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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957286

ABSTRACT

The tourism, urbanization, technology, and the ecological environment both promote and restrict each other. Coordinating the relationship between the four is of great significance to the realization of high-quality sustainable regional development. Taking the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region as an example, this paper constructs an uncoordinated coupling model for the tourism-urbanization-technology-ecological environment system. Using exploratory spatial analysis and geographic information systems, this paper reveals the temporal and spatial evolution law affecting the uncoordinated coupling relationship between tourism, urbanization, technology and the ecological environment in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region from 2010 to 2020, before establishing a panel Tobit model that is used to explore the factors affecting the four systems. The research shows the following: (1) The level of comprehensive development for tourism, urbanization, technology, and the ecological environment in Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan has increased rapidly. Of all these, the tourism industry was the most affected by COVID-19 in 2020, while the level of urbanization, technology, and ecological environment developments in the three provinces has become similar over time. (2) Uncoordinated development between cities is a prominent problem; while the uncoordinated coupling spatial agglomeration in various regions is relatively stable, the proportion of cities with no significant agglomeration form amounts to more than 70%, with mostly low-low (L-L) and high-high (H-H) agglomeration types. (3) The degree to which uncoordinated coupling exists among the four systems in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region is affected by many factors. Only eco-environmental pressure has a significant positive correlation with the degree of uncoordinated coupling, while the tourism scale, economic urbanization, eco-environmental response, and investment in technology have a significant negative correlation. These results provide a theoretical basis and practical references for strengthening the government's macro-control and promoting collaborative regional development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urbanization , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cities , Economic Development , Humans , Technology , Tourism
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 856142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952793

ABSTRACT

The digital economy is considered as an effective measure to mitigate the negative economic impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. However, few studies evaluated the role of digital economy on the economic growth of countries along the "Belt and Road" and the impact of COVID-19 on their digital industries. This study constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system and applied a panel data regression model to empirically analyze the impact of digital economy on the economic growth of countries along the "Belt and Road" before COVID-19. Then, a Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model was used to examine the impact of COVID-19 on their digital industries and trade pattern. Our results show that although there is an obvious regional imbalance in the digital economy development in countries along the "Belt and Road", the digital economy has a significantly positive effect on their economic growth. The main impact mechanism is through promoting industrial structure upgrading, the total employment and restructuring of employment. Furthermore, COVID-19 has generally boosted the demand for the digital industries, and the impact from the demand side is much larger than that from the supply side. Specifically, the digital industries in Armenia, Israel, Latvia and Estonia have shown great growth potential during the epidemic. On the contrast, COVID-19 has brought adverse impacts to the digital industries in Ukraine, Egypt, Turkey, and the Philippines. The development strategies are proposed to bridge the "digital divide" of countries along the "Belt and Road," and to strengthen the driving effect of the digital economy on industrial upgrading, employment and trade in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt , Humans , Industry , Turkey
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938826

ABSTRACT

In this era, the global COVID-19 pandemic has hit the economy hard. In the context of great challenges to sustainable economic development, it is of great practical significance to study how digital payment can promote consumer demand and sustainable economic development. From the perspective of sustainable economic development, this paper selects panel data of various provinces in China from 2011 to 2020 to test the correlation between digital payment and consumer demand by constructing econometric models and selecting relevant indicators, so as to reveal the impact of digital payment on consumer demand and sustainable economic development. Research shows that: (1) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, digital payments play a special and very important role in promoting household consumption and sustainable economic development; (2) the empirical results show that digital payment has a significant positive impact on consumer demand, which indicates that digital payment has an obvious promotion effect on consumer demand; (3) further research shows that the impact of digital payment on consumer demand has obvious heterogeneity. From the perspective of regional differences, digital payment has a significant positive impact on consumer demand in the eastern and western regions, while the impact is not obvious in the northeast and central regions, even though it also has a positive impact. From the perspective of urban-rural differences, digital payment has a significant impact on consumer demand in both urban and rural areas, and this impact is greater in rural areas than in urban areas. However, from the perspective of development stage, the stage characteristics of digital payment's impact on consumer demand in each region are not obvious, which may be caused by the short sample range. In addition, this paper also puts forward relevant suggestions for other countries to learn from.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Humans , Pandemics , Sustainable Development
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 940126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933917

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the world economy and the global financial system have closely intertwined, deepened economic and financial integration via cross-border investments, financings, imports, and exports. Since banks serve as the core of a country's financial system, the risk status of banks directly affects the country's national credit and financial security. The current complexities of the international and domestic environments are increasing geopolitical risks. Moreover, there is increasing uncertainty recognition in the financial and economic development of all countries, more systemic banking risks, and sovereign risk transfer elements. In this scenario, resisting external risk input is essential to enhance risk prevention ability. Therefore, this paper adopted the VAR-based time domain and frequency model for a multi-dimensional analysis of the two perspectives of banking and sovereign risk spillover effects. The empirical results indicate that the entire sample under the static overflow effect always shows that most of the absorption is the banking sector risk, and sovereign risk is the leading risk spillover. In the frequency domain perspective, the short-term spillover effects between bank and sovereign risk are dominant. Moreover, in relation to the outbreak and continuous spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the spillover effects are often dominated by adverse, long-term scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Development , Humans , Investments , Pandemics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934046

ABSTRACT

Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, this paper examines whether rural broadband adoption affects agricultural carbon reduction efficiency (ACRE), using panel data from 30 Chinese provinces from 2011 to 2019. This paper achieves a measurement of ACRE by taking the carbon sink of agricultural as one of the desired outputs and using a Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) model and the global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index. The results show that: (1) Rural broadband adoption has a positive effect on ACRE. The relationship between the income of rural residents and ACRE was an inverted U-shaped, which confirms the EKC hypothesis. (2) Land transfer has a significant promoting effect on the relationship between rural broadband adoption and ACRE. When the land transfer rate is high, the positive effect of broadband adoption is obvious. (3) The positive effect of broadband adoption on ACRE was more obvious when farmers invested more in production equipment, that is to say, it has a significant positive moderating effect. As farmers in many developing countries suffer from increasingly frequent and severe extreme weather events, we believe that the results of this study also have implications for the implementation of agricultural carbon reduction and smart agricultural equipment roll-out in many countries.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Carbon , Carbon/analysis , China , Economic Development , Efficiency , Farmers , Humans
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933358

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence beef meat exports in Tanzania, with a particular focus on the years 1985 to 2020, in enhancing the development of beef meat export-oriented policy in Tanzania, thereby enhancing beef exports in Tanzania. A time-series panel dataset was analyzed using both descriptive statistics and ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses models. As per the descriptive analyses, beef meat exports reached the highest pick of 4,300 tons per year in 1990, whereas from 1991 to date, beef meat exportation in Tanzania has been in declining trends despite an increase in beef meat output and trade openness from 162,500 to 486,736 tons and 7.6 to 98.7%, respectively. Nevertheless, while the prospect of Tanzanian beef meat exports appears bright and promising, the industry will continue to encounter trade barriers and must stay competitive to produce enough volume and quality beef meat to meet the needs of its existing and expanding markets. This is because, Tanzanian beef meat competes for market share with beef meat from other countries in the global markets, where customers pay a premium for lines of beef meat that meet quality standards while discarding those that do not. This indicates that the quantity of beef meat produced has no relevance to its world market share, but its quality standards do. Furthermore, the econometric results revealed that the coefficients of the terms of trade, Tanzania GDP per capita, global beef meat consumption, trade openness, and beef meat outputs were found to be significantly positive (P < 0.05) influencing beef meat exports in Tanzania, whereas the trading partners' GDP per capita and exchange rate were not. The findings have varying implications as to what factors need to be addressed to further improve beef meat exports. From the farmer's perspective, better access to adequate funds as a result of increased income benefit from export will assist in improving beef cattle productivity and quality to compete effectively in the global markets. From the government's perspective, because trade openness promotes economic growth through export benefits, the Tanzania government and policymakers need to establish balanced policies to strengthen bilateral trade relationships to generate more opportunities in global markets.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Meat , Animals , Cattle , Industry , Meat/analysis , Policy , Tanzania
7.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269538, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933337

ABSTRACT

This particular study investigated the possibility of modelling the exchange rate volatility of the USD/LKR currency pair and analysed whether macroeconomic factors influence the exchange rate. To model the exchange rate volatility, a combination of Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) family models were used. The ARDL model was utilized to explore the presence of dynamic short-run and long-run relationships between the exchange rate and macroeconomic variables. The ARDL model empirical findings inferred that a long-run relationship does not exist between any of the examined macroeconomic variables and the exchange rate. In contrast, a short-run relationship exists between exchange rate lag one, exchange rate lag two, inflation, and merchandising trade balance. Thereby, as per the findings improving the merchandising trade balance and minimising inflation would minimise volatility in the exchange rate. All stakeholders who are exposed to foreign exchange volatility including policymakers, importers, exporters, and financial institutions can benefit from this study's findings. This research focused on the most recent economic phenomena of Sri Lanka and used Gross official reserve as a variable that was rarely used in existing literature on Sri Lankan exchange rate.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Internationality , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Economic Development , Sri Lanka
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933318

ABSTRACT

Information and communications technology (ICT) has been widely embraced in many developing economies in recent times. Extant research reveals that ICT increases economic growth. Beyond economic growth, improved access to information, markets and economic opportunities via information and communications technology have the potential to influence other dimensions of public welfare. This study quantitatively examines the effects of ICT on selected health and gender dimensions of Pacific Island developing countries' populations. The results show a statistically significant and positive impact of ICT on health and gender outcomes. Our results are robust with an alternative modeling approach, different control variables, and different measures of health and gender outcomes. We further establish that the health outcome of technology has a valid pass-through of income. The study suggests policy implications for the Pacific and other developing countries striving to enhance the health and gender outcomes of SGDs.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Gender Equity , Biomedical Technology , Communication , Information Technology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269879, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923707

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly harmed numerous social and economic activities worldwide, drawing researchers and governments' attention to the problem and tackling it via persistent healthcare measures. The study's primary purpose is to examine the effects of total coronavirus cases, total fatalities, total recovered cases, unemployment, and trade openness on stock prices and economic growth in the world's top 39 affected nations. An analysis of the coronavirus outbreaks found that wealthier countries had a well-established healthcare infrastructure, but they were disproportionately affected by the virus. Conversely, the less wealthy nations had inadequate healthcare infrastructures, but they were not as affected as the wealthier countries. Is it possible to buy health with money? That was the question at the heart of the study's money-and-health curve. The robust least square regression results indicate that an increase in coronavirus cases influences economic growth and stock market performance due to massive healthcare funding distributed globally, sustaining economic and financial activities for a shorter period. However, a continuous increase in coronavirus fatalities depresses the stock market, resulting in financial depression worldwide. Additionally, a rise in overall coronavirus recovered cases has a negative effect on the country's economic development and stock market performance because of greater uncertainty in economic and financial activities. Case fatality ratios influence economic growth, whereas case recovery ratios decrease economic and financial performance due to greater healthcare concerns across countries. Finally, trade openness is critical in sustaining the country's economic development and stock market performance in the wake of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Investments , Pandemics , Unemployment
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923705

ABSTRACT

As a result of business environment reforms in China's Hangzou, the cost of business has reduced, the confidence of Hangzhou enterprises has survived the COVID-19 outbreak, and foreign investment continues to increase. Nevertheless, Hangzhou's business environment has shortcomings, such as insufficient technology, talent, and intelligent infrastructure. Two unresolved questions persist: (i) Has the smart business environment stimulated corporate investment by reducing system costs and boosting corporate confidence? (ii) How do the commercial climate's shortcomings impact the relationship between the intelligent business environment and business costs/confidence? We examined the impact of a local smart business environment on the corporate investment scale in Hangzhou using factor analysis, cluster analysis, linear regression, and path analyses of data from 297 firm managers. Smart governance improved public administration, financing, and rule of law. The business environment promoted investment by increasing business confidence and decreasing institutional costs. Weak intelligent property protection and legal fairness hindered the positive influence of smart governance on business confidence and system costs. This is the first study combining business environment, smart city, and smart governance concepts to analyze the influence of local smart business environments on business confidence, institutional costs, and investment. Our conclusion on the limitation effect of intelligent business environment on enterprise investment attempts to inspire further research on the intersection of business environments and smart cities. The law of intelligent business environment attracting investment obtained in the context of China, the largest developing country with diversified economic development, is of great significance for other developing countries. Countries can attract investment and promote economic development through intelligent governance. Developing countries should construct smart service platforms, coordinate supervision of public credit, reduce financing constraint, construct a government under the rule of law, improve the quality of land management, and protect intellectual property rights.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , Economic Development , Humans , Investments , Organizations
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884158

ABSTRACT

Eco-efficiency analysis can provide useful information about sustainability in the tourism industry, which has an important role in both global economy recovery and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), generating considerable indirect carbon emissions with respect to the supply chain due to its significant connections to other industries. This study, from the perspective of tourism sectors, including tourism hotels, travel agencies, and scenic spots, integrated the environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIO) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to develop a research framework, analyzing the indirect carbon emissions of the tourism supply chain, evaluating eco-efficiency with respect to both direct carbon emissions and total carbon emissions (including direct and indirect parts), and exploring the driving factors of eco-efficiency of tourism sectors using Tobit regression models. This study took Gansu as a case, a province in China characterized by higher carbon intensity, an underdeveloped economy, and rapid tourism growth. The results demonstrate that (1) tourism hotels contribute the most carbon emissions in tourism sectors, especially indirectly due to the supply chain, with carbon emissions mainly resulting from the manufacturing of food and tobacco; (2) the eco-efficiency of tourism sectors in Gansu presents a U-shaped curve, which is consistent with Kuznets' theory; and (3) energy technology is key to improving the eco-efficiency of tourism sectors. The research results provide a clear path for the reduction of carbon emissions and the improvement of eco-efficiency in Gansu tourism sectors. Against the backdrop of global climate change and the post-COVID-19 era, our research framework and findings provide a reference for similar regions and countries who are in urgent need of rapid tourism development to effect economic recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon , Carbon Dioxide , China , Economic Development , Efficiency , Humans , Industry , Tourism
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 865699, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879481

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought a serious impact on the economies of various countries, monetary policy needs to play a role in stimulating economic recovery when the economy encounters a serious negative impact. Since the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19 has caused great obstacles to the normal economic exchanges between countries, it has become particularly important to build the domestic market and optimize the industrial allocation at this time. This paper focuses on studying the dynamic impact of China's monetary policy implementation on the industrial structure during the pandemic. Based on the data of the eight major economic zones in Mainland China and the dataset containing many of China's macroeconomic variables, a SV-TVP-FAVAR model is established. The manuscript compares the time-varying effects of monetary policy tools on the industries at different stages before and after the epidemic. The study supported some interesting conclusions. (1) Either the quantitative or price-based monetary policy shocks have significant time-varying impacts on the industries in different economic zones. The impacts of monetary policy on the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in each economic zone are uneven. (2) The developed Northern, Eastern, and Southern coastal economic zones in Mainland China are more sensitive to the changes in monetary policy. (3) COVID-19 has brought a tremendous negative shock on the economy, which has destroyed the original steady-state of the economic system and added more uncertainty to the regulatory effect of monetary policy. Compared with other periods in China's economic history that severely negatively impacted (the Southeast Asian financial crisis and the global economic crisis), industries in most economic zones under the COVID-19 epidemic have been affected by monetary policy for a longer lag time. Therefore, for the implementation of monetary policy, at the moment of COVID-19 epidemic, we should pay more attention to the dual-pillar role of macro-prudential regulation, further improve the process of China's interest rate reform, enrich the monetary toolbox, and implement differentiated monetary policies in line with the economic zone's position, to optimize the regional industrial structure, and promote long-term economic growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Economic Development , Humans , Industry , Policy
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875630

ABSTRACT

Under the background of tightening resource constraints and a deteriorating ecological environment, innovation is aimed at saving energy, reducing consumption, abating pollution and achieving sustainable economic growth. This has gradually become an important way to improve industrial structure, competitiveness and environmental performance worldwide. In this study, we use the super-efficiency SBM model to calculate the innovation efficiency of 283 cities in China from 2009 to 2019. Then, based on the dynamic threshold regression model, we explore the impact of innovation efficiency on ecological footprint in innovative cities or non-innovative cities under different economic development levels. The main conclusions that can be drawn are as follows. (1) Within the research period, the influence of innovation efficiency on ecological footprint in China shows a negative double threshold feature, that is, increasing regional innovation efficiency has an inhibitory effect on ecological footprint. (2) For innovative cities, innovation efficiency has a strong inhibitory effect on ecological footprint, and it becomes stronger and stronger with the growth of night light data; but this inhibitory effect is gradually decreasing with improvement of economic development level in non-innovative cities. (3) Under the threshold of different levels of economic development, the number of scientific human resources, scientific financial resources, scientific information resources and scientific papers has a positive effect on ecological footprint, while the number of patent applications has a negative effect on ecological footprint.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Economic Development , China , Cities , Efficiency , Humans
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(29): 43636-43647, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787859

ABSTRACT

Currently, COVID-19 due to emergence of various variants shows no signs of slowing down and has affected every aspect of life with significant negative impact on economic and energy structures around the world. As a result, the governments around the world have introduced policy responses to help businesses and industrial units to overcome the consequences of compliance with COVID-19 strategies. Our analysis indicates that global energy sector is one of the most severely affected industries as energy price mechanisms, energy demand, and energy supply have shown great uncertainty under these unprecedented economic and social changes. In this regard, we provide brief overview of demand, supply, and pricing structure of energy products as well as policy mechanisms to provide better outlook about how industrial sector can cope with energy consumption in the post pandemic era. We further propose changes in the existing policy mechanisms so that transition towards renewable energy sources under different environmental agreements can be achieved. Moreover, as a reference, we outline major challenges and policy recommendations to ease energy transition from fossil fuels to environmental friendly energy mix.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Fossil Fuels , Humans , Policy , Renewable Energy
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 874507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776097

ABSTRACT

The importance of human wellbeing is documented in the literature of development economics because of its intensifying impacts on economic growth and productivity of labor in the long-run. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no empirical study has examined the symmetric association between China's financial institutional development, education, and health outcomes. Thus, our study aims to fill this vacuum by employing an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to explore the impact of financial institutional development and education on life expectancy and infant mortality rate from 1990 to 2020. The empirical analysis reveals that financial institutional development and education report a significant increase in life expectancy and meaningful reduction in mortality rate in the long-run. Based on these findings, the study may deliver intuitive policy implications regarding improvement in health conditions that are imperative for promoting economic growth in the long-run.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Educational Status , Health Status , China , Employment , Humans
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 857691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776085

ABSTRACT

Objective: According to the seventh demographic census, China's elderly population reached 260 million, accounting for 18.7% of the total population, indicating that China is on the verge of transitioning from a relatively mild aging to a moderately aging society, and an aging society inevitably brings concerns about the elderly people's health. The purpose of this study was to better understand the effect of economic development on the physical fitness of the elderly people aged 60-69 in China during the first two decades of the twenty-first century, as well as to establish a correlation between China's gross domestic product (GDP) and changes in the elderly people's passing rate of national physical fitness standards. Methods: A linear regression analysis was performed on the data of GDP and the passing rate of national physical fitness standards of Chinese elderly people aged 60-69 in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2014, and 2020. Results: The passing rate of national physical fitness standards for elderly people aged 60-69 increased linearly (R 2 = 80.56%, p < 0.05), indicating that the physical fitness of the elderly tends to increase steadily with GDP expansion. Conclusions: Between 2000 and 2020, the annual improvement in the physical fitness of the elderly people in China is inextricably linked to rapid economic development. Increased financial investments in public sports services and a corresponding national fitness plan all contribute to an overall improvement in the physical fitness of the elderly people. This outcome is the effect of fiscal and policy coordination, which may represent a distinctive Chinese model and contribution to the global effort to manage and improve population physical fitness.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Physical Fitness , Aged , China , Exercise , Humans , Middle Aged
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 731251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775964

ABSTRACT

This work constructs an evaluation index system and quantitatively explores the coupling coordination relationship between the tourism development system and the medical services system in China. Results show that the degree of coupling coordination between the tourism development system and the medical services system showed a good upward trend in China during the period 2012-2019. However, the relationship was barely balanced, with tourism development lagging. The overall layout shows a spatial pattern of "high in the north and low in the south, high in the east and low in the west." The degree of coupling coordination tends to be randomly distributed from clustered distribution, and the cold-hot spots show a spatial development pattern of "cold in the northwest and hot in the southeast" as time passes. The power of government to regulate has always been an important mechanism affecting the degree of coupling coordination. The study aims to provide reference for the rationalization of medical tourism layout and sustainable development.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , China , Government , Humans , Tourism
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731554, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775863

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the impact of the ageing population on the economic growth for short- and long-run estimations in Malaysia, by using time series data from 1981 to 2019. This study adopts the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method with the Bound test approach for the long-run estimation and the vector error correction model for the short-run estimation. Several econometric diagnostic tests were applied for validation and the appropriate model specification basis. The estimated result of this work indicates that the age dependency ratio proxy for the ageing population variable has a significant negative impact on economic growth in Malaysia. A 1% increase in old age dependency will decline gross domestic product's (GDP's) growth by an average of 6.6043% at the 5% level of significance. Hence, an increase in the ageing population will impede economic growth. Although controlled variables (e.g., physical capital, labour participation, and human capital) have a significant positive impact on economic growth in Malaysia, there is evidence of a long- and short-run relationship between economic growth and the ageing population variable, and also the control variable.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Aging , Carbon Dioxide , Humans , Malaysia
19.
Eval Rev ; 46(3): 266-295, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775061

ABSTRACT

This study attempts to explore the causal linkage of the COVID-19 pandemic, economic policy uncertainty, geopolitical risk, and tourism arrivals in the United States taking data from January to November 2020. In order to analyze the above relationship, this study uses a novel time-varying granger causality test developed by Shi et al. (2018), which incorporates its three causality algorithms such as forward recursive causality, rolling causality, and recursive evolving causality. The findings from forward recursive causality could not confirm any significant causal relationship between COVID-19 and tourism, geopolitical risk (GPR) and tourism, economic policy uncertainty and tourism, and geopolitical risk and COVID-19 but found causality between economic policy uncertainty and COVID-19. The rolling window causality reported bidirectional causality between COVID-19 and tourism and unidirectional causality running from tourism to geopolitical risk. However, the recursive evolving causality identified a significant bidirectional causal relationship between all the variables. Based on the findings, policy implications for the tourism sector are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Uncertainty , United States/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745310

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest importer of agricultural products. Stability of agricultural imports directly affects domestic food availability, and hence influences national food security. This study is important to gauge effects of uncertainty resulting from global and domestic economic policy changes on the stability component of food security in China. Though many studies have explored the determinants and consequences of Chinese agricultural trade, research focusing on stability of agricultural imports is lacking. To fill the gap, this study calculates duration length and survival probability of China's agri-food imports, and estimates effects of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on the stability. Results show that trade duration of the agri-food imports is 12.07 months in China. However, 51.69% of disrupted trade relationships would resume after 2 months and 92.68% of temporarily interrupted trade relationships return to the market after 12 months. Empirical estimations show that global EPU has a larger impact on the stability of agricultural imports than Chinese EPU. Although Chinese EPU has heterogeneous effects on imports of different agri-food products in China, global EPU does not. Stabilized domestic food price and improved domestic agricultural productivity would improve stability of the imports significantly. The study concludes that China's agricultural imports are less dynamic than previous studies claimed. However, EPU significantly erodes the trade stability. To offset negative effects of EPU on the stability, government should pay more attention on stabilizing domestic food price volatility and increasing food productivity, and therefore improve food security in China.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Economic Development , China , Uncertainty
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