.45], p < 0.001) were statistically significant compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 may cause reduced or impaired aortic elasticity parameters linked to impaired arterial wall function in COVID-19 survivors compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Stiffness , Echocardiography/methods , Elasticity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
10.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 49(4): 601-608, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611423

ABSTRACT

Although clinical application of ultrasound to the heart has a history of about 80 years, its big turning point was the emergence of a portable ultrasound diagnostic machine. As a result, the place, where echocardiography is performed widely spread outside the examination room, and the people who perform echocardiography have also greatly increased. Emergency physicians, anesthesiologists, and primary care physicians became interested in echocardiography and started using it. Such ultrasound examinations performed by a doctor for assessment of disease condition, management, or guidance of treatment at bedside has been called point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). Cardiac POCUS is divided into a focused cardiac ultrasound examination (FoCUS) and limited echocardiography. The former is performed by non-experts in echocardiography, such as emergency physicians and anesthesiologists, whereas the latter is usually performed by cardiologists who are experts in echocardiography. FoCUS has an established protocol and evaluation method, and evidence to prove its effectiveness is accumulating. In addition, the COVID-19 outbreak reaffirmed the importance of POCUS. Although FoCUS is becoming popular in Japan, an educational program has not been established, and discussion on how to educate medical students and residents will be necessary. Even if POCUS in cardiovascular medicine becomes widespread, auscultation will still be necessary. Rather, adding cardiac and vascular POCUS to inspection, palpation, and auscultation in the flow of physical examinations will benefit patients greatly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Echocardiography/methods
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(2): 106217, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic stroke. The use echocardiography to characterize the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has not been explored. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 368 patients hospitalized between 3/1/2020 and 5/31/2020 who had laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and underwent transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization. Patients were categorized according to the presence of ischemic stroke on cerebrovascular imaging following echocardiography. Ischemic stroke was identified in 49 patients (13.3%). We characterized the risk of ischemic stroke using a novel composite risk score of clinical and echocardiographic variables: age <55, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, anticoagulation prior to admission, left atrial dilation and left ventricular thrombus. RESULTS: Patients with ischemic stroke had no difference in biomarkers of inflammation and hypercoagulability compared to those without ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly more left atrial dilation and left ventricular thrombus (48.3% vs 27.9%, p = 0.04; 4.2% vs 0.7%, p = 0.03). The unadjusted odds ratio of the composite novel COVID-19 Ischemic Stroke Risk Score for the likelihood of ischemic stroke was 4.1 (95% confidence interval 1.4-16.1). The AUC for the risk score was 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 Ischemic Stroke Risk Score utilizes clinical and echocardiographic parameters to robustly estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and supports the use of echocardiography to characterize the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thrombosis
14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
15.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 35(3): 295-304, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is known to cause a wide array of clinical chronic sequelae, but little is known regarding the long-term cardiac complications. We aim to report echocardiographic follow-up findings and describe the changes in left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function that occur following acute infection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography-COVID study with acute COVID-19 infection were asked to return for a follow-up transthoracic echocardiogram. Overall, 198 returned at a mean of 129 days of follow-up, of which 153 had paired baseline and follow-up images that were analyzable, including LV volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF), and longitudinal strain (LVLS). Right-sided echocardiographic parameters included RV global longitudinal strain, RV free wall strain, and RV basal diameter. Paired echocardiographic parameters at baseline and follow-up were compared for the entire cohort and for subgroups based on the baseline LV and RV function. RESULTS: For the entire cohort, echocardiographic markers of LV and RV function at follow-up were not significantly different from baseline (all P > .05). Patients with hyperdynamic LVEF at baseline (>70%), had a significant reduction of LVEF at follow-up (74.3% ± 3.1% vs 64.4% ± 8.1%, P < .001), while patients with reduced LVEF at baseline (<50%) had a significant increase (42.5% ± 5.9% vs 49.3% ± 13.4%, P = .02), and those with normal LVEF had no change. Patients with normal LVLS (<-18%) at baseline had a significant reduction of LVLS at follow-up (-21.6% ± 2.6% vs -20.3% ± 4.0%, P = .006), while patients with impaired LVLS at baseline had a significant improvement at follow-up (-14.5% ± 2.9% vs -16.7% ± 5.2%, P < .001). Patients with abnormal RV global longitudinal strain (>-20%) at baseline had significant improvement at follow-up (-15.2% ± 3.4% vs -17.4% ± 4.9%, P = .004). Patients with abnormal RV basal diameter (>4.5 cm) at baseline had significant improvement at follow-up (4.9 ± 0.7 cm vs 4.6 ± 0.6 cm, P = .019). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there were no significant changes over time in the LV and RV function of patients recovering from COVID-19 infection. However, differences were observed according to baseline LV and RV function, which may reflect recovery from the acute myocardial injury occurring in the acutely ill. Left ventricular and RV function tends to improve in those with impaired baseline function, while it tends to decrease in those with hyperdynamic LV or normal RV function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right
17.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(4): 462-468, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466366

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Experienced echocardiographers can quickly glean diagnostic information from limited echocardiographic views. The use of limited cardiac ultrasound, particularly as a screening tool, is increasing. During the COVID-19 pandemic, limited cardiac ultrasound has the major advantage of reducing exposure time between sonographer and patient. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of a "screening" echocardiogram with highly limited views is uncertain. AIM/METHOD: We examined the accuracy of limited echocardiography in 203 consecutive, de novo studies. We used six images: parasternal long axis, with colour Doppler over the mitral valve, and aortic valve, and apical four-chamber with colour Doppler over the mitral valve, and tricuspid valve. We compared the interpretation of 12 subjects with the final echocardiogram report, (gold standard). The subjects comprised four experienced echocardiography-specialised cardiologists, four experienced cardiologists with non-imaging subspecialty interests, and four senior cardiac sonographers. Studies were graded as: (1) normal or (2) needs full study (due to inadequate images or abnormality detected). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy are reported. RESULTS: Forty-one per cent (41%) of studies were normal by the gold standard report. Overall, a screening echocardiogram had a sensitivity of 71.2%, specificity of 57.1% to detect an abnormal echocardiogram, negative predictive value 58.4%, positive predictive value of 70.2%, and accuracy of 65.4%. When inadequate images were excluded, overall accuracy was nearly identical at 64.6%. The overall accuracy between the three groups of interpreters was similar: 66.5% (95% CI 63.1-69.7) for echocardiography-specialised cardiologists, 65.3% (95% CI 61.9-68.5) for non-echocardiography specialised cardiologists, and 64.4% (95% CI 61.0-67.7) for sonographers. These groups are all highly experienced practitioners. There was no difference in sensitivity or specificity comparing echocardiography-specialised cardiologists with cardiologists of other subspecialty experience. Comparing cardiologists to sonographers, cardiologists had lower sensitivity (echocardiography specialists 67.6%, 95% CI 63.2-71.8, non-echocardiography specialists 62.0%, 95% CI 57.4-66.4) compared to sonographers (84.0% [95% CI 80.4-87.2, p<0.05]), but cardiologists had higher specificities (64.9% [95% CI 59.5-70.0] for the echocardiography specialists, and 69.9% [95% CI 64.7-74.8] for non echocardiography specialists), compared to 36.6% (95% CI 31.4-42.0, p<0.05) for the sonographer group. When looking at only the studies considered to be interpretable, cardiologists had higher positive predictive value (echocardiography specialists 73.7%, 95% CI 69.0-78.1, non echocardiography specialists 74.1%, 95% CI 68.8-79.9), as compared to sonographers (64.3%, 95% CI 59.8-68.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Limited cardiac ultrasound as a screening tool for a normal heart had a sensitivity of only 71%, when performed and interpreted by experienced personnel, raising questions regarding the safety of this practice. Caution is especially recommended in extrapolating its use to non-specialised settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Echocardiography/methods , Humans , Mass Screening , Mitral Valve
18.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 23(8): 1055-1065, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429193

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aim to assess changes in routine echocardiographic and longitudinal strain parameters in patients recovering from Coronavirus disease 2019 during hospitalization and at 3-month follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: Routine comprehensive echocardiography and STE of both ventricles were performed during hospitalization for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection as part of a prospective pre-designed protocol and compared with echocardiography performed ∼3 months after recovery in 80 patients, using a similar protocol. Significantly improved right ventricle (RV) fractional area change, longer pulmonary acceleration time, lower right atrial pressure, and smaller RV end-diastolic and end-systolic area were observed at the recovery assessment (P < 0.05 for all). RV global longitudinal strain improved at the follow-up evaluation (23.2 ± 5 vs. 21.7 ± 4, P = 0.03), mostly due to improvement in septal segments. Only eight (10%) patients recovering from COVID-19 infection had abnormal ejection fraction (EF) at follow-up. However, LV related routine (E, E/e', stroke volume, LV size), or STE parameters did not change significantly from the assessment during hospitalization. A significant proportion [36 (45%)] of patients had some deterioration of longitudinal strain at follow-up, and 20 patients (25%) still had abnormal LV STE ∼3 months after COVID-19 acute infection. CONCLUSION: In patients previously discharged from hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection, RV routine echocardiographic and RV STE parameters improve significantly concurrently with improved RV haemodynamics. In contrast, a quarter of patients still have LV systolic dysfunction based on STE cut-offs. Moreover, LV STE does not improve significantly, implying subclinical LV dysfunction may be part and parcel of recovering from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Right
19.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(6): 1377-1384, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound B-lines represent interstitial thickening or edema and relate to mortality in COVID-19. As B-lines can be detected with minimal training using point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), we examined the frequency, clinical associations, and outcomes of B-lines when found using a simplified POCUS method in acutely ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, hospital data from COVID-19 patients who had undergone lung imaging during standard echocardiography or POCUS were reviewed for an ultrasound lung comet (ULC) sign, defined as the presence of ≥3 B-lines from images of only the antero-apex of either lung (ULC+). Clinical risk factors, oximetry and radiographic results, and disease severity were analyzed for associations with ULC+. Clinical risk factors and ULC+ were analyzed for associations with hospital mortality or the need for intensive care in multivariable models. RESULTS: Of N = 160 patients, age (mean ± standard deviation) was 64.8 ± 15.5 years, and 46 (29%) died. ULC+ was present in 100/160 (62%) of patients overall, in 81/103 (79%) of severe-or-greater disease versus 19/57 (33%) of moderate-or-less disease (P < .0001) and was associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.4], P = .02) and the need for intensive care (OR = 5.23 [95% CI: 2.42-12.40], P < .0001). In the multivariable models, symptom duration and severe-or-greater disease were associated with ULC+, and ULC+, diabetes, and symptom duration were associated with the need for intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: B-lines in the upper chest were common and related to disease severity, intensive care, and hospital mortality in COVID-19. Validation of a simplified lung POCUS exam could provide the evidence basis for a self-imaging application during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Echocardiography/methods , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 217, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. Therefore, we evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial blush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. METHODS: This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. RESULTS: In the study population, ASAP vs. SANE showed a significant greater use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and of heparin (p < 0.05), and a higher thrombus grade 5 and thrombus dimensions (p < 0.05). Interestingly, ASAP vs. SANE patients had lower MBG and left ventricular function (p < 0.001), and 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. After PPCI, a MBG 2-3 was present in only 26.1% of ASAP vs. 97.7% of SANE STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Notably, death and nonfatal AMI were higher in ASAP vs. SANE patients (p < 0.05). Finally, in ASAP STEMI patients the thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p < 0.005). Thus, multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Intriguingly, in ASAP patients the female vs. male had higher thrombus viral load (15.53 ± 4.5 vs. 30.25 ± 5.51 CT; p < 0.001), and thrombus dimension (4.62 ± 0.44 vs 4.00 ± 1.28 mm2; p < 0.001). ASAP vs. SANE patients had a significantly lower in-hospital survival for MACE following PPCI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Thrombosis/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
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