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1.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 37, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793937

ABSTRACT

Climate change, urbanisation, chemical pollution and disruption of ecosystems, including biodiversity loss, affect our health and wellbeing. Research is crucial to be able to respond to the current and future challenges that are often complex and interconnected by nature. The HERA Agenda, summarised in this commentary, identifies six thematic research goals in the environment, climate and health fields. These include research to 1) reduce the effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on health and environment, 2) promote healthy lives in cities and communities, 3) eliminate harmful chemical exposures, 4) improve health impact assessment and implementation research, 5) develop infrastructures, technologies and human resources and 6) promote research on transformational change towards sustainability. Numerous specific recommendations for research topics, i.e., specific research goals, are presented under each major research goal. Several methods were used to define the priorities, including web-based surveys targeting researchers and stakeholder groups as well as a series of online and face-to-face workshops, involving hundreds of researchers and other stakeholders. The results call for an unprecedented effort to support a better understanding of the causes, interlinkages and impacts of environmental stressors on health and the environment. This will require breakdown of silos within policies, research, actors as well as in our institutional arrangements in order to enable more holistic approaches and solutions to emerge. The HERA project has developed a unique and exciting opportunity in Europe to consensuate priorities in research and strengthen research that has direct societal impact.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Ecosystem , Cities , Europe , Humans , Urbanization
2.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(4): 56-63, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779559

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has shown us clearly that the world must commit to a transformative approach that promotes health and wellbeing. Living in the Anthropocene - an epoch defined by human impact on our ecosystems - moves us into unknown territory. The challenge is to find a way of living that aims to meet the needs of all people within the means of the living planet. We will require foresight, agility and resilience to be well prepared. The global risks we face are enormous and they are interconnected - yet the opportunity to accelerate change for the better is extraordinary as well. We have models, knowledge and technologies at our disposal that could significantly improve health and wellbeing and create fairer and more sustainable societies - yet they have not been used widely to serve the public purpose and to address inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosystem , Forecasting , Health Promotion , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(2): 396-412, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774900

ABSTRACT

A limited understanding of the transmission dynamics of swine disease is a significant obstacle to prevent and control disease spread. Therefore, understanding between-farm transmission dynamics is crucial to developing disease forecasting systems to predict outbreaks that would allow the swine industry to tailor control strategies. Our objective was to forecast weekly porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) outbreaks by generating maps to identify current and future PEDV high-risk areas, and simulating the impact of control measures. Three epidemiological transmission models were developed and compared: a novel epidemiological modelling framework was developed specifically to model disease spread in swine populations, PigSpread, and two models built on previously developed ecosystems, SimInf (a stochastic disease spread simulations) and PoPS (Pest or Pathogen Spread). The models were calibrated on true weekly PEDV outbreaks from three spatially related swine production companies. Prediction accuracy across models was compared using the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC). Model outputs had a general agreement with observed outbreaks throughout the study period. PoPS had an AUC of 0.80, followed by PigSpread with 0.71, and SimInf had the lowest at 0.59. Our analysis estimates that the combined strategies of herd closure, controlled exposure of gilts to live viruses (feedback) and on-farm biosecurity reinforcement reduced the number of outbreaks. On average, 76% to 89% reduction was seen in sow farms, while in gilt development units (GDU) was between 33% to 61% when deployed to sow and GDU farms located in probabilistic high-risk areas. Our multi-model forecasting approach can be used to prioritize surveillance and intervention strategies for PEDV and other diseases potentially leading to more resilient and healthier pig production systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Ecosystem , Farms , Female , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054310, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774959

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Population ageing, the rise of chronic diseases and the emergence of new viruses are some of the factors that contribute to an increasing share of gross domestic product dedicated to health spending. COVID-19 has shown that nursing staff represents the critical part of hospitalisation. Technological developments in robotics and artificial intelligence can significantly reduce costs and lead to improvements in many hospital processes. The proposed study aims to assess expectations, attitudes and ethical acceptability regarding the integration of socially assistive humanoid robots into hospitalised care workflow from patients' and healthcare professionals' perspectives and to compare them with the results of similar studies. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is designed as a cross-sectional survey, which will include three previously validated questionnaires, the Technology-Specific Expectation Scale (TSES), the Ethical Acceptability Scale (EAS) and the Negative Attitudes towards Robots Scale (NARS). The employees of a regional clinical centre will be asked to participate via an electronic survey and respond to TSES and EAS questionaries. Patients will respond to TSES and NARS questionaries. The survey will be conducted online. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the study was obtained by the Medical Ethics Commission of the University Medical Center Maribor. Results will be published in a relevant scientific journal and communicated to participants and relevant institutions through dissemination activities and the ecosystem of the Horizon 2020 funded project HosmartAI (grant no. 101016834). ETHICAL APPROVAL DATE: 06 May 2021. ESTIMATED START OF THE STUDY: December 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Robotics , Artificial Intelligence , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Ecosystem , Humans , Motivation , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771200

ABSTRACT

With the continuous expansion of urban construction land, the green belts aiming for ecological protection have ensured a sustainable and effective function of regional ecosystem services. At the same time, these ecological green belts are expected to develop their compound service potentials with the development of cities. In order to meet the increasing demand of urban residents for the recreational utilization of urban green space, the primary function of the ecological green belts has transformed from being purely ecological to a combination of being ecological and recreational. Based on social media data, which has the characteristics of a large amount of accessible geographic information, this study used multiple regression models to analyze the recreational utilization intensity of ecological protection green belts with a case study in the green belt of Shanghai, China. The research results showed that the internal elements (total external area, water area, etc.) of the Shanghai green belt have positive correlations with its recreational utilization. The impact of external factors was inconclusive on the recreational utilization of the outer forest belt (the number of subway stations in accessibility factors was negatively correlated; the number of cultural facilities and the number of restaurants in the surrounding service facilities were positively related). Combined with the "Shanghai City Master Plan (2017-2035)", this study suggests potential zones for the recreational transformation of the Shanghai green belt, provides a theoretical and practical basis for improving the recreational utilization of an urban ecological protection green belt and contributes to the sustainable development of ecological protection green belts in high-density cities.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Urban Renewal , China , Cities , Humans , Parks, Recreational
6.
Cancer J ; 28(2): 134-137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764713

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The care of patients with cancer occurs in a fast-moving, high-pressure, and high-stakes ecosystem. Early in 2020, that complex ecosystem was further complicated by the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. We address actions taken by care providers and systems during the initial phases of the pandemic, and how those actions preserved lifesaving and life-sustaining cancer care despite severely constrained resources. We outline cancer care principles and guidelines that were developed, shared, and adopted by cancer care organizations across the country. Care delivery concerns that arose during the pandemic, including equipment and personnel shortages, moral distress for care providers, and exacerbation of health care inequities are addressed. Process and operations changes taken by payers to serve their clients are described. Lessons learned are highlighted, along with a call to action that we learn from the experience, broaden our cancer care delivery mission, and commit to structural changes that will permanently improve the capacity of cancer care teams.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics
7.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758999

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Health systems function in an ecosystem that is turbulent and competitive because of demographic, economic, political, technological and lifestyle changes and sociopolitical influences, requiring hospitals to adopt comprehensive business strategies. Failure to do so may result in duplication, waste and deficits. This original article uses the prism of agency theory to examine differences in approach at two levels of hospital management and the consequent problems in the incorporation of necessary changes. Agency theory posits an inherent conflict of interest in organizations, including health organizations: the managers (agents) always aim to maximize their profit or personal interest instead of that of the owner or organization (principal), potentially causing difficulty in managing the organization. The aim is to generate recommendations for policymakers. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study is based on 30 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key figures in the health system and on two levels of hospital management: senior managers and heads of selected departments. The analysis used a categorical qualitative methodology. FINDINGS: The main findings are five key themes: views of business behavior, asymmetry of interests, asymmetry of information, transparency and cooperation between various levels of management and ambivalence toward business in hospitals. The two levels of management are clearly divided in terms of interests, information and activity, leading to difficulty in cooperation, efficiency and achievement of organizational goals. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Using agency theory, this study provides a systemic and organizational view of hospitals' management and environmental adaptation. Understanding the processes and increasing cooperation at various managerial levels can help make the system more efficient and ensure its survival in a dynamic market.


Subject(s)
Conflict of Interest , Hospital Administration , Ecosystem , Hospitals , Organizational Objectives
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5088, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758379

ABSTRACT

Human pressures are pervasive in coastal ecosystems, but their effect magnitudes are masked by methodological limitations. Government lockdowns associated with the global COVID-19 pandemic can address this gap since lockdowns are effectively manipulations of human presence in ecosystems at scales unachievable otherwise. We illustrate this using a study on shorebirds in an urban South African sandy beach ecosystem. Data collected prior to (2019) and during the COVID-19 (2020) pandemic indicated an inverse relationship between shorebird and human numbers, but this was stronger in 2020. In 2020, human exclusion resulted in a six-fold increase in shorebird abundance relative to 2019. Following easing of lockdowns, shorebird abundance declined by 79.6% with a 34.1% increase in human density. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of shorebirds to recreational disturbance, the potential for current methodological approaches to underestimate repercussions of disturbance and the capacity for COVID-19 lockdowns to refine understanding of human-induced stress in ecosystems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosystem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , South Africa/epidemiology
9.
Technol Health Care ; 30(2): 509-512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: EpidemiXs is an innovative ecosystem of digital tools centralizing official and validated information on COVID-19 for healthcare workers and the general public in a single hub. OBJECTIVE: The vision of EpidemiXs is to foster collaboration between researchers, institutions and individuals to promote "open data" in order to enrich the scientific community and further accelerate science in the fight against COVID-19. METHODS: Through its set of solutions, EpidemiXs Info, EpidemiXs TV and EpidemiXs Studies, this innovative ecosystem contributes to advancing collaborations, data collection and analysis, and helps find funders. RESULTS: EpidemiXs was launched in March 2020 in Spain with 30 healthcare institutions and rapidly reached close to 1 million users and 2 million views. EpidemiXs gained international recognition when it was awarded the Barcelona Health Hub Awards (BHHAwards) 2020 of the category "Best Startup Initiative to help tackle COVID-19". CONCLUSION: EpidemiXs has proven the efficiency of the rapid deployment of digital tools in times of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Digital Technology , Ecosystem , Humans
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255411, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745358

ABSTRACT

Human modification of water and nutrient flows has resulted in widespread degradation of aquatic ecosystems. The resulting global water crisis causes millions of deaths and trillions of USD in economic damages annually. Semiarid regions have been disproportionately affected because of high relative water demand and pollution. Many proven water management strategies are not fully implemented, partially because of a lack of public engagement with freshwater ecosystems. In this context, we organized a large citizen science initiative to quantify nutrient status and cultivate connection in the semiarid watershed of Utah Lake (USA). Working with community members, we collected samples from ~200 locations throughout the 7,640 km2 watershed on a single day in the spring, summer, and fall of 2018. We calculated ecohydrological metrics for nutrients, major ions, and carbon. For most solutes, concentration and leverage (influence on flux) were highest in lowland reaches draining directly to the lake, coincident with urban and agricultural sources. Solute sources were relatively persistent through time for most parameters despite substantial hydrological variation. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus species showed critical source area behavior, with 10-17% of the sites accounting for most of the flux. Unlike temperate watersheds, where spatial variability often decreases with watershed size, longitudinal variability showed an hourglass shape: high variability among headwaters, low variability in mid-order reaches, and high variability in tailwaters. This unexpected pattern was attributable to the distribution of human activity and hydrological complexity associated with return flows, losing river reaches, and diversions in the tailwaters. We conclude that participatory science has great potential to reveal ecohydrological patterns and rehabilitate individual and community relationships with local ecosystems. In this way, such projects represent an opportunity to both understand and improve water quality in diverse socioecological contexts.


Subject(s)
Citizen Science , Ecosystem , Rivers , Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Water Quality
11.
BMC Med Genomics ; 15(1): 62, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745453

ABSTRACT

The origin of SARS-CoV-2 is uncertain. Findings support a "bat origin" but results are not highly convincing. Studies found evidence that SARS-CoV-2 was around for many years before the pandemic outbreak. Evidence has been published that the progenitor of SARS-CoV-2 already had the capability to bind strongly to the human ACE2 receptor. This may be an indication that many other animal viruses are capable to jump to humans, having already affinity for a human receptor. This is quite worrying since current ecosystems' collapse brings people to high proximity with animals, increasing probabilities for random viral transitions. On the other hand, future adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 is of great concern. Virus-host interactions are complicated and unfortunately, we still do not have accurate tools for predicting viruses' future evolution. Viral adaptation is a multifactorial process and probably SARS-CoV-2 will not become soon, as we wish, a harmless infection. However, humanity is currently under the largest vaccination program and it's of great interest to see if vaccinations will change the evolutionary game against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(1): 37-44, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744765

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial disruptions to surgical-care delivery mainly due to diversion of available resources from surgical to COVID-19 care, reduced flow of patients, supply-chain interruptions and social distancing and restriction measures. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of the pandemic on surgical volume in our hospital. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. A 2- year data was collected from March 2019 up to March 2021 from the operation theatre registration books. The data registry at the admission records office was also reviewed to extract the number pf patients on the elective surgery waiting list. Data were recorded, analyzed and reported using SPSS software package 26. Results: The findings showed that there was a significant drop in surgical volume during the COVID-19 era. Surgical volume has dropped by 19% for emergency and by 32% for elective surgeries. COVID-19 test positivity of patients was identified as the single most important reason for elective operation cancellation during the first wave of the pandemic, contributing to as high as 85% of the reasons. Conclusion: The outcome of our study showed that COVID-19 has adversely affected elective and emergency surgical volume in our institution. This has also led to a dramatic increase in the surgical waiting list load. We recommend immediate surgical systems strengthening measures to re-build the surgical care ecosystem significantly affected by COVID-19. Surgical and anesthesia systems strengthening should be an integral part of pandemic preparedness and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecosystem , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 830893, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742278

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic exemplifies a One Health issue at the intersection of human, animal, and environmental health that requires collaboration across sectors to manage it successfully. The global One Health community includes professionals working in many different fields including human medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, ecosystem health, and, increasingly, social sciences. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to describe the involvement of the global One Health community in COVID-19 pandemic response activities. One Health networks (OHNs) have formed globally to serve professionals with common interests in collaborative approaches. We assessed the potential association between being part of an OHN and involvement in COVID-19 response activities. Data were collected in July-August 2020 using an online questionnaire that addressed work characteristics, perceived connection to OHNs, involvement in COVID-19 pandemic response activities, and barriers and facilitators to the involvement. The sample included 1,050 respondents from 94 countries across a range of organizations and work sectors including, but not restricted to, those typically associated with a One Health approach. Sixty-four percent of survey respondents indicated involvement in pandemic response activities. Being part of an OHN was positively associated with being involved in the COVID-19 response (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.4). Lack of opportunities was a commonly reported barrier to involvement globally, with lack of funding the largest barrier in the WHO African region. This insight into diverse workforce involvement in the pandemic helps fill a gap in the global health workforce and public health education literature. An expanded understanding of the perceived roles and value of OHNs can inform targeted interventions to improve public health education and workforce capacity to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , One Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics
14.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 456-459, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 'infodemic' continues to undermine trust in vaccination efforts aiming to bring an end to the pandemic. However, the challenge of vaccine hesitancy is not only a problem of the information ecosystem and it often has little to do with the vaccines themselves. In this Perspective, we argue that the epidemiological and social crises brought about by COVID-19 have magnified widely held social anxieties and trust issues that, in the unique circumstances of this global pandemic, have exacerbated skepticism toward vaccines. We argue that trust is key to overcoming vaccine hesitancy, especially in a context of widespread social uncertainty brought about by the pandemic, where public sentiment can be volatile. Finally, we draw out some implications of our argument for strategies to build vaccine confidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ecosystem , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty , Vaccination
16.
Water Res ; 215: 118241, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713026

ABSTRACT

Information regarding water clarity at large spatiotemporal scales is critical for understanding comprehensive changes in the water quality and status of ecosystems. Previous studies have suggested that satellite observation is an effective means of obtaining such information. However, a reliable model for accurately mapping the water clarity of global lakes (reservoirs) is still lacking due to the high optical complexity of lake waters. In this study, by using gated recurrent units (GRU) layers instead of full-connected layers from Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to capture the efficient sequence information of in-situ datasets, we propose a novel and transferrable hybrid deep-learning-based recurrent model (DGRN) to map the water clarity of global lakes with Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images. We trained and further validated the model using 1260 pairs of in-situ measured water clarity and surface reflectance of Landsat 8 OLI images with Google Earth Engine. The model was subsequently utilized to construct the global pattern of temporal and spatial changes in water clarity (lake area>10 km2) from 2014 to 2020. The results show that the model can estimate water clarity with good performance (R2 = 0.84, MAE = 0.55, RMSE = 0.83, MAPE = 45.13%). The multi-year average of water clarity for global lakes (16,475 lakes) ranged from 0.0004 to 9.51 m, with an average value of 1.88 ± 1.24 m. Compared to the lake area, elevation, discharge, residence time, and the ratio of area to depth, water depth was the most important factor that determined the global spatial distribution pattern of water clarity. Water clarity of 15,840 global lakes between 2014 and 2020 remained stable (P ≥ 0.05); while there was a significant increase in 243 lakes (P < 0.05) and a decrease in 392 lakes (P < 0.05). However, water clarity in 2020 (COVID-19 period) showed a significant increase in most global lakes, especially in China and Canada, suggesting that the worldwide lockdown strategy due to COVID-19 might have improved water quality, espically water clarity, dueto the apparent reduction of anthropogenic activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Communicable Disease Control , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Lakes , Water Quality
17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 229: 112415, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712830

ABSTRACT

Noscapine (NSC) is a benzyl-isoquinoline alkaloid discovered in 1930 as an antitussive agent. Recently, NSC has also been reported to exhibit antitumor activity and, according to computational studies, it is able to attack the protease enzyme of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and thus could be used as antiviral for COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, an increasing use of this drug could be envisaged in the coming years. NSC is readily metabolized with a half-life of 4.5 h giving rise to cotarnine, hydrocotarnine, and meconine, arising from the oxidative breaking of the CC bond between isoquinoline and phthalide moieties. Because of its potentially increasing use, high concentrations of NSC but also its metabolites will be delivered in the environment and potentially affect natural ecosystems. Thus, the aim of this work is to investigate the degradation of NSC in the presence of naturally occurring photocatalysts. As a matter of fact, the present contribution has demonstrated that NSC can be efficiently degraded in the presence of a derivative of the natural organic dye Riboflavin (RFTA) upon exposure to visible light. Indeed, a detailed study of the mechanism involved in the photodegradation revealed the similarities between the biomimetic and the photocatalyzed processes. In fact, the main photoproducts of NSC were identified as cotarnine and opianic acid based on a careful UPLC-MS2 analysis compared to the independently synthesized standards. The former is coincident with one of the main metabolites obtained in humans, whereas the latter is related to meconine, a second major metabolite of NSC. Photophysical experiments demonstrated that the observed oxidative cleavage is mediated mainly by singlet oxygen in a medium in which the lifetime of 1O2 is long enough, or by electron transfer to the triplet excited state of RFTA if the photodegradation occurs in aqueous media, where the 1O2 lifetime is very short.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Noscapine , Biomimetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Coloring Agents , Ecosystem , Humans , Light , Pandemics , Photolysis , Riboflavin/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water/chemistry
18.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 41(3): 687-714, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706213

ABSTRACT

River ecosystems are very important parts of the water cycle and an excellent habitat, food, and drinking water source for many organisms, including humans. Antibiotics are emerging contaminants which can enter rivers from various sources. Several antibiotics and their related antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been detected in these ecosystems by various research programs and could constitute a substantial problem. The presence of antibiotics and other resistance cofactors can boost the development of ARGs in the chromosomes or mobile genetic elements of natural bacteria in rivers. The ARGs in environmental bacteria can also be transferred to clinically important pathogens. However, antibiotics and their resistance genes are both not currently monitored by national or international authorities responsible for controlling the quality of water bodies. For example, they are not included in the contaminant list in the European Water Framework Directive or in the US list of Water-Quality Benchmarks for Contaminants. Although ARGs are naturally present in the environment, very few studies have focused on non-impacted rivers to assess the background ARG levels in rivers, which could provide some useful indications for future environmental regulation and legislation. The present study reviews the antibiotics and associated ARGs most commonly measured and detected in rivers, including the primary analysis tools used for their assessment. In addition, other factors that could enhance antibiotic resistance, such as the effects of chemical mixtures, the effects of climate change, and the potential effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, are discussed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;41:687-714. © 2022 SETAC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rivers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , China , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Ecosystem , Genes, Bacterial , Humans , Rivers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e33819, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700130

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the uptake of digital health worldwide and highlighted many benefits of these innovations. However, it also stressed the magnitude of inequalities regarding accessing digital health. Using a scoping review, this article explores the potential benefits of digital technologies for the global population, with particular reference to people living with disabilities, using the autism community as a case study. We ultimately explore policies in Sweden, Australia, Canada, Estonia, the United Kingdom, and the United States to learn how policies can lay an inclusive foundation for digital health systems. We conclude that digital health ecosystems should be designed with health equity at the forefront to avoid deepening existing health inequalities. We call for a more sophisticated understanding of digital health literacy to better assess the readiness to adopt digital health innovations. Finally, people living with disabilities should be positioned at the center of digital health policy and innovations to ensure they are not left behind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Ecosystem , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(11): 16758-16761, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694360

ABSTRACT

This study gives a depiction of what are the general directions taken by international institutions so to tackle the current health emergency and the most pressing environmental issues, such as climate change and COVID-19 (Schaltegger, 2020; Adebayo et al., 2021).The role of companies is crucial under disruptive events, such as a crisis or, more in line with the present time, a pandemic, and the pursue of the shareholder value cannot be the essence and the only objective in doing business anymore, since also ESG (i.e., environmental, social, and governance) dynamics have to be taken in due consideration. Moreover, an adequate and effective corporate governance should lead to higher disclosure quality, which subsequently should help protect the entire planet and ecosystems as well. In this context, the principal role of accounting and corporate reporting activities should be oriented towards making emerge what is and what is not done by companies in their business operations, and the disclosure of financial information is currently deemed inappropriate for pursuing a sustainable growth in the medium and long run (Schaltegger, J Account Org Change 16:613-619, 2020; Kirikkaleli & Adebayo, Sustain Dev 29:583-594, 2020; Tettamanzi, Venturini & Murgolo Wider corporate reporting: La possibile evoluzione della Relazione sulla Gestione Bilancio e Revisione, IPSOA - Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, 2021). Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate what international and European institutions have planned to do in order to align corporate objectives with environmental and societal needs in the coming years (Biondi et al., Meditari Account Res 28:889-914, 2020; Songini L et al. Integrated reporting quality and BoD characteristics: an empirical analysis. J Manag Govern, 2021).As of today, our analysis finds that IFRS Foundation (at global level) and EFRAG (at European one) have been taking steps toward the aforementioned issues so to propose disclosure standards more in line with sustainability and environmental needed improvements. In fact, we tried to give a depiction of what are the actual and future strategies that both these institutions are going to put in place: this snapshot will give scientists, engineers, lawyers, and business people an overview of what should be like the corporate world of the near future, from a corporate reporting/accounting perspective (so to better understand what will be expected from companies of all the industries worldwide).


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Industry , Sustainable Growth
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