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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631646

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 has resulted in a transition from physical education to online learning, leading to a collapse of the established educational order and a wisdom test for the education governance system. As a country seriously affected by the pandemic, the health of the Indian higher education system urgently requires assessment to achieve sustainable development and maximize educational externalities. This research systematically proposes a health assessment model from four perspectives, including educational volume, efficiency, equality, and sustainability, by employing the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution Model, Principal Component Analysis, DEA-Tobit Model, and Augmented Solow Model. Empirical results demonstrate that India has high efficiency and an absolute health score in the higher education system through multiple comparisons between India and the other selected countries while having certain deficiencies in equality and sustainability. Additionally, single-target and multiple-target path are simultaneously proposed to enhance the Indian current education system. The multiple-target approach of the India-China-Japan-Europe-USA process is more feasible to achieve sustainable development, which would improve the overall health score from .351 to .716. This finding also reveals that the changes are relatively complex and would take 91.5 years considering the relationship between economic growth rates and crucial indicators. Four targeted policies are suggested for each catching-up period, including expanding and increasing the social funding sources, striving for government expenditure support to improve infrastructures, imposing gender equality in education, and accelerating the construction of high-quality teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Educational Status , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustainable Development , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Principal Component Analysis/methods , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25232, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected medical education. However, little data are available about medical students' distress during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide details on how medical students have been affected by the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 717 medical students participated in the web-based survey. The survey included questions about how the participants' mental status had changed from before to after the Japanese nationwide state of emergency (SOE). RESULTS: Out of 717 medical students, 473 (66.0%) participated in the study. In total, 29.8% (141/473) of the students reported concerns about the shift toward online education, mostly because they thought online education would be ineffective compared with in-person learning. The participants' subjective mental health status significantly worsened after the SOE was lifted (P<.001). Those who had concerns about a shift toward online education had higher odds of having generalized anxiety and being depressed (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.19-3.28) as did those who said they would request food aid (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.16-3.44) and mental health care resources (OR 3.56, 95% CI 2.07-6.15). CONCLUSIONS: Given our findings, the sudden shift to online education might have overwhelmed medical students. Thus, we recommend that educators inform learners that online learning is not inferior to in-person learning, which could attenuate potential depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance/methods , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 56: 151875, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568495

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced traditional teaching to be re-structured and delivered online. OBJECTIVE: To analyse medical students' perceptions about the benefits and difficulties of the remote teaching of Pathology during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed with an online survey applied to students from the third and fourth year of medical graduation, who attended the remote teaching of Pathology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Online teaching methods consisted of synchronous activities with live interactive lectures, case-based discussions and asynchronous activities with recorded lectures, tutorials and texts available on the online teaching platform. Students' perceptions about the remote teaching of Pathology were assessed through online survey. RESULTS: Ninety students (47.4%) of 190 participants completed the questionnaire, 45 were male and 52 in the third year of medical graduation. Perceived conditions that facilitated Pathology learning included the use of the online teaching platform and time flexibility for study. Students regarded live interactive lectures as superior to traditional face-to-face lectures. Perceived conditions that hindered the implementation of the online teaching included difficulty separating study from home activities, lack of motivation and worsening of quality of life due to physical distancing from colleagues and the faculty. Overall, the remote teaching of Pathology was positively valued by 80% of the students. CONCLUSION: Online tools allowed the content of Pathology to be successfully delivered to the students during the COVID-19 pandemic. This experience may be a model for future teaching activities of Pathology in health science education.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Pathology/education , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 690-697, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542965

ABSTRACT

Emergency medicine (EM) is rapidly being recognized as a specialty around the globe. This has particular promise for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that experience the largest burden of disease for emergency conditions. Specialty education and training in EM remain essentially an apprenticeship model. Finding the required expertise to educate graduate learners can be challenging in regions where there are low densities of specialty providers.We describe an initiative to implement a sustainable, bidirectional partnership between the Emergency Medicine Departments of Weill Cornell Medicine (WCM) in New York, NY, USA, and Bugando Medical Center (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. We used synchronous and asynchronous telecommunication technology to enhance an ongoing emergency medicine education collaboration.The Internet infrastructure for this collaboration was created by bolstering 4G services available in Mwanza, Tanzania. By maximizing the 4G signal, sufficient bandwidth could be created to allow for live 2-way audio/video communication. Using synchronous and asynchronous applications such as Zoom and WhatsApp, providers at WCM and BMC can attend real-time didactic lectures, participate in discussion forums on clinical topics, and collaborate on the development of clinical protocols. Proof of concept exercises demonstrated that this system can be used for real-time mentoring in EKG interpretation and ultrasound technique, for example. This system was also used to share information and develop operations flows during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of telecommunication technology and e-learning in a format that promotes long-term, sustainable interaction is practical and innovative, provides benefit to all partners, and should be considered as a mechanism by which global partnerships can assist with training in emergency medicine in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Emergency Medicine/education , Emergency Medicine/methods , Academic Medical Centers , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mobile Applications , New York City , Social Media , Tanzania
7.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 65, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply impacted healthcare and education systems, including resident education. The impact of the pandemic on the different types of pedagogical activities, and the displacement of pedagogical activities to online modalities have not yet been quantified. We sought to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on formal pedagogic components of otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) residency, the switch to distance learning and program director's perceptions of the future of teaching and learning. METHODS: A nationwide online survey was conducted on Canadian ORL-HNS program directors. The use of standard didactic activities in-person and online, before and during the pandemic was rated with Likert scales. Perceptions of the pandemic were described with open-ended questions. RESULTS: A total of 11 of the 13 program directors contacted responded. The analysis were conducted using nonparametric statistics. There was a significant drop in overall didactic activities during the pandemic, regardless of the teaching format (3.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.05). The most affected activities were simulation and in-house lectures. Online activities increased dramatically (0.5 ± 0.2 to 5.0 ± 0.5, p < 0.001), including attendance to lectures made by other programs (0.5 ± 0.3 to 4.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Respondents stated their intention to maintain the hybrid online and in-person teaching model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hybrid online and in-person teaching is likely to persist in the post-pandemic setting. A balanced residency curriculum requires diversity in academic activities. The pandemic can have positive consequences if higher education institutions work to better support distance teaching and learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Curriculum , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Otolaryngology/education , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Canada , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Can J Surg ; 64(6): E613-E614, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511844

ABSTRACT

Most institutions have mitigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on residency education by transitioning to web-based educational platforms and using innovative solutions, such as surgical video libraries, telehealth clinics, online question banks via social media platforms, and procedural simulations. Here, we assess the perceived impact of COVID-19 on Canadian surgical residency education and discuss the unique challenges in adapting to a virtual format and how novel training methods implemented during the pandemic may be useful in the future of surgical education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Canada , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Distance/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503862

ABSTRACT

Background: Within days, the corona crisis has forced the "Lernzentrum", as well as all other places of training and further education, to discontinue classroom teaching at German universities and vocational schools. In order to start teaching online, tutors had to face the challenge to develop new digital learning formats (virtual classrooms) for the peer teaching of practical skills within a short time. This paper aims at outlining the project of developing e-tutorials with regard to the teaching of practical skills. Methodology: After analyzing the classroom lessons (n=30), some of the tutorials were transformed into digital formats. These so-called "e-tutorials" were held via a digital platform. They have been evaluated continuously with a standardized online questionnaire. The results of this evaluation have been analyzed descriptively. Results: From 27/04/2020 to 17/07/2020 eleven different e-tutorial formats were offered on 246 dates. The evaluation revealed a high degree of acceptance with these course offers as well as with the implementation by the tutors. Interpretation: During the pandemic crisis the substitution of peer teaching into forms of e-tutorials was considered valuable; however, these learning formats present challenges, especially with regard to the interaction between teachers and students. They cannot therefore fully replace the peer teaching of practical skills.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Teaching , Universities , COVID-19 , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/standards , Germany , Humans , Peer Group , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teaching/standards
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: E-learning is a relatively trending system of education that has been placed over conventional campus-based learning worldwide, especially since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess e-learning readiness among university students of a developing country like Bangladesh and identify the independent predictors of e-learning readiness. METHODS: From 26 December 2020 to 11 January 2021, a total of 1162 university students who had enrolled for e-learning completed a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were collected online via "Google Form" following the principles of snowball sampling through available social media platforms in Bangladesh. A multivariable linear regression model was fitted to investigate the association of e-learning readiness with perceived e-learning stress and other independent predictor variables. RESULTS: A total of 1162 university students participated in this study. The results indicated that with the increase of students' perceived e-learning stress score, the average e-learning readiness score was significantly decreased (ß = -0.43, 95% CI: -0.66, -0.20). The students did not seem ready, and none of the e-learning readiness scale items reached the highest mean score (5.0). The age, gender, divisional residence, preference of students and their parents, devices used, and having any eye problems were significantly associated with the students' e-learning readiness. CONCLUSION: During the prolonged period of the COVID-19 pandemic, e-learning implication strategies are needed to be assessed systematically with the level of readiness and its' impacts among students for the continuation of sound e-learning systems. The study findings recommend evaluating the e-learning readiness of university students and the mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 catastrophe in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , Bangladesh , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Learning , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(11): 1350-1354, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485407

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: The main focus of education in most pathology residency and subspecialty pathology fellowships is the light microscopic examination of pathology specimens. Classes with multiheaded scopes are the most popular among pathology trainees. Until recently, it was difficult to imagine that this educational approach could change. In the beginning of March 2020, our country faced a serious challenge, which all of us now know as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The rules of social distancing and work from home were applied. These types of restrictions were implemented in almost all parts of our life, including work and pathology education. OBJECTIVE.­: To share our experience in the Department of Hematopathology at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe our experience in modifying our approaches to education. We show how we overcame many obstacles to learning by building one of the largest virtual hematopathology educational platforms via Cisco WebEx and using social media, in particular Twitter. These tools facilitated the learning of hematopathology by medical students, pathology trainees, and practicing pathologists from all over the world. DATA SOURCES.­: During the first 3 months of the pandemic (April, May, and June, 2020), we evaluated the visitor attendance to the MD Anderson Cancer Center Hematopathology Virtual Educational Platform using data collected by the Cisco WebEx Web site. To determine the impact that the platform had on medical education for the hematopathology community on Twitter, the analytic metrics obtained from Symplur LLC (www.symplur.com, April 27, 2020) were used via its Symplur Signals program. CONCLUSIONS.­: Our experience using the MD Anderson Hematopathology Virtual Platform showed that there is substantial global interest and desire for virtual hematopathology education, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Hematology/education , Pathology/education , Social Media , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Distance/trends , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Education, Medical/trends , Humans , Texas
12.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1100-1104, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483693

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Drastic and rapid changes to medical education are uncommon because of regulations and restrictions designed to ensure consistency among medical school curriculums and to safeguard student well-being. As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical education had to break away from its conventions and transition from time-honored teaching methods to innovative solutions. This article explores the anticipated and actual efficacy of the swift conversion of a specialty elective from a traditional in-person format to a fully virtual clerkship. In addition, it includes a noninferiority study to determine where a virtual classroom may excel or fall short in comparison with conventional clinical rotations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Models, Educational , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/education , Adult , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , Male , Minnesota , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(2): 164-169, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477743

ABSTRACT

In the latter half of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began spreading worldwide. To prevent COVID-19 infection, all teaching at Suzuka University of Medical Sciences from April to June 2020 took place as remote lectures, not in the face-to-face format. This study analyzed postlecture questionnaire responses regarding face-to-face and remote teaching on the subject of nuclear medicine technology examinations. We examined the educational effect of using remote lectures. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey among students by means of a 5-point evaluation scale about satisfaction, comprehension, concentration, preparation, reviewing, and the question environment for face-to-face and remote lectures. Results: We present the results as means and SDs. Satisfaction results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 3.30 ± 0.72 and 3.36 ± 0.88, respectively. Comprehension results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 3.30 ± 0.71 and 3.30 ± 0.83, respectively. Concentration results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 3.50 ± 0.69 and 3.05 ± 0.90, respectively. The preparation results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 2.57 ± 0.88 and 2.67 ± 0.94, respectively. The reviewing results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 2.84 ± 0.85 and 3.39 ± 0.89, respectively. The question environment results for face-to-face and remote lectures lessons were 2.94 ± 0.90 and 3.43 ± 0.84, respectively. There were no significant differences between face-to-face and remote lectures in terms of satisfaction, comprehension, or preparation. There were significant differences between face-to-face and remote lectures in terms of concentration, reviewing, and the questioning environment (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This comparative analysis of the postlecture questionnaire responses for face-to-face and remote formats in nuclear medicine technology examinations showed that remote lectures have a strong educational effect. We believe that, in future, remote lectures should be considered a tool in student education.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Nuclear Medicine/education , Curriculum , Education, Medical , Educational Measurement , Feedback , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 49(6): 856-858, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473815

ABSTRACT

Many large, undergraduate science courses, which still heavily rely on traditional lecture-based dissemination of content, passive learning, and exam-based assessments, have been forced online due to the Covid-19 pandemic. To address the challenges facing students in regards to engagement, self-directed learning, and the development of soft skills, we modified a large, lecture-based third-year undergraduate biochemistry course at the University of Toronto to foster active learning through interactive e-modules. We also adjusted the evaluation model to focus on the development of reflection, critical thinking, science literacy, and communication.


Subject(s)
Communication , Education, Distance/methods , Literacy , Science/education , Curriculum , Humans , Ontario
16.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 49(6): 888-903, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469418

ABSTRACT

Active teaching methodologies have been placed as a hope for changing education at different levels, transiting from passive lecture-centered to student-centered learning. With the health measures of social distance, the COVID-19 pandemic forced a strong shift to remote education. With the challenge of delivering quality education through a computer screen, we validated and applied an online course model using active teaching tools for higher education. We incorporated published active-learning strategies into an online construct, with problem-based inquiry and design of inquiry research projects to serve as our core active learning tool. The gains related to students' science learning experiences and their attitudes toward science were assessed by applying questionnaires before, during, and after the course. The course counted on the participation of 83 students, most of them (60.8%) from postgraduate students. Our results show that engagement provided by active learning methods can improve performance both in hard and soft skills. Students' participation seems to be more relevant when activities require the interaction of information, prediction, and reasoning, such as open-ended questions and design of research projects. Therefore, our data show that, in pandemic, active learning tools benefit students and improve their critical thinking and their motivation and positive positioning in science.


Subject(s)
Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Thinking , COVID-19/virology , Education, Distance/standards , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 193-194, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450926

ABSTRACT

The total or partial replacement of face-to-face teaching with distance teaching brings a number of problems for teachers, children and families. Recently, in our province in Southern Italy, in a seaside area, we conducted a survey to assess the experiences of high school teachers faced with distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the purpose of examining the real impact of these dramatic changes, both from social and health perspectives. From the preliminary aspects of this survey it emerges that it is difficult to univocally consider the effectiveness of distance learning in such a complex territory, especially in a seaside area. This experience will serve us to reflect in the future on a school tailored to the individual student by a permanent integration of face-to-face forms with distance learning.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , School Teachers/psychology , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy , Motivation , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(9): 831-836, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447682

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus 2019 pandemic has led to new dilemmas in medical education because of an initial shortage of personal protective equipment, uncertainty regarding disease transmission and treatments, travel restrictions, and social distancing guidelines. These new problems further compound the already existing problem of limited medical student exposure to the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation, particularly for students in medical schools lacking a department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, approximately 50% of medical schools. A virtual medical student physical medicine and rehabilitation rotation was created to mitigate coronavirus 2019-related limitations and impact on medical education. Using audiovisual technology, students had the opportunity to participate in clinical inpatient and outpatient care, live-streamed procedures, and virtual didactics, develop and showcase their clinical knowledge and reasoning skills, and become familiar with the culture of the physical medicine and rehabilitation residency program. Adaptive educational approaches, including integration of the flipped classroom model, success, pitfalls, and areas for improvement will be described and discussed. Providing nontraditional methods for physical medicine and rehabilitation education and exposure to medical students is crucial to maintain and promote growth of the field in this unprecedented and increasingly virtual era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/education , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(3): 6366, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441427

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To reduce the rate of spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey, distance education was initiated in all universities on 23 March 2020. Distance learning had not been experienced in physical therapy and rehabilitation education before the COVID-19 outbreak. This study aimed to (a) determine the acceptance and attitudes of Pamukkale University Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation undergraduate students towards distance learning during the COVID-19 outbreak and (b) compare the results among years. METHODS: This study was conducted from May 2020 to June 2020 at the Pamukkale University School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation in Turkey. A total of 381 students (271 female, 110 male) participated. The Distance Learning Systems Acceptance Scale (ease of use, benefit), the Community Feeling Scale (affective and actional dimension), and the Distance Learning Attitude Scale (general acceptance, individual awareness, perceived usefulness, effective participation) were used to measure students' acceptance and attitudes towards distance education. RESULTS: Students had partly positive attitudes towards distance learning but were undecided about individual awareness, usefulness, and effective participation. The sense of community among students was moderate in the distance learning environment. Distance learning acceptance and attitude, and the sense of community levels, were highest in fourth-year students (last year of the school), followed by first-, third-, and then second-year students. The distance learning and sense of community scores of first- and fourth-year students were significantly higher than those of second- and third-year students (p≤0.01). CONCLUSION: Physical therapy and rehabilitation undergraduate students' attitudes towards distance learning during the COVID-19 outbreak were positive. However, when comparing between years, students in the second and third academic years had less positive attitudes. This may be because most of their curricula consisted of practical courses and summer field internships, and there were no opportunities to practise on mannequins, peers, and patients in distance education. In this study, the sense of community among students in the distance learning environment was also moderate. This may be because students were not enthusiastic about attending course lectures online, and because they did not have to view the lectures at a set time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Physical Therapy Specialty/education , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Physical Therapy Modalities , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(10): 1273-1281, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440475

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced teachers and parents to quickly adapt to a new educational context: distance learning. Teachers developed online academic material while parents taught the exercises and lessons provided by teachers to their children at home. Considering that the use of digital tools in education has dramatically increased during this crisis, and it is set to continue, there is a pressing need to understand the impact of distance learning. Taking a multidisciplinary view, we argue that by making the learning process rely more than ever on families, rather than on teachers, and by getting students to work predominantly via digital resources, school closures exacerbate social class academic disparities. To address this burning issue, we propose an agenda for future research and outline recommendations to help parents, teachers and policymakers to limit the impact of the lockdown on social-class-based academic inequality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Education, Distance/methods , Needs Assessment/organization & administration , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Family Characteristics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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