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1.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 32: e3208, 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1833842

ABSTRACT

Abstract The National Policies of Humanization and Permanent Health Education (PHE) have shown advances and setbacks in their historical process. Some concepts from the theoretical framework of institutional analysis can contribute in these themes, such as the concept of analyzer. This article discusses the analyzers identified in an intervention research with professionals who work as supporters of humanization and/or articulators of PHE in municipalities of the state of São Paulo. The theoretical-methodological framework is the institutional analysis, socio-clinical line, focusing on the work of the analyzers. The intervention groups were composed of 30 participants. We highlight three analyzers: (1) the COVID-19 historical analyzer; (2) the time analyzer; (3) the silence analyzer. These analyzers evidence tensions such as: the peripheral place of primary care, discomfort in the face of "not knowing" and/or lethargy in the face of imposed non-doing, and the paradox of creating and interrupting both care actions and support for the teams.


Resumo As Políticas Nacionais de Humanização e Educação Permanente em Saúde têm mostrado em seu processo histórico avanços e retrocessos. Alguns conceitos do referencial teórico da análise institucional podem contribuir nesses temas, como o conceito de analisador. O objetivo do presente estudo foi discutir os analisadores identificados em uma pesquisa-intervenção, com profissionais que exercem a função de apoiadores de humanização e/ou de articuladores de educação permanente em saúde em municípios paulistas. O quadro teórico-metodológico é a análise institucional, linha sócio-clínica, sendo destacado, o trabalho dos analisadores. Participaram 30 pessoas dos grupos de intervenção. Destacamos três analisadores: (1) o analisador histórico Covid-19; (2) o analisador tempo; (3) o analisador silêncio. Esses analisadores iluminaram tensões como: o lugar periférico da atenção básica, o desconforto frente ao "não saber" e/ou a letargia ante o não-fazer imposto e o paradoxo de criar e interromper tanto ações de cuidado, como de suporte às equipes.


Resumen Las Políticas Nacionales de Humanización y Educación Permanente en Salud han mostrado avances y retrocesos en su proceso histórico. Algunos conceptos del marco teórico del análisis institucional pueden contribuir a estos temas, como el concepto de analizador. El objetivo de este artículo fue discutir los analizadores identificados en una investigación-intervención, con profesionales que actúan como apoyadores de la humanización y/o articuladores de la educación permanente en salud en municipios de São Paulo. El marco teórico-metodológico fue el del análisis institucional, línea socioclínica, destacándose el trabajo de los analizadores. Participaron 30 personas en los grupos de intervención. Se destacan tres analizadores: (1) el analizador histórico Covid-19; (2) el analizador de tiempo; (3) el analizador de silencio. Estos analizadores iluminan tensiones como: el lugar periférico de la atención primaria, el malestar ante el "no saber" y/o el letargo ante el no hacer impuesto y la paradoja de crear e interrumpir tanto las acciones asistenciales como de apoyo a los equipos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Unified Health System , Education, Continuing , Humanization of Assistance , COVID-19 , Health Services Research
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736921

ABSTRACT

Empathy and lifelong learning are two professional competencies that depend on the four principles of professionalism: humanism, altruism, excellence, and accountability. In occupational health, there is evidence that empathy prevents work distress. However, in the case of lifelong learning, the evidence is still scarce. In addition, recent studies suggest that the development of lifelong learning varies in physicians and nurses and that it is sensitive to the influence of cultural stereotypes associated with professional roles. This study was performed with the purpose of determining the specific role that empathy and lifelong learning play in the reduction in occupational stress. This study included a sample composed by 40 physicians and 40 nurses with high dedication to clinical work in ambulatory consultations from a public healthcare institution in Paraguay. Somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation, described as indicators of occupational stress, were used as dependent variables, whereas empathy, lifelong learning, gender, discipline, professional experience, civil status, and family burden were used as potential predictors. Three multiple regression models explained 32% of the variability of somatization based on a linear relationship with empathy, lifelong learning, and civil status; 73% of the variability of exhaustion based on a linear relationship with empathy, somatization, work alienation, and discipline; and 62% of the variability of work alienation based on a linear relationship with lifelong learning, exhaustion, and discipline. These findings indicate that empathy and lifelong learning play important roles in the prevention of work distress in physicians and nurses. However, this role varies by discipline.


Subject(s)
Occupational Stress , Physicians , Education, Continuing , Empathy , Humans , Professionalism
5.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(1): 8-12, 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1498039

ABSTRACT

Hace ya un año inició la circulación del SARS-Cov-2 y el listado de sus consecuencias aún sigue en aumento. La enseñanza y el ejercicio de la odontología, igual que sucedió tras la pandemia por el VIH en los años 80, no serán iguales después de la pandemia por la COVID-19. No obstante, a la hora de los balances, no tengo dudas que la profesión saldrá fortalecida. La Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) clasificó el riesgo al que los odontólogos como profesionales están expuestos en una categoría de muy alto, debido a su exposición potencial al SARS-Cov-2 cuando se realizan procedimientos que generan aerosoles (1). Si este es el caso de profesionales que teóricamente ya cuentan con la formación necesaria para realizar el manejo del riesgo, se podría esperar un riesgo mayor para los estudiantes de odontología, los cuales, además de estar aún en proceso de formación, desarrollan sus actividades académicas en ambientes que no siempre cuentan con las condiciones de infraestructura para poder hacer un adecuado control del riesgo. Pero


Subject(s)
Humans , Training Support , Coronavirus Infections , Schools, Dental , Students, Dental , Aerosols , Education, Continuing
6.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 19(3)set. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1471211

ABSTRACT

A pandemia COVID-19 vem exigindo enorme esforço dos gestores hospitalares, desafiando-os a agir e pensar fluxos de atendimento de maneira rápida, adotando estratégias seguras de cuidar. OBJETIVO: Analisar o processo de planejamento e implantação de um serviço de atenção ao paciente com COVID-19 em um hospital universitário, através da experiência cotidiana de gestão. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um relato sistemático de experiência sobre o processo de implantação de fluxo de atendimento e tratamento em um hospital universitário de pessoas acometidas pela COVID-19. Registrou-se em diário de campo a experiência, sendo as narrativas submetidas à análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: a análise das narrativas permitiu organizar os dados nas seguintes categorias: necessidade de segurança dos profissionais, capacitação, empatia e gestão participativa. CONCLUSÃO: É importante utilizar os processos de trabalho e a Educação Permanente em Saúde como ferramentas para a orientação do cuidado assistencial ao paciente com COVID-19. O raciocínio clínico, o trabalho interdisciplinar e a tomada de decisão de forma participativa permitiu a adequada implantação do atendimento, apesar do temor da equipe frente aos desafios da pandemia.


La pandemia de COVID-19 ha exigido un enorme esfuerzo por parte de los administradores de los hospitales, desafiándolos a actuar y pensar en los flujos de atención rápidamente, adoptando estrategias de atención segura. OBJETIVO: Analizar el proceso de planificación e implementación de un servicio de atención al paciente con COVID-19 en un hospital universitario, a través de la experiencia de gestión diaria. MÉTODO: Este es un reporte sistemático de experiencia sobre el proceso de implementación de un flujo de atención y tratamiento en un hospital universitario para personas afectadas por COVID-19. La experiencia se registró en un diario de campo y las narrativas se sometieron a análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: el análisis de las narrativas permitió organizar los datos en las siguientes categorías: necesidad de seguridad profesional, formación, empatía y gestión participativa. CONCLUSIÓN: Es importante utilizar los procesos de trabajo y la Educación Permanente en Salud como herramientas para orientar la atención brindada a los pacientes con COVID-19. El razonamiento clínico, el trabajo interdisciplinario y la toma de decisiones de manera participativa permitieron la adecuada implementación de la atención, a pesar del temor del equipo ante los desafíos de la pandemia.


The COVID-19 pandemic has demanded enormous effort from hospital managers, challenging them to act and think about care flows in a timely manner while adopting safe care strategies. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the planning and implementation process of a patient care service with COVID-19 in a university hospital, through the experience of daily management. METHOD: This is a systematic experience report on the care implementation and treatment flow process in a university hospital of people affected by COVID-19. The experience was recorded in a field diary, and the narratives were submitted to content analysis. RESULTS: the analysis of the narratives lead to the organization of data in the following categories: need for professional safety, training, empathy and participatory management. CONCLUSION: It is important to use work processes and Continuing Health Education as tools for guiding care to COVID-19 patients. Clinical reasoning, interdisciplinary work and decision-making in a participatory manner allowed the proper care implementation, despite the team's fear of the challenges caused by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Services Administration , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Hospitals, University , Nursing Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Occupational Health , Patient-Centered Care , Practice Management , Qualitative Research , Education, Continuing , Empathy , Health Human Resource Training , Shared Governance, Nursing
7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(6): 1743-1749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388307

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Continuing education is essential for pharmacists to acquire and maintain the knowledge, skills, and ethical attitudes necessary for clinical practice. However, with the emergence of COVID-19, the social circumstances and face-to-face learning environments have changed. The objectives of this study were to determine Japanese pharmacists' perception of a web-based educational programme in oncology, and assess changes in their understanding of pharmaceutical care in oncology before and after their participation in the webinar. METHODS: Questionnaire-based surveys were conducted for the participants of the web-based educational programme to determine their perspectives on the webinar, and their degree of comprehension of the five cancer types covered before and after watching the webinar. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the 1936 pharmacists taking the programme, all participated in the pre-webinar survey, and 1861 (96.1%) in the post-webinar survey. Compared with previous seminars that were held in the offline mode before the COVID-19 pandemic, 76.8% of respondents were significantly satisfied with the web-based educational programme. The median post-webinar comprehension scores in all modules were significantly higher than the median pre-webinar scores (p < 0.0001). A majority of the participants agreed that a web-based educational programme was satisfactory in acquiring knowledge. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This web-based educational programme was effective for Japanese pharmacists for postgraduate education in pharmaceutical care in oncology. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to report the effectiveness of a web-based educational programme for oncology pharmacists using a large population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Continuing/methods , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Internet , Pharmacists/statistics & numerical data , Program Evaluation/methods , Adult , Female , Health Care Surveys/methods , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Med Teach ; 43(12): 1430-1436, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358389

ABSTRACT

AIM: E-learning technologies are becoming vital components of medical and health professions education, as highlighted during the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The National Academy of Medicine (NAM) considers education technologies essential to forming connections between education and healthcare delivery systems, which promote evidence-based practice and continuous learning and quality improvement in healthcare. There is a lack of evidence-based models to guide the integration of technology in medical and health profession education, in particular models that form synergistic linkages between healthcare education and delivery systems. This paper presents the evaluation of an innovative blended learning model, which leverages virtual technology to connect students in the classroom with clinicians in community clinics (C4Tech) for authentic learning related to quality improvement (QI) and social determinants of health (SDH). METHOD: This study applied a case study approach to evaluate the efficacy of the C4Tech model in supporting learning outcomes and assessed how virtual collaboration influenced the process of learning. RESULTS: This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of how to design effective blended courses that connect the healthcare education and delivery systems through virtual technology. It also demonstrates how to connect students and practicing clinicians virtually to design evidence-based quality improvement projects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Continuing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 49(4): 257-267, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332873

ABSTRACT

Airway Management is the key for anaesthetists dealing with patients undergoing diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions. The present coronavirus pandemic underpins even more how important safe airway management is. It also highlights the need to apply stringent precautions to avoid infection and ongoing transmission to patients, anaesthetists and other healthcare workers (HCWs). In light of this extraordinary global situation the aim of this article is to update the reader on the varied aspects of the ever-changing tasks anaesthetists are involved in and highlight the equipment, devices and techniques that have evolved in response to changing technology and unique patient and surgical requirements.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Public Opinion , Airway Management , Education, Continuing , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Am J Nurs ; 121(8): 36-43, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307559

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Gastric tube feeding is a common and valuable intervention for patients in a variety of care settings. While tube feeding can save the lives of patients for whom oral feeding isn't possible, intolerance to tube feeding is a potential complication. This article discusses risk factors for feeding intolerance; the assessment of signs and symptoms of feeding intolerance; the various means of assessing gastric emptying, including the practice of monitoring gastric residual volume (GRV); the controversy surrounding GRV monitoring in assessing feeding tolerance; and the special considerations for monitoring feeding tolerance in acutely and critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019. The author, a nurse researcher with extensive experience in the area of enteral feeding, briefly summarizes recommendations and guidelines for enteral feeding published by national and international health care organizations between 2015 and 2020, and offers her perspective on best nursing practices for monitoring food tolerance in adults.


Subject(s)
Education, Continuing , Enteral Nutrition/nursing , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Critical Illness/nursing , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Enteral Nutrition/instrumentation , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Guidelines as Topic , Humans
12.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 80, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304406

ABSTRACT

In the European free movement zone, various mechanisms aim to harmonize how the competence of physicians and nurses is developed and maintained to facilitate the cross-country movement of professionals. This commentary addresses these mechanisms and discusses their implications during the COVID-19 pandemic, drawing lessons for future policy. It argues that EU-wide regulatory mechanisms should be reviewed to ensure that they provide an adequate foundation for determining competence and enabling health workforce flexibility during health system shocks. Currently, EU regulation focuses on the automatic recognition of the primary education of physicians and nurses. New, flexible mechanisms should be developed for specializations, such as intensive or emergency care. Documenting new skills, such as the ones acquired during rapid training in the pandemic, in a manner that is comparable across countries should be explored, both for usual practice and in light of outbreak preparedness. Initiatives to strengthen continuing education and professional development should be supported further. Funding under the EU4Health programme should be dedicated to this endeavour, along with revisiting the scope of necessary skills following the experience of COVID-19. Mechanisms for cross-country sharing of information on violations of good practice standards should be maintained and strengthened to enable agile reactions when the need for professional mobility becomes urgent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Continuing/standards , Health Workforce/standards , International Cooperation , Professional Competence/standards , Europe/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence/standards , Humans , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Prof Inferm ; 74(1): 21-30, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the Italian and European literature there are still few studies describing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the organization of nursing care in hospitals, on the actions taken by nursing leaders to contain it, and on the outcomes of these interventions. AIM: To describe nursing leaders' experiences with reorganizing healthcare pathways, through management data and personal accounts. METHODS: A retrospective quali-quantitative observational study was conducted at the Mauriziano Hospital in Turin, with 484 beds and over 1,700 workers. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistical indices and integrated with qualitative data collected through semi-structured telephone interviews. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data provided an objective and experiential representation of the implemented interventions. RESULTS: We described the impact of interventions introduced by the nursing leadership during the pandemic on hospital services. In particular, the reorganization of the emergency department and of the prevention and psychological support services for the hospital's health workers. In addition, specific initiatives to support the discharge of COVID-19 positive patients, and to support and manage contacts with family members both during the hospitalization of their loved ones and following death are described. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the discussion on some crucial issues: the increasingly clear relationship between adequate staffing and safety of patients and professionals, the importance of a good working environment and a solid leadership, the importance of continuing education for professionals and adequate skill mixes; all highlighted by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Leadership , Nursing Care/organization & administration , Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration , Education, Continuing , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Italy , Nurse Administrators/organization & administration , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies
14.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(2): 87-96, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249702

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health institutions and hospitals are increasingly relying on e-learning for continuing education. However, in many countries there is still limited data on the effectiveness of online learning particularly in the healthcare field. This study aims to evaluate whether webinar as a form of online educational intervention is satisfactory and effective for the continuing education of health professionals in Indonesia. METHODS: We collected participants' demographic information including health profession, place of work, work unit, and year of graduation. There were six independent webinars included in this study. Webinar outcomes included satisfaction and learning scores. Regarding satisfaction, participants were told to complete a satisfaction survey and asked whether they would recommend the webinar to their colleagues. Regarding learning, information on their mean pre-test and post-test scores was collected. RESULTS: A total of 3,607 health professionals were enrolled, with the highest participation in webinars about emergency cases and COVID-19 management. The response towards satisfaction was overwhelmingly positive. In all six webinars, post-test scores were statistically significantly higher than pre-test scores. Recently graduated physicians scored higher in learning than senior physicians, while place of work and work unit did not significantly affect the scores. CONCLUSION: The use of webinar for health professionals training in Indonesia was well-received amid the ongoing pandemic. In the future, health institutions and teaching hospitals should optimize the implementation of webinar training as it is associated with low cost, high flexibility, and less time commuting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Continuing/methods , Education, Distance , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease Management , Educational Measurement , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Indonesia , Learning , Personal Satisfaction , Physicians , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
15.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 41(2): 104-110, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234139

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the proliferation of virtual learning programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is increased need to understand learner experiences and impact on developing expertise. Project Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO®) is an established hub-and-spoke tele-education model aimed at building capacity and expertise in primary care providers. Our qualitative study explored how learning experiences within an ECHO mental health care program supported provider learning and ability to solve complex clinical problems. METHODS: We sampled ECHO sessions across a 34-week cycle and analyzed audio transcribed data. Two individuals coded participant interactions during 2-hour recorded sessions using an iterative, constant comparative methodology. RESULTS: The authors identified four key mechanisms of learning in ECHO: (1) fostering participants' productive struggle with cases, (2) development of an integrated understanding, (3) collaborative reformulation of cases, and (4) generation of conceptual solutions based on a new understanding. Throughout the ECHO sessions, learning was observed to be multidirectional from both the hub-to-spoke and between spoke sites. DISCUSSION: Despite the widespread implementation of Project ECHO and other virtual learning models, a paucity of research has focused on mechanisms of virtual learning within these models. Our study demonstrated a bidirectional exchange of knowledge between hub specialist teams and primary care provider spokes that aligned with the development of adaptive expertise through specific learning experiences in Project ECHO. Moreover, the ECHO structure may further support the development of adaptive expertise to better prepare participants to address patients' complex mental health needs.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Education, Continuing/organization & administration , Health Personnel/education , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Education, Distance/methods , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Models, Educational , Program Evaluation
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125868

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and develop an integrated educational program for healthcare workers. First, we designed and validated ten multiple-choice questions to identify knowledge gaps among healthcare workers. Within one month of the online test and curriculum offering, 5533 staff had completed the test, with a completion rate of 84.97%. There were 2618 healthcare workers who answered the pre-test 100% correctly. Those who did not answer the pre-test 100% correctly took multiple tests after learning through the online teaching materials. Eventually, 5214 staff passed the test (pre-test or post-test with 100% correct answers). The result showed that all staff had a low correct rate for personal protective equipment (PPE) use recommendations. The Infection Control Center conducted training sessions for hospital staff on how to wear protective clothing. Information on the selection and use of PPE for infection prevention was provided, and participants were allowed time to practice and familiarize themselves with the correct way to wear PPE. Moreover, the Department of Education and Research continued updating the online learning materials based on the most important updated peer-reviewed published articles. The attending teaching physicians helped to search, translate, and take notes on articles in the local language (traditional Chinese) for other colleagues to read easily. We expect to increase learning opportunities for healthcare workers, even during uncertain times such as the current coronavirus pandemic through (1) the hospital-wide course announcements, (2) the continuous placement of test questions and learning files on the digital learning platform, (3) the placement of journal highlights in cloud folders, and (4) the use of the digital learning platform on mobile phones accessible outside the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Education, Continuing , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067706

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused changes in the provision of psychotherapy around the world. The common format of delivering in-person psychotherapy is replaced by psychotherapy via the Internet to a great extent. This study examined how well Austrian psychotherapists feel informed about the use of the Internet in psychotherapy, where additional information needs exist, and which software is used. A link to an online survey was sent to all psychotherapists providing a valid email address in the official list of licensed psychotherapists at the start of the COVID-19 lockdown in Austria. A total of 1547 people took part in the survey. The results show that psychotherapy via the Internet was primarily offered via Skype and Zoom during the COVID-19 pandemic and that the majority of the therapists felt well-informed about psychotherapy via the Internet; however, several therapists stated that they wish to have further information on data protection and security. Overall, the study shows that Austrian psychotherapists coped well with the rapid change from the provision of psychotherapy through personal contact to psychotherapy via the Internet. Security and data protection aspects of therapy via the Internet should be addressed in training and further education of psychotherapists. As this study was conducted online, it might have caused some respondent bias towards a higher participation of psychotherapists with higher preference for new technologies.


Subject(s)
Internet-Based Intervention , Psychotherapy/education , Psychotherapy/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Austria , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Education, Continuing , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(1): 22-24, 2021 01.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054910

ABSTRACT

The output of medical and scientific literature is on the rise and the health emergency caused by the covid-19 pandemic has led to a further growth in the number of articles published each year in International medical journals. Finding your way around this ocean of information is very difficult: the critical evaluation of scientific documentation requires time and specific skills, which are not easy to acquire. In addition to doctors and nurses, hospital and clinical pharmacists also struggle to keep up to date. Also for this reason, many institutions and various players in the publishing arena are developing tools that enable health personnel to access the best scientific knowledge, minimizing the risk inherent in the individually performed evaluation of evidence. In any case, it is essential to reconsider and update the methods of continuous education of the hospital pharmacist, also considering the changes that have taken place in his role, now integrated into the clinical teams together with the other professionals who guarantee health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Continuing , Education, Pharmacy , Information Seeking Behavior , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Evidence-Based Medicine , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Information Dissemination , Internet , Peer Review, Research , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Publishing/standards , Publishing/trends , Smartphone , Thinking
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244058, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999829

ABSTRACT

While death is universal, reactions to death and ways of dealing with the dead body are hugely diverse, and archaeological research reveals numerous ways of dealing with the dead through time and across the world. In this paper, findings are presented which not only demonstrate the power of archaeology to promote and aid discussion around this difficult and challenging topic, but also how our approach resulted in personal growth and professional development impacts for participants. In this interdisciplinary pilot study, archaeological case studies were used in 31 structured workshops with 187 participants from health and social care backgrounds in the UK, to explore their reactions to a diverse range of materials which documented wide and varied approaches to death and the dead. Our study supports the hypothesis that the past is a powerful instigator of conversation around challenging aspects of death, and after death care and practices: 93% of participants agreed with this. That exposure to archaeological case studies and artefacts stimulates multifaceted discourse, some of it difficult, is a theme that also emerges in our data from pre, post and follow-up questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. The material prompted participants to reflect on their biases, expectations and norms around both treatment of the dead, and of bereavement, impacting on their values, attitudes and beliefs. Moreover, 87% of participants believed the workshop would have a personal effect through thinking differently about death and bereavement, and 57% thought it would impact on how they approached death and bereavement in their professional practice. This has huge implications today, where talk of death remains troublesome, and for some, has a near-taboo status-'taboo' being a theme evident in some participants' own words. The findings have an important role to play in facilitating and normalising discussions around dying and bereavement and in equipping professionals in their work with people with advanced illness.


Subject(s)
Archaeology/education , Attitude to Death , Education, Continuing/methods , Health Personnel/education , Social Workers/education , Adult , Curriculum , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Social Workers/psychology
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