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2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 217, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. Therefore, we evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial blush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. METHODS: This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. RESULTS: In the study population, ASAP vs. SANE showed a significant greater use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and of heparin (p < 0.05), and a higher thrombus grade 5 and thrombus dimensions (p < 0.05). Interestingly, ASAP vs. SANE patients had lower MBG and left ventricular function (p < 0.001), and 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. After PPCI, a MBG 2-3 was present in only 26.1% of ASAP vs. 97.7% of SANE STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Notably, death and nonfatal AMI were higher in ASAP vs. SANE patients (p < 0.05). Finally, in ASAP STEMI patients the thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p < 0.005). Thus, multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Intriguingly, in ASAP patients the female vs. male had higher thrombus viral load (15.53 ± 4.5 vs. 30.25 ± 5.51 CT; p < 0.001), and thrombus dimension (4.62 ± 0.44 vs 4.00 ± 1.28 mm2; p < 0.001). ASAP vs. SANE patients had a significantly lower in-hospital survival for MACE following PPCI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Thrombosis/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388475

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been related to a spectrum of hyper-inflammatory states in children. There is a striking similarity between these hyper-inflammatory states and Kawasaki disease (KD). We present an interesting case of KD recurrence in a 10-year-old child, who had previously developed KD at 4 years of age. His symptoms included fever, maculopapular rash and altered sensorium. Investigations showed noticeably elevated inflammatory markers, and an echocardiography revealed dilated coronary arteries. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were positive. The child responded dramatically to intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous methylprednisolone. It is possible that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggered the recurrence of KD in this child who might have been genetically predisposed to KD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/etiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Echocardiography/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 19(1): 31, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) are known to be associated with poor outcome. A small number of case series and reports have described cases of myocarditis and ischaemic events, however, knowledge on the aetiology of acute cardiac failure in SARS-CoV2 remains limited. We describe the occurrence and risk stratification imaging correlates of 'takotsubo' stress cardiomyopathy presenting in a patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the intensive care unit. An intubated 53-year old patient with COVID19 suffered acute haemodynamic collapse in the intensive care unit, and was thus investigated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial troponins and blood tests, and eventually coronary angiography due to clinical suspicion of ischaemic aetiology. Echocardiography revealed a reduced ejection fraction, with evident extensive apical akinesia spanning multiple coronary territories. Troponins and NT-proBNP were elevated, and ECG revealed ST elevation: coronary angiography was thus performed. This revealed no significant coronary stenosis. Repeat echocardiography performed within the following week revealed a substantial recovery of ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities. Despite requirement of a prolonged ICU stay, the patient now remains clinically stable, and is on spontaneous breathing. CONCLUSION: This case report presents a case of takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy occurring in a critically unwell patient with COVID19 in the intensive care setting. Stress cardiomyopathy may be an acute cardiovascular complication of COVID-19 infection. In the COVID19 critical care setting, urgent bedside echocardiography is an important tool for initial clinical assessment of patients suffering haemodynamic compromise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Angiography/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology
8.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 403-410, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363845

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the pulmonary system, the involvement of the heart has become a well-known issue. Pulmonary CT plays an additive role in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. We aimed to investigate the association of echocardiographic indices with pulmonary CT scores and mortality in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 123 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study. The British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) score and echocardiographic parameters were calculated, and echocardiographic indices were compared between BSTI score grades. RESULTS: During in-hospital follow-up, 36 of 123 patients (29.3%) had died. BSTI score, IVS, LVPWd, RV mid-diameter, RV basal diameter, RV longitudinal diameter, sPAP, and RVMPI were higher, and RVFAC, TAPSE, and RVS were lower in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group. There were statistically significant changes between BSTI scores in terms of LVPWd, RV mid diameter, RV basal diameter, RV longitudinal diameter, sPAP, RVFAC, RVMPI, and TAPSE. BSTI score was positively correlated with sPAP and RV basal diameter and negatively correlated with TAPSE and RVFAC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sPAP (OR â€‹= â€‹1.071, p â€‹= â€‹0.002) and RV basal diameter (OR â€‹= â€‹1.184, p â€‹= â€‹0.005) were independent predictors of high BSTI scores (grade 4 and 5). Furthermore, age, sPAP, and a high BSTI score (grade 5) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic indices were correlated with BSTI scores, and patients with higher BSTI scores had more cardiac involvement in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Turkey/epidemiology
9.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 48(3)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355273

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandmic, more patients are presenting with complications late after acute myocardial infarction. We report the case of a 71-year-old man who delayed seeking medical care for 2 weeks, despite progressive shortness of breath, cough, and tactile fever, for fear of contracting COVID-19 in the hospital. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluation revealed a ventricular septal rupture secondary to acute myocardial infarction. The patient underwent urgent cardiac catheterization, followed by successful saphenous vein grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery and open surgical repair of the ventricular septal rupture with a bovine pericardial patch. This case highlights a potential long-lasting negative effect that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on the care-seeking behavior and health of patients with acute cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Fear , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Septal Rupture , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Coronary Angiography/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Septal Rupture/diagnosis , Ventricular Septal Rupture/etiology , Ventricular Septal Rupture/physiopathology , Ventricular Septal Rupture/surgery
11.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(8): 862-876, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 causes significant cardiovascular involvement, which can be a determinant of clinical course and outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether echocardiographic measures of ventricular function were independently associated with adverse clinical course and cardiac sequelae in patients with MIS-C. METHODS: In a longitudinal observational study of 54 patients with MIS-C (mean age, 6.8 ± 4.4 years; 46% male; 56% African American), measures of ventricular function and morphometry at initial presentation, predischarge, and at a median of 3- and 10-week follow-up were retrospectively analyzed and were compared with those in 108 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects. The magnitude of strain is expressed as an absolute value. Risk stratification for adverse clinical course and outcomes were analyzed among the tertiles of clinical and echocardiographic data using analysis of variance and univariate and multivariate regression. RESULTS: Median left ventricular apical four-chamber peak longitudinal strain (LVA4LS) and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) at initial presentation were significantly decreased in patients with MIS-C compared with the normal cohort (16.2% and 15.1% vs 22.3% and 22.0%, respectively, P < .01). Patients in the lowest LVA4LS tertile (<13%) had significantly higher C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity troponin, need for intensive care, and need for mechanical life support as well as longer hospital length of stay compared with those in the highest tertile (>18.5%; P < .01). Initial LVA4LS and LVGLS were normal in 13 of 54 and 10 of 39 patients, respectively. There was no mortality. In multivariate regression, only LVA4LS was associated with both the need for intensive care and length of stay. At median 10-week follow-up to date, seven of 36 patients (19%) and six of 25 patients (24%) had abnormal LVA4LS and LVGLS, respectively. Initial LVA4LS < 16.2% indicated abnormal LVA4LS at follow-up with 100% sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Impaired LVGLS and LVA4LS at initial presentation independently indicate a higher risk for adverse acute clinical course and persistent subclinical left ventricular dysfunction at 10-week follow-up, suggesting that they could be applied to identify higher risk children with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
12.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1757-1768, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether right ventricular dilation or systolic impairment is associated with mortality and/or disease severity in invasively ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single-center U.K. ICU. PATIENTS: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation that received a transthoracic echocardiogram between March and December 2020. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Right ventricular dilation was defined as right ventricular:left ventricular end-diastolic area greater than 0.6, right ventricular systolic impairment as fractional area change less than 35%, or tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion less than 17 mm. One hundred seventy-two patients were included, 59 years old (interquartile range, 49-67), with mostly moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 101; 59%). Ninety-day mortality was 41% (n = 70): 49% in patients with right ventricular dilation, 53% in right ventricular systolic impairment, and 72% in right ventricular dilation with systolic impairment. The right ventricular dilation with systolic impairment phenotype was independently associated with mortality (odds ratio, 3.11 [95% CI, 1.15-7.60]), but either disease state alone was not. Right ventricular fractional area change correlated with Pao2:Fio2 ratio, Paco2, chest radiograph opacification, and dynamic compliance, whereas right ventricular:left ventricle end-diastolic area correlated negatively with urine output. CONCLUSIONS: Right ventricular systolic impairment correlated with pulmonary pathophysiology, whereas right ventricular dilation correlated with renal dysfunction. Right ventricular dilation with systolic impairment was the only right ventricular phenotype that was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality
14.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(8): 819-830, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 virus, which has led to the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is known to adversely affect the cardiovascular system through multiple mechanisms. In this international, multicenter study conducted by the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography, we aim to determine the clinical and echocardiographic phenotype of acute cardiac disease in COVID-19 patients, to explore phenotypic differences in different geographic regions across the world, and to identify parameters associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We studied 870 patients with acute COVID-19 infection from 13 medical centers in four world regions (Asia, Europe, United States, Latin America) who had undergone transthoracic echocardiograms. Clinical and laboratory data were collected, including patient outcomes. Anonymized echocardiograms were analyzed with automated, machine learning-derived algorithms to calculate left ventricular (LV) volumes, ejection fraction, and LV longitudinal strain (LS). Right-sided echocardiographic parameters that were measured included right ventricular (RV) LS, RV free-wall strain (FWS), and RV basal diameter. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Significant regional differences were noted in terms of patient comorbidities, severity of illness, clinical biomarkers, and LV and RV echocardiographic metrics. Overall in-hospital mortality was 21.6%. Parameters associated with mortality in a multivariate analysis were age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12 [1.05, 1.22], P = .003), previous lung disease (OR = 7.32 [1.56, 42.2], P = .015), LVLS (OR = 1.18 [1.05, 1.36], P = .012), lactic dehydrogenase (OR = 6.17 [1.74, 28.7], P = .009), and RVFWS (OR = 1.14 [1.04, 1.26], P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular dysfunction is noted in approximately 20% and RV dysfunction in approximately 30% of patients with acute COVID-19 illness and portend a poor prognosis. Age at presentation, previous lung disease, lactic dehydrogenase, LVLS, and RVFWS were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Regional differences in cardiac phenotype highlight the significant differences in patient acuity as well as echocardiographic utilization in different parts of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(8): 2173-2180, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction, mainly assessed by biomarker alterations, has been described in COVID-19 infection. However, there are still areas of uncertainty regarding its effective role in disease evolution. Aim of this study was to evaluate early echocardiographic parameters in COVID pneumonia and their association with severity disease and prognosis. METHODS: An echocardiographic examination was performed within 72 h from admission in 64 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia in our medium-intensity care unit, from March 30th to May 15th 2020. Six patients were excluded for inadequate acoustic window. RESULTS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients were finally enrolled, with a median age of 58 years. Twenty-two (38%) were classifiable as severe COVID-19 disease. Eight out of 58 patients experienced adverse evolution (six died, two were admitted to ICU and received mechanical ventilation), all of them in the severe pneumonia group. Severe pneumonia patients showed higher troponin, IL-6 and D-Dimer values. No significant new onset alterations of left and right ventricular systolic function parameters were observed. Patients with severe pneumonia showed higher mean estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) (30.7 ± 5.2 mmHg vs 26.2 ± 4.3 mmHg, p = 0.006), even if in the normality range values. No differences in echocardiographic parameters were retrieved in patients with adverse events with respect to those with favorable clinical course. CONCLUSION: A mild sPAP increase in severe pneumonia patients with respect to those with milder disease was the only significant finding at early echocardiographic examination, without other signs of new onset major cardiac dysfunction. Future studies are needed to deepen the knowledge regarding minor cardiac functional perturbation in the evolution of a complex systemic disorder, in which the respiratory involvement appears as the main character, at least in non-ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
Hypertension ; 77(6): 2014-2022, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221676

ABSTRACT

Presence of heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to examine whether first-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the ejection fraction measured in early systole up to the time of peak aortic velocity, a sensitive measure of preclinical heart failure, is associated with survival in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. A retrospective outcome study was performed in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who underwent echocardiography (n=380) at the West Branch of the Union Hospital, Wuhan, China and in patients admitted to King's Health Partners in South London, United Kingdom. Association of EF1 with survival was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. EF1 was compared in patients with COVID-19 and in historical controls with similar comorbidities (n=266) who had undergone echocardiography before the COVID-19 pandemic. In patients with COVID-19, EF1 was a strong predictor of survival in each patient group (Wuhan and London). In the combined group, EF1 was a stronger predictor of survival than other clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics including age, comorbidities, and biochemical markers. A cutoff value of 25% for EF1 gave a hazard ratio of 5.23 ([95% CI, 2.85-9.60]; P<0.001) unadjusted and 4.83 ([95% CI, 2.35-9.95], P<0.001) when adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, hs-cTnI (high-sensitive cardiac troponin), and CRP (C-reactive protein). EF1 was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (23.2±7.3 versus 22.0±7.6%, P=0.092, adjusted for prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities). Impaired EF1 is strongly associated with mortality in COVID-19 and probably reflects preexisting, preclinical heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography , Heart Failure , Stroke Volume , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(8): 831-838, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have abnormal findings on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). However, although not all abnormalities on TTE result in changes in clinical management, performing TTE in recently infected patients increases disease transmission risks. It remains unknown whether common biomarker tests, such as troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), can help distinguish in which patients with COVID-19 TTE may be safely delayed until infection risks subside. METHODS: Using electronic health records data and chart review, the authors retrospectively studied all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a multisite health care system from March 1, 2020, to January 15, 2021, who underwent TTE within 14 days of their first positive COVID-19 result and had BNP and troponin measured before or within 7 days of TTE. The primary outcome was the presence of one or more urgent echocardiographic findings, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, wall motion score index ≥ 1.5, moderate or greater right ventricular dysfunction, moderate or greater pericardial effusion, intracardiac thrombus, pulmonary artery systolic pressure > 50 mm Hg, or at least moderate to severe valvular disease. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine biomarkers and comorbidities associated with the outcome. The performance of a rule for classifying TTE using troponin and BNP was evaluated. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-four hospitalized and 151 intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 were included. Urgent findings on TTE were present in 105 patients (24.2%). Troponin and BNP were abnormal in 311 (71.7%). Heart failure (odds ratio, 5.41; 95% CI, 2.61-11.68), troponin > 0.04 ng/mL (odds ratio, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.05-10.05), and BNP > 100 pg/mL (odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 2.35-16.09) remained significant predictors of urgent findings on TTE after stepwise selection. No urgent findings on TTE were seen in 95.1% of all patients and in 91.3% of intensive care unit patients with normal troponin and BNP. CONCLUSIONS: Troponin and BNP were highly associated with urgent echocardiographic findings and may be used in triaging algorithms for determining in which patients TTE can be safely delayed until after their peak infectious window has passed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Emergencies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Inpatients , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 126, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shunt, pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch and others intrapulmonary abnormalities are involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of POS associated with two pathophysiological issues: one, cardiac POS caused by a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and second, pulmonary POS due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interstitial pneumonia. POS has resolved after recovery of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left interatrial shunt and intrapulmonary shunt caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia contributed to refractory hypoxemia and POS. Therefore, in case of COVID-19 patient with unexplained POS, the existence of PFO must be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Hypoxia , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posture/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
19.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(6): 632-636, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to alert the neonatal community to the possibility of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) like disease in critically ill neonates born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: Diagnosis of MIS-C like disease was pursued after echocardiography showed severely depressed ventricular function and pathological coronary artery dilation in the setting of medically refractory multisystem organ failure and maternal COVID-19 infection. The neonate did not respond to standard medical therapy, and there was no alternative disease that could explain the clinical course. High index of clinical suspicion coupled with low risk of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) prompted us to pursue IVIG administration even though the neonate did not meet classic criteria for MIS-C. RESULT: Following treatment with IVIG, there was rapid clinical improvement. Ventricular function improved within 15 hours and coronary artery dilation resolved in 8 days. There was no recurrence of disease during follow-up. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 associated MIS-C like disease has not been well described in neonates. As typical features may be conspicuously absent, a high index of suspicion is warranted in critically ill neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Echocardiography may provide critical diagnostic information and narrow the differential diagnosis. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 associated MIS-C can present in neonates.. · Echocardiography is helpful in raising suspicion for MIS-C in neonates.. · Consider MIS-C in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates born to mothers with COVID-19..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/therapy , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function/drug effects
20.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(7): 2227-2233, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135168

ABSTRACT

Highly sensitive troponin (hs-TnI) levels are frequently elevated in COVID-19 patients and are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization. However, no data exists on cardiac involvement in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. We aimed to evaluate by global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) whether there is subclinical myocardial deformation after COVID-19 infection. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) was performed within 29.5 ± 4.5 days after COVID-19 treatment. The standard GLS limit was identified at < -18%. The patients were divided into two groups according to their hs-TnI levels during hospitalization as with (> 11.6 ng/dl) and without (< 11.6 ng/dl) myocardial injury. Patients' (n = 74) mean age was 59.9 years, and women were in the majority (60.8%). Of the patients, 43.2% of them were hypertensive, and 10.9% were diabetic. Abnormal LV-GLS values (> -18) were measured in 28 patients (37.8%). While 16 (57.1%) of these patients were in the group with myocardial injury, 12 (26.1%) of them were in the group without myocardial injury (p = 0.014). D-dimer, C reactive protein, white blood cell levels were higher in the group with myocardial injury (All p values < 0.05). Electrocardiographically, 9 (12.2%) patients had T wave inversion, while two patients had a bundle branch block. Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction was observed in approximately one-third of the patients at the one-month follow-up after COVID-19 infection. This rate was higher in those who develop myocardial injury during hospitalization. This result suggests that patients recovered from COVID-19 infection should be evaluated and followed in terms of cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Electrocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
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