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2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1396-1403, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality rates associated with COVID-19 vary widely between countries and, within countries, between regions. These differences might be explained by population susceptibility, environmental factors, transmission dynamics, containment strategies, and diagnostic approaches. We aimed to analyze if obesity and diabetes prevalence are associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the mortality rate for each of the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico, one of the countries with highest COVID-19 mortality rate, during the first seven months of the pandemic to identify factors associated with higher mortality, including demographic, health-related characteristics (prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in adults older than 20 years old), and altitude. RESULTS: During the first seven months of the COVID-19 pandemic there were 85,666 deaths reported in Mexico, with a cumulative mortality rate of 67 per 100,000 population. The mean mortality rate for the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico was 33.9 per 100,000 population. At a municipal level, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, as well as high human development index, and location at < 500 or > 2000 above sea level were associated with higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated obesity and diabetes prevalence explain, in part, high COVID-19 mortality rates registered in certain municipalities in Mexico. These results suggest that a regionalized approach should be considered to successfully limit the impact of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Ecology , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Prevalence , Young Adult
3.
4.
mBio ; 12(5): e0214421, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440802

ABSTRACT

Ecology and evolution, especially of microbes, have never been more relevant than in our global fight against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Understanding how populations of SARS-CoV-2 grow, disperse, and evolve is of critical importance to managing the COVID-19 pandemic, and these questions are fundamentally ecological and evolutionary in nature. We compiled data from bioRxiv and medRxiv preprint abstracts and US National Institutes of Health Research Project grant abstracts to visualize the impact that the pivot to COVID-19 research has had on the study of microbes across biological disciplines. Finding that the pivot appears weaker in ecology and evolutionary biology than in other areas of biology, we discuss why the ecology and evolution of microbes, both pathogenic and otherwise, need renewed attention and investment going forward.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ecology , Microbiota/physiology , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200358, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429384

ABSTRACT

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecology , Humans , Laboratories , Machine Learning , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(23)2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389352

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, universities worldwide have adopted various measures intended to promote sustainability in higher education and include it in the curriculum. However, although this paradigm shift appears to be contributing to students' acquisition of the knowledge, skills and values necessary to fight for a more sustainable world, serious global crises such as the present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic oblige us to rethink our behaviour and spur us to accelerate the move towards a deep-seated commitment to the environment and people. Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to explore consumption habits in students at four Spanish universities by analysing their individual ecological footprint (EF); (b) to develop indices of connection with nature and a pro-environmental attitude and to determine relationships between these indices and students' consumption. Among other factors, our results showed that private university students have a higher EF than public university students; that food consumption has the greatest impact on individuals' EF; and that those who consume more sustainably do not show a more pro-environmental attitude or feel a greater connection with nature. Therefore, we conclude that there was no apparent direct relationship between study participants' convictions and their daily behaviour. There is a pressing need in education to demonstrate the connection between our actions and their environmental impact.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Ecology , Nature , Students/psychology , COVID-19 , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Spain , Universities
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-7, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1346650

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic that began in early 2020 is currently the subject of thousands of articles on the various aspects of its epidemiology. One recurrent theme is the phenomenon of herd immunity or herd effect. In this article, I present a short history of the concept, the arguments around its nomenclature, and the ecologist's view of the herd effect, using the case history of the sleeping sickness control in Africa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosomiasis, African , Immunity, Herd , Ecology , COVID-19
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254746, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and transmission of zoonotic diseases are driven by complex interactions between health, environmental, and socio-political systems. Human movement is considered a significant and increasing factor in these processes, yet forced migration remains an understudied area of zoonotic research-due in part to the complexity of conducting interdisciplinary research in these settings. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to identify and analyze theoretical frameworks and approaches used to study linkages between forced migration and zoonotic diseases. METHODS: We searched within eight electronic databases: ProQuest, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, PLoSOne, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Google Scholar, to identify a) research articles focusing on zoonoses considering forced migrants in their study populations, and b) forced migration literature which engaged with zoonotic disease. Both authors conducted a full-text review, evaluating the quality of literature reviews and primary data using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) model, while theoretical papers were evaluated for quality using a theory synthesis adapted from Bonell et al. (2013). Qualitative data were synthesized thematically according to the method suggested by Noblit and Hare (1988). RESULTS: Analyses of the 23 included articles showed the increasing use of interdisciplinary frameworks and approaches over time, the majority of which stemmed from political ecology. Approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health were increasingly popular, but were more often linked to program implementation and development than broader contextual research. The majority of research failed to acknowledge the heterogeneity of migrant populations, lacked contextual depth, and insufficient acknowledgments of migrant agency in responding to zoonotic threats. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the emergence and spread of zoonoses in forced migration contexts requires more careful consideration and use of interdisciplinary research to integrate the contributions of social and natural science approaches. Robust interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are an important step for better understanding the complex health, environment, and socio-political drivers of zoonotic diseases in forced migration. Lessons can be learned from the application of these approaches in other hard-to-reach or seldom-heard populations.


Subject(s)
Ecology , Human Migration , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Humans , Transients and Migrants , Zoonoses/epidemiology
10.
Nature ; 595(7866): 175-176, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303749
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266719

ABSTRACT

The global need to preserve ecology has propelled the green movement across the globe. An emerging managerial challenge for all organizations is to protect natural resources by reducing their negative impact on the environment and increase sustainable performance. Greening is the need of the age to conserve natural resources. This study investigates the impact of green human resource management practice-i.e., green hiring-on the sustainable performance of public and private healthcare organizations. A quantitative research approach was used for data collection. Scale survey of 160 responses was gathered from public and private healthcare organizations. Partial least square-structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. The study results suggest that green recruitment has a positive and significant impact on environmental performance, economic performance, and social performance. Path coefficients test also revealed that green performance management and compensation significantly mediate the relationship between green hiring and sustainable performance of public and private healthcare organizations. This study is helpful for organizations in adapting GHRM practices that will benefit the organizations in all ways. This study also provides a better understanding to policymakers on how to promote GHRM practices and increase sustainability in organizations.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Organizations , Ecology , Humans , Personnel Selection , Workforce
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 41-60, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222706

ABSTRACT

The crown-like outline of the virions of coronaviruses will long endure as the iconic image of 2020 - the year of the COVID-19 pandemic. This major human health emergency has been caused by a betacoronavirus, as have others in the past. In this chapter, we outline the taxonomy of betacoronaviruses and their properties, both genetic and biological. We discuss their recombinational and mutational histories separately to show that the sequence of the RaTG13 bat virus isolate is the closest currently known full-length genetic homolog of that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the RaTG13 bat virus and SARS-CoV-2 have probably diverged over 20 years. We discuss the ecology of their pangolin and bat hosts and conclude that, like other recent viral pandemics, the underlying cause of the SARS-CoV-2 emergence is probably the relentless growth of the world's human population and the overexploitation and disturbance of the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Ecology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(4): 399-407, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218951

ABSTRACT

This article explores the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic on the evolution of both physical and digital cadavers within the unique ecosystem of the anatomy laboratory. A physical cadaver is a traditional and established learning tool in anatomy education, whereas a digital cadaver is a relatively recent phenomenon. The Covid-19 pandemic presented a major disturbance and disruption to all levels and types of education, including anatomy education. This article constructs a conceptual metaphor between a typical anatomy laboratory and an ecosystem, and considers the affordances, constraints, and changing roles of physical and digital cadavers within anatomy education through an ecological lens. Adaptation of physical and digital cadavers during the disturbance is analyzed, and the resiliency of digital cadaver technology is recognized. The evolving role of the digital cadaver is considered in terms of increasing accessibility and inclusivity within the anatomy laboratory ecosystem of the future.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19 , Cadaver , Ecology , Education, Distance , Humans , Visible Human Projects
14.
OMICS ; 25(5): 269-278, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202572

ABSTRACT

With coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), we have witnessed a shift from public health to planetary health and a growing recognition of the importance of systems science in developing effective solutions against pandemics in the 21st century. COVID-19 and the history of frequent infectious outbreaks in the last two decades suggest that COVID-19 is likely a dry run for future ecological crises. Now is the right time to plan ahead and deploy the armamentarium of systems science scholarship for planetary health. The science of epigenomics, which investigates both genetic and nongenetic traits regarding heritable phenotypic alterations, and new approaches to understanding genome regulation in humans and pathogens offer veritable prospects to boost the global scientific capacities to innovate therapeutics and diagnostics against novel and existing infectious agents. Several reversible epigenetic alterations, such as chromatin remodeling and histone methylation, control and influence gene expression. COVID-19 lethality is linked, in part, to the cytokine storm, age, and status of the immune system in a given person. Additionally, due to reduced human mobility and daily activities, effects of the pandemic on the environment have been both positive and negative. For example, reduction in environmental pollution and lesser extraction from nature have potential positive corollaries on water and air quality. Negative effects include pollution as plastics and other materials were disposed in unconventional places and spaces in the course of the pandemic. I discuss the opportunities and challenges associated with the science of epigenomics, specifically with an eye to inform and prevent future ecological crises and pandemics that are looming on the horizon in the 21st century. In particular, this article underscores that epigenetics of both viruses and the host may influence virus infectivity and severity of attendant disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Ecology , Environmental Health , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Global Health , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
NTM ; 29(2): 203-211, 2021 06.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192529

ABSTRACT

This paper is part of the Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The history of medicine is mostly written as a history of human medicine. COVID-19 and other zoonotic infectious diseases, however, demand a reconsideration of medical history in terms of ecology and the inclusion of non-human actors and diverse environments. This contribution discusses possible approaches for an ecological history of medicine which satisfies the needs of several current and overlapping crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Historiography , History of Medicine , Zoonoses/history , Animals , COVID-19/history , Ecology , Environment , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans
16.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(7): 593-605, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157752

ABSTRACT

Ecological and evolutionary processes govern the fitness, propagation, and interactions of organisms through space and time, and viruses are no exception. While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) research has primarily emphasized virological, clinical, and epidemiological perspectives, crucial aspects of the pandemic are fundamentally ecological or evolutionary. Here, we highlight five conceptual domains of ecology and evolution - invasion, consumer-resource interactions, spatial ecology, diversity, and adaptation - that illuminate (sometimes unexpectedly) the emergence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We describe the applications of these concepts across levels of biological organization and spatial scales, including within individual hosts, host populations, and multispecies communities. Together, these perspectives illustrate the integrative power of ecological and evolutionary ideas and highlight the benefits of interdisciplinary thinking for understanding emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Ecology , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Zoonoses/virology
17.
EMBO Rep ; 22(4): e52757, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154913

ABSTRACT

The ongoing lockdowns provide ideal conditions to study the relationship between wildlife and humans but among humans themselves.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecology , Humanities , Humans
18.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 27(5): 1172-1174, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140248
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