PURPOSE: We aimed to better understand the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in non-critically ill hospitalized patients secondarily presenting with clinical deterioration and increase in oxygen requirement without any identified worsening factors. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled patients without clinical or biological evidence for superinfection, without left ventricular dysfunction and for whom a pulmonary embolism was discarded by computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography. We investigated lung ventilation and perfusion (LVP) by LVP scintigraphy, and, 24 h later, left and right ventricular function by Tc-99m-labeled albumin-gated blood-pool scintigraphy with late (60 mn) tomographic albumin images on the lungs to evaluate lung albumin retention that could indicate microvascular injuries with secondary edema. RESULTS: We included 20 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All had CT evidence of organizing pneumonia and normal left ventricular ejection fraction. No patient demonstrated preserved ventilation with perfusion defect (mismatch), which may discard a distal lung thrombosis. Patterns of ventilation and perfusion were heterogeneous in seven patients (35%) with healthy lung segments presenting a relative paradoxical hypoperfusion and hypoventilation compared with segments with organizing pneumonia presenting a relative enhancement in perfusion and preserved ventilation. Lung albumin retention in area of organizing pneumonia was observed in 12 patients (60%), indicating microvascular injuries, increase in vessel permeability, and secondary edema. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized non-critically ill patients without evidence of superinfection, pulmonary embolism, or cardiac dysfunction, various types of damage may contribute to clinical deterioration including microvascular injuries and secondary edema, inconsistencies in lung segments vascularization suggesting a dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others. SUMMARY STATEMENT: Microvascular injuries and dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others are present in non-critically ill patients without other known aggravating factors. KEY RESULTS: In non-critically ill patients without evidence of superinfection, pulmonary embolism, macroscopic distal thrombosis or cardiac dysfunction, various types of damage may contribute to clinical deterioration including 1/ microvascular injuries and secondary edema, 2/ inconsistencies in lung segments vascularization with hypervascularization of consolidated segments contrasting with hypoperfusion of not affected segments, suggesting a dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Heart Diseases , Pulmonary Embolism , Superinfection , Albumins , Critical Illness , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Edema/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neovascularization, Pathologic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
BACKGROUND: Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma exhibit various clinical presentations. Needle biopsy of the lymph nodes is a minimally invasive procedure and a useful diagnostic method for malignant lymphomas. However, at times it is difficult to differentiate malignant lymphomas from reactive lymph node changes using a small amount of biopsy material. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old Japanese man was referred to the emergency department of our hospital owing to high fever and disturbance of consciousness. We diagnosed sepsis due to an acute biliary tract infection because he presented with Charcot's triad-fever, jaundice, and right-sided abdominal pain. However, he did not respond well to antimicrobial therapy and his high fever persisted. Considering the swelling of the right cervical, mediastinal, and intraperitoneal lymph nodes and splenomegaly detected on computed tomography, a differential diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was needed. Hence, we performed a needle biopsy of the right cervical lymph node; however, the amount of sample obtained was insufficient in establishing a definitive diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Furthermore, during hospitalization, the patient developed thrombocytopenia, anasarca, and renal insufficiency. These symptoms seemed to be the typical signs of the thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis or renal insufficiency, and organomegaly syndrome. Next, an external incisional mass biopsy of the right cervical lymph node was performed, which helped identify Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Collectively, we established a definitive diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of performing an external incisional mass biopsy of the lymph nodes for the early diagnosis and treatment, if malignant lymphoma is strongly suspected.
Subject(s)Hodgkin Disease , Renal Insufficiency , Thrombocytopenia , Male , Humans , Aged , Hodgkin Disease/complications , Hodgkin Disease/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Biopsy , Edema/etiology , Fever
Subject(s)Castleman Disease , Leukopenia , Thrombocytopenia , Edema/etiology , Humans , Inflammation , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
BACKGROUND: This article describes 2 cases of post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transient spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (PCT-SONK) observed in patients who had previously recovered from COVID-19 without corticosteroid administration. OBJECTIVES: The possible pathomechanisms by which a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection may contribute as a causative factor for osteonecrosis are reviewed, and the differential diagnosis and treatment are discussed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two patients (males, 45- and 47-year-old) presented with sudden onset knee pain with no trauma history. The pain persisted during rest and at night. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), no subchondral bone thickening was observed; bone edema was diffusely distributed in the whole femoral condyle, in contrast to the more focal edema that is typically concentrated mainly around the subchondral region in classic SONK. Both patients were treated nonoperatively with no weight bearing and pharmacological agents, and complete resolution of symptoms was achieved. RESULTS: A follow-up MRI 10 weeks after presentation revealed a near-complete loss of signal in the medial femoral condyle in both patients. CONCLUSION: Orthopedic surgeons should be cautious when sudden knee pain without concurrent trauma or a history of injury occurs shortly after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, even with mild COVID-19 illness. While some studies report the development of post-COVID-19 osteonecrosis after lower doses of corticosteroids and sooner after their administration than in comparable non-COVID-19 cases, our study is the first to report 2 cases with no corticosteroid administration at all. Therefore, the authors believe it adds to the body of knowledge on the potential connections between COVID-19 and PCT-SONK. The transient nature of symptoms and radiological findings suggest that aggressive surgical treatment of non-injury local bone edema occurring shortly after SARS-CoV-2 infection should be avoided.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Osteonecrosis , COVID-19/complications , Edema/etiology , Humans , Knee Joint/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Osteonecrosis/diagnostic imaging , Osteonecrosis/etiology , Osteonecrosis/therapy , Pain , SARS-CoV-2
Subject(s)Edema , Erythema , Child , Edema/diagnosis , Edema/etiology , Erythema/diagnosis , Erythema/drug therapy , Erythema/etiology , Humans , Syndrome
Subject(s)COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Edema/diagnosis , Edema/etiology , Humans
While ipsilateral lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination is a relatively common finding on mammography and breast ultrasound transient ipsilateral breast edema is rare with only a few published case reports. Radiologists should be aware of this potential imaging appearance of the breast and axilla following COVID-19 vaccination given the imaging features of edema such as trabecular thickening, skin thickening, and increased echogenicity can overlap with benign and malignant breast conditions such as mastitis and inflammatory breast cancer. We describe a case of transient ipsilateral breast edema after COVID-19 vaccination followed by a discussion summarizing the current understanding and management of transient ipsilateral breast edema following COVID-19 vaccination.
Subject(s)Breast Diseases , Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Breast Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Breast Diseases/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Edema/etiology , Female , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Edema/etiology , Eyelids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
Ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy is a well-documented finding associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Varying guidelines have been published for the management of asymptomatic patients who have a history of recent vaccination and present with incidental lymphadenopathy at screening mammography. Some experts recommend follow-up imaging, and others suggest that clinical management, rather than repeat imaging or biopsy, is appropriate. Symptomatic patients with lymphadenopathy and/or additional abnormal imaging findings should be treated differently depending on risk factors and clinical scenarios. Although ipsilateral lymphadenopathy is well documented, ipsilateral breast edema after COVID-19 vaccination has been rarely reported. The combination of ipsilateral lymphadenopathy and diffuse breast edema after COVID-19 vaccination presents a clinical management challenge because edema can obscure underlying abnormalities at imaging. For symptomatic patients with lymphadenopathy and associated breast parenchymal abnormality, prompt action is appropriate, including diagnostic evaluation and consideration of tissue sampling. This approach may prevent delays in diagnosis and treatment of patients with malignancy masked by symptoms from the vaccination.
Subject(s)Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Early Detection of Cancer , Edema/etiology , Female , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Mammography/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
BACKGROUND: There have been cases of minimal change disease (MCD) reported following previous vaccines. During the COVID-19 era, only 3 cases of new-onset MCD and a case of MCD relapse were reported following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. We herein report the first case of MCD after receiving the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man presented to hospital 3 weeks after receiving the first dose of the Moderna vaccine, with both bilateral lower extremities and scrotal edema. He initially developed a sudden-onset bilateral lower extremities swelling on day 7 post-vaccine. He, then, developed dyspnea and scrotal swelling over a time span of 2 weeks. On physical examination, his blood pressure was 150/92 mmHg. There was a decreased air entry at lung bases, bilateral lower extremities and scrotal edema. Labs revealed hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and 15 g of proteinuria. His immunologic and serologic work up was negative. Renal biopsy showed concomitant MCD and IgA nephropathy. Patient was treated with oral steroids and had a good response; his edema resolved, serum albumin improved, and proteinuria decreased to 1 g within 2 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, MCD has not been previously reported after receiving the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. It remains unclear whether the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are associated with the development of MCD, or it coincided with the mass vaccination. Further studies are needed to determine the incidence of MCD post COVID-19 vaccines and the underlying pathophysiology of glomerular injury post vaccination.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Edema/etiology , Lower Extremity , Nephrosis, Lipoid/chemically induced , Scrotum , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adult , Dyspnea/etiology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/chemically induced , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/complications , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/pathology , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/etiology , Male , Nephrosis, Lipoid/complications , Nephrosis, Lipoid/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
BACKGROUND: This is a case report of an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with new-onset nephrotic syndrome in a pediatric patient. This is the third case of new-onset nephrotic syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but is the first case report describing a new-onset nephrotic syndrome presentation in a patient who had asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of a previously healthy 5 year old female who presented with new-onset nephrotic syndrome in the setting of an asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. She presented with progressive edema, and laboratory findings were significant for proteinuria and hypercholesterolemia. She was treated with albumin, diuretics, and corticosteroid therapy, and achieved clinical remission of her nephrotic syndrome within 3 weeks of treatment. Though she was at risk of hypercoagulability due to her COVID-19 infection and nephrotic syndrome, she was not treated with anticoagulation, and did not develop any thrombotic events. CONCLUSIONS: Our case report indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection could be a trigger for nephrotic syndrome, even in the absence of overt COVID-19 symptoms.
Subject(s)Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Nephrotic Syndrome , Patient Care Management/methods , Remission Induction/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Preschool , Edema/diagnosis , Edema/etiology , Female , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/diagnosis , Hypercholesterolemia/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/therapy , Nephrotic Syndrome/urine , Proteinuria/diagnosis , Proteinuria/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
Subject(s)Hemochromatosis/diagnosis , Iron/blood , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Edema/etiology , Fatal Outcome , Fatigue/etiology , Hemochromatosis/complications , Hemochromatosis/drug therapy , Hemochromatosis/genetics , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Leg , Male , Middle Aged , Transferrin/metabolism
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema (RS3PE) is a rare inflammatory condition that occurs in older adults. Here, we report a case of an 80-year-old man with no history of rheumatic disease who presented with acute onset of bilateral hand pain, pitting oedema and synovitis after the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA C0VID-19 vaccine. Laboratory workup revealed elevated inflammatory markers and negative autoantibodies. Significant improvement was noted with prednisolone. This is the first reported case of RS3PE in an elderly patient with no previous rheumatic disease following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Synovitis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Edema/etiology , Humans , Male , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Synovitis/drug therapy , Vaccination
We defined the prevalence of neck pain, trismus, or dysphagia (28.4%) and retropharyngeal edema (2.9%) among 137 patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c). Retropharyngeal edema or phlegmon has been documented radiologically in at least 9 children. Symptoms of neck inflammation are common in MIS-c.
Subject(s)Neck Pain , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Child , Edema/epidemiology , Edema/etiology , Humans , Neck Pain/epidemiology , Neck Pain/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have surfaced from the United States Food and Drug Administration hearings in December 2020 regarding the COVID-19 vaccines and study participants who developed facial and/or lip swelling after receiving the newly developed drug. Despite an incidence rate of 0.02% in the vaccine arm of the Moderna mRNA-1273 trial, concerns have been expressed about the association of adverse reactions following soft tissue filler injections and the COVID-19 vaccines. The International Society for Dermatologic and Aesthetic Surgery (ISDS) understands these concerns and has designed the following study. METHODS: A global survey was designed to capture the incidence of adverse events related to: (1) previous soft tissue filler injections, (2) soft tissue filler injections during positive testing for COVID-19, and (3) soft tissue filler injections during and after receiving any of the COVID-19 vaccines globally available. RESULTS: The information of 106 survey participants from 18 different countries was analyzed. 80.2% (n=85) never experienced any adverse reaction following their soft tissue filler injection whereas 15.1% (n=16) experienced swelling and 4.7% (n=5) experienced pain that lasted longer than two days. Of those who received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (n=78), 94.9% reported not to have experienced any adverse reaction related to their previous soft tissue filler injection, whereas 5.1% (n=4) reported to have perceived pain that lasted longer than two days. CONCLUSION: The data collected does not support the concern for an increased risk of developing adverse reactions following soft tissue filler injections associated with the COVID-19 vaccines compared to that risk associated with other previously described triggers or the default risk following soft tissue filler injections. J Drugs Dermatol. 20(4):374-378. doi:10.36849/JDD.2021.6041.
Subject(s)Biocompatible Materials/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dermatology/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Edema/epidemiology , Edema/etiology , Face , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lip/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Surgery, Plastic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
We report on the development of minimal change disease (MCD) with nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury (AKI), shortly after first injection of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). A 50-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to our hospital following the appearance of peripheral edema. Ten days earlier, he had received the first injection of the vaccine. Four days after injection, he developed lower leg edema, which rapidly progressed to anasarca. On admission, serum creatinine was 2.31 mg/dL and 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 6.9 grams. As kidney function continued to decline over the next days, empirical treatment was initiated with prednisone 80 mg/d. A kidney biopsy was performed and the findings were consistent with MCD. Ten days later, kidney function began to improve, gradually returning to normal. The clinical triad of MCD, nephrotic syndrome, and AKI has been previously described under a variety of circumstances, but not following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The association between the vaccination and MCD is at this time temporal and by exclusion, and by no means firmly established. We await further reports of similar cases to evaluate the true incidence of this possible vaccine side effect.
Subject(s)Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , BNT162 Vaccine , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Edema/diagnosis , Edema/etiology , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrosis, Lipoid/diagnosis , Nephrosis, Lipoid/drug therapy , Nephrosis, Lipoid/etiology , Nephrosis, Lipoid/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Renal Elimination/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Urinalysis/methods
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is thought to follow SARS-CoV-2 infection and presents with fever and multisystem dysfunction. We report three children with suspected MIS-C found to have retropharyngeal edema without evidence of a bacterial etiology. We raise the possibility that an association between MIS-C and retropharyngeal edema exists.