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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 351-352, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591285
2.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 690-697, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542965

ABSTRACT

Emergency medicine (EM) is rapidly being recognized as a specialty around the globe. This has particular promise for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that experience the largest burden of disease for emergency conditions. Specialty education and training in EM remain essentially an apprenticeship model. Finding the required expertise to educate graduate learners can be challenging in regions where there are low densities of specialty providers.We describe an initiative to implement a sustainable, bidirectional partnership between the Emergency Medicine Departments of Weill Cornell Medicine (WCM) in New York, NY, USA, and Bugando Medical Center (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. We used synchronous and asynchronous telecommunication technology to enhance an ongoing emergency medicine education collaboration.The Internet infrastructure for this collaboration was created by bolstering 4G services available in Mwanza, Tanzania. By maximizing the 4G signal, sufficient bandwidth could be created to allow for live 2-way audio/video communication. Using synchronous and asynchronous applications such as Zoom and WhatsApp, providers at WCM and BMC can attend real-time didactic lectures, participate in discussion forums on clinical topics, and collaborate on the development of clinical protocols. Proof of concept exercises demonstrated that this system can be used for real-time mentoring in EKG interpretation and ultrasound technique, for example. This system was also used to share information and develop operations flows during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of telecommunication technology and e-learning in a format that promotes long-term, sustainable interaction is practical and innovative, provides benefit to all partners, and should be considered as a mechanism by which global partnerships can assist with training in emergency medicine in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Emergency Medicine/education , Emergency Medicine/methods , Academic Medical Centers , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mobile Applications , New York City , Social Media , Tanzania
3.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 1981803, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528079

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the social justice movement in early 2020 awakened many Americans to the health disparities and health care inequities affecting Black communities. This heightened awareness has strengthened the call to address social determinants of health, like racism. Physicians can play an important role in dismantling racism through knowledge of implicit biases and understanding of historical trauma resulting in medical distrust as a crucial step to help advance the health of minority communities. The purpose of this project was to develop an anti-racism workshop for Graduate Medical Education. Two discussants led 1.5-hour interactive workshops. Content covered microagressions, colorblindness, tokenism, stereotypes, levels of racism, the impact of racism on health, and anti-racism concepts. Facilitated breakout sessions allowed participants to provide examples of witnessed racism and discuss application of anti-racism tools in those settings. Following the workshops, participants were asked to complete a 16-item survey to evaluate workshop effectiveness. Between July and August 2020, four workshops were delivered to 131 attendees. Fifty-nine completed post workshop surveys. Most respondents were White (75%), female (63%), and aged 31-40 (29%). Over half were faculty; 24% were residents, 8% fellows. The majority agreed they could apply knowledge to their work (95%) and found the workshop useful (95%). Over two-thirds reported being able to better identify disparities and better identify and communicate about racism. In open-ended questions, many participants requested an interactive longitudinal curriculum. Developing an antiracism workshop for an academic medical center located in the Deep South provided more insight into tangible next steps to foster an institutional culture centered on antiracism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Education, Medical, Graduate , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Universities
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 576, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition that wellness interventions should occur in context and acknowledge complex contributors to wellbeing, including individual needs, institutional and cultural barriers to wellbeing, as well as systems issues which propagate distress. The authors conducted a multiple-methods study exploring contributors to wellbeing for junior residents in diverse medical environments who participated in a brief resilience and stress-reduction curriculum, the Stress Management and Resiliency Training Program for Residents (SMART-R). METHODS: Using a waitlist-controlled design, the curriculum was implemented for post-graduate year (PGY)-1 or PGY-2 residents in seven residency programs across three sites. Every three months, residents completed surveys, including the Perceived Stress Scale-10, General Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, a mindfulness scale (CAMSR), and a depression screen (PHQ-2). Residents also answered free-text reflection questions about psychological wellbeing and health behaviors. RESULTS: The SMART-R intervention was not significantly associated with decreased perceived stress. Linear regression modeling showed that depression was positively correlated with reported stress levels, while male sex and self-efficacy were negatively correlated with stress. Qualitative analysis elucidated differences in these groups: Residents with lower self-efficacy, those with a positive depression screen, and/or female residents were more likely to describe experiencing lack of control over work. Residents with higher self-efficacy described more positive health behaviors. Residents with a positive depression screen were more self-critical, and more likely to describe negative personal life events. CONCLUSIONS: This curriculum did not significantly modify junior residents' stress. Certain subpopulations experienced greater stress than others (female residents, those with lower self-efficacy, and those with a positive depression screen). Qualitative findings from this study highlight universal stressful experiences early in residency, as well as important differences in experience of the learning environment among subgroups. Tailored wellness interventions that aim to support diverse resident sub-groups may be higher yield than a "one size fits all" approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02621801 , Registration date: December 4, 2015 - Retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Medicine , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Graduate , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 33(4): 317-323, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526205

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic prompted the need for rapid, flexible change in the delivery of care, education, and commitment to the well-being of obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) residents. RECENT FINDINGS: Published literature shows multiple models for surge scheduling for residency programs in other specialties. We describe our experience creating a surge schedule for OB/GYN residents that allowed for sufficient coverage of inpatient care while minimizing resident exposure and limited hospital resources, respecting work hour requirements, and plans for coverage due to illness or need for home quarantine. We also report innovative approaches to trainee education through the use of remote-learning technology and gynecologic surgery skills training in absence of normal clinical exposure. SUMMARY: Our approach serves as a model for adapting to unprecedented challenges and offers suggestions for creative transformations of traditional teaching that can be continued beyond the immediate crisis.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital , Continuity of Patient Care , Humans , Simulation Training , Videoconferencing
6.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 28-37, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the cancellation of in-person testing across the country. We sought to understand the feasibility of conducting virtual oral examinations as well as solicit opinions of vascular surgery program directors (PD) regarding the use of virtual platforms to conduct both low stakes mock oral examinations with their trainees and potentially "real" high stakes certifying examinations (CE) moving forward. METHODS: Forty-four senior vascular surgery trainees from 17 institutions took part in a virtual mock oral examination conducted by 38 practicing vascular surgeons via Zoom. Each examination lasted 30 minutes with four clinical scenarios. An anonymous survey pertaining to the conduct of the examination and opinions on feasibility of using virtual examinations for the vascular surgery CE was sent to all examiners and examinees. A similar survey was sent to all vascular surgery program directors. RESULTS: The overall pass rate was 82% (36/44 participants) with no correlation with training paradigm. 32/44 (73%) of trainees, 29/38 (76%) of examiners and 49/103 (48%) of PDs completed the surveys. Examinees and examiners thought the experience was beneficial and PDs also thought the experience would be beneficial for their trainees. While the majority of trainees and examiners believed they were able to communicate and express (or evaluate) knowledge and confidence as easily virtually as in person, PDs were less likely to agree confidence could be assessed virtually. The majority of respondents thought the CE of the Vascular Surgery Board of the American Board of Surgery could be offered virtually, although no groups thought virtual exams were superior to in person exams. While cost benefit was perceived in virtual examinations, the security of the examination was a concern. CONCLUSIONS: Performing virtual mock oral examinations for vascular surgery trainees is feasible. Both vascular surgery trainees as well as PDs feel that virtual CEs should be considered by the Vascular Surgery Board.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Certification , Education, Medical, Graduate , Educational Measurement , Internship and Residency , Surgeons/education , Vascular Surgical Procedures/education , Clinical Competence , Educational Status , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Test Taking Skills , Verbal Behavior
7.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(10): 879-887, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic has markedly restricted endoscopic and clinical activities in gastroenterology (GI), with a negative impact on trainee education. We aimed to inve stigate how and to what extent has GI trainees in Turkey are affected by the current pandemic in terms of general, psychological, and educational status. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey sent electronically to 103 official GI trainees in Turkey from 37 centers. The 32-item survey included questions to capture demographic (5-questions), endoscopic (7-questions), personal protective equipment (PPE) (3-questions), psychological and general well-being (11-questions), and educational (6-questions) data. RESULTS: Ninety-six (93.2%) trainees completed the survey, of which 56.3% (n = 54) reported a decrease in independently performed endoscopic procedures. Due to pandemic, 91.7% of standard diagnostic endoscopic procedures, 57.2% of standard therapeutic procedures, and 67.7% of advanced endoscopic procedures were decreased. Out of 96 respondents, we detected signs of anxiety in 88.5%, exposure concern in 92.7%, concerns for prolongation of training period in 49%, loss of concentration and interest in 47.9%, and burnout syndrome in 63.5%. Female gender (odds-ratio: 3.856, 95% confidence interval: 1.221-12.174, P = .021) was the only independently associated factor with pandemic-related anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic has led to high amounts of anxiety and non-negligible rates of burnout syndrome among GI trainees, with a significant reduction in endoscopic activities. More effort and novel strategies are required to deliver sufficient competence and general-psychological well-being to GI trainees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Fellowships and Scholarships , Gastroenterology/education , Pandemics , Adult , Education, Medical, Graduate , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
8.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 65, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply impacted healthcare and education systems, including resident education. The impact of the pandemic on the different types of pedagogical activities, and the displacement of pedagogical activities to online modalities have not yet been quantified. We sought to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on formal pedagogic components of otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) residency, the switch to distance learning and program director's perceptions of the future of teaching and learning. METHODS: A nationwide online survey was conducted on Canadian ORL-HNS program directors. The use of standard didactic activities in-person and online, before and during the pandemic was rated with Likert scales. Perceptions of the pandemic were described with open-ended questions. RESULTS: A total of 11 of the 13 program directors contacted responded. The analysis were conducted using nonparametric statistics. There was a significant drop in overall didactic activities during the pandemic, regardless of the teaching format (3.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.05). The most affected activities were simulation and in-house lectures. Online activities increased dramatically (0.5 ± 0.2 to 5.0 ± 0.5, p < 0.001), including attendance to lectures made by other programs (0.5 ± 0.3 to 4.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Respondents stated their intention to maintain the hybrid online and in-person teaching model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hybrid online and in-person teaching is likely to persist in the post-pandemic setting. A balanced residency curriculum requires diversity in academic activities. The pandemic can have positive consequences if higher education institutions work to better support distance teaching and learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Curriculum , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Otolaryngology/education , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Canada , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 580, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523306

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The novel Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) has had a significant impact worldwide that led to changes in healthcare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on trainee's mental health and educational preparedness. METHODS: Trainees at the Indiana University School of Medicine were surveyed regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their training. Using a Likert scale, participants were asked questions pertaining to educational preparedness, mental health, and clinical work during the pandemic. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 27. The study was approved as exempt by the Institutional review Board (IRB). RESULTS: 324 of the 1204 trainees responded to the survey. The respondents were 76% white with an equal distribution of males and females. A majority of the respondents were first year residents with an equal distribution of second, third, and fourth year residents. Twenty-three percent of respondents were in a procedural residency or fellowship program. Better perceived educational preparedness was associated with an improved home-work balance during COVID-19 (ß = 0.506, p < 0.0001) and having a department that advocated/supported focus on mental health during COVID-19 (ß = 0.177, p < 0.0001). Worse perceived educational preparedness was associated with being in procedural vs. non-procedural dominant training program (ß = - 0.122, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has had a significant impact on the training experience of residents and fellows. Departmental support increased mental well-being and perceived education preparedness in trainees. Trainees that felt they had a better home-work life balance had better educational preparedness compared to their peers. Also, trainees in procedural programs had less educational preparedness compared to their peers in non-procedural programs. This study highlights the importance for programs to find avenues to increase educational preparedness in their trainees while being attuned to the mental health of their trainees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Education, Medical, Graduate , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 17(9): 491-493, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510266

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV-2 infection has spread worldwide since it originated in December 2019, in Wuhan, China. The pandemic has largely demonstrated the resilience of the world's health systems and is the greatest health emergency since World War II. There is no single therapeutic approach to the treatment of COVID-19 and the associated immune disorder. The lack of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) has led different countries to tackle the disease based on case series, or from results of observational studies with off-label drugs. We as rheumatologists in general, and specifically rheumatology fellows, have been on the front line of the pandemic, modifying our activities and altering our training itinerary. We have attended patients, we have learned about the management of the disease and from our previous experience with drugs for arthritis and giant cell arteritis, we have used these drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Physician's Role , Rheumatologists , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Education, Medical, Graduate , Fellowships and Scholarships , Global Health , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatologists/education , Rheumatologists/organization & administration , Rheumatology/education , Rheumatology/methods , Rheumatology/organization & administration , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 28, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472503

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic has affected residency training globally. The aim of this study was to understand how the pandemic affected teaching and learning in residency programs in low resource settings where residents and faculty were working on the front line treating patients with the disease. Methods: this qualitative study enrolled residents and faculty from the Aga Khan University in Tanzania who were providing front line care during the pandemic. Purposeful sampling was used and data was collected using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews between August and September 2020. Analysis was done using qualitative content analysis. Results: twelve residents and six faculty members participated in this study. Two main themes emerged. The first was: "New and unfamiliar teaching and learning experiences." Residents and faculty had to adapt to changes in the learning environment and the academic program. Residents had increased responsibilities, including providing front line care and working with reduced supervision. The second theme was: "Learning opportunities amidst crisis." There were opportunities to improve critical care and procedural skills. They also had opportunities to improve non-technical skills like teamwork and communication. Conclusion: residents and faculty had to adapt to changes in teaching and learning. Residents also had to take up additional responsibilities. Support systems are required to help them adapt to the changes and settle in their new roles. There were opportunities to learn new skills, and training should be restructured to maximize the use of these opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Medical, Graduate/trends , Internship and Residency , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Learning , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Tanzania , Teaching
16.
Br J Surg ; 108(10): 1162-1180, 2021 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the WHO on 11 March 2020 and global surgical practice was compromised. This Commission aimed to document and reflect on the changes seen in the surgical environment during the pandemic, by reviewing colleagues' experiences and published evidence. METHODS: In late 2020, BJS contacted colleagues across the global surgical community and asked them to describe how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had affected their practice. In addition to this, the Commission undertook a literature review on the impact of COVID-19 on surgery and perioperative care. A thematic analysis was performed to identify the issues most frequently encountered by the correspondents, as well as the solutions and ideas suggested to address them. RESULTS: BJS received communications for this Commission from leading clinicians and academics across a variety of surgical specialties in every inhabited continent. The responses from all over the world provided insights into multiple facets of surgical practice from a governmental level to individual clinical practice and training. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered a variety of problems in healthcare systems, including negative impacts on surgical practice. Global surgical multidisciplinary teams are working collaboratively to address research questions about the future of surgery in the post-COVID-19 era. The COVID-19 pandemic is severely damaging surgical training. The establishment of a multidisciplinary ethics committee should be encouraged at all surgical oncology centres. Innovative leadership and collaboration is vital in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Perioperative Care/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Surgical Procedures, Operative/trends , Adult , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/trends , Female , Global Health , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Infection Control/economics , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , International Cooperation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perioperative Care/education , Perioperative Care/methods , Perioperative Care/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Surgeons/education , Surgeons/psychology , Surgeons/trends , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards
17.
Ann Surg ; 274(5): e381-e382, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455427

ABSTRACT

Virtual recruitment of candidates applying into General Surgery residency during the COVID-19 pandemic presented a number of benefits and challenges. Notable benefits for candidates included financial and resource cost savings, the ability to conduct multiple interviews within short time frame, and the ability to meet more faculty members on virtual interview day. Challenges included technological difficulties, difficulty assessing culture and authenticity of in-program relationships, zoom fatigue, and inability to form relationships with co-applicants. After assessing our experiences with these benefits and challenges, the authors recommend that future recruitment cycles maintain virtual interview days with optional, nonevaluative open house days for revisit and second look opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Faculty/organization & administration , General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Pandemics , Humans
18.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(6): 726-734, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450439

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent global pandemic has dramatically altered the anaesthesiology educational landscape in unexpected ways. It is important that we pause to learn from this crisis. RECENT FINDINGS: Most resident trainees actively caring for COVID-19 patients present with probable or subclinical finding of post-traumatic stress disorder. Anaesthesia resident training programmes evolved to continue the mission of anaesthesia education in the face of institutional restrictions and evolving clinical crises. SUMMARY: The recent global COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated how external stressors can cause significant disruption to traditional medical education pathways. Resilience to external disruptive forces in anaesthesia education include a willingness of leadership to understand the problem, flexibility in adapting to the needs of learners and instructors in the face of key challenges, deployment of technology and innovation-minded solution-finding where appropriate, and attention to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COAN/A77.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Graduate , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e428-e436, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a detrimental effect on residents' operative training. Our aim was to identify the proportion of procedures performed by residents across 2 neurosurgical centers (1 in the United Kingdom and 1 in Germany) during the pandemic-affected months of March 2020-May 2020, inclusive, compared with March 2019-May 2019, inclusive. METHODS: All neurosurgical procedures performed at the United Kingdom and German institutions, between March 1, 2019 and May 31, 2019 (pre-COVID months) and March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2020 (COVID months), were extracted and operative notes evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS version 22. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction in operative volume in the United Kingdom center from the pre-COVID months to the COVID months (χ2(5) = 84.917; P < 0.001) but no significant difference in the operative volume in the German center (P = 0.61). A Mann-Whitney U test showed a statistically significant difference in the volume of residents operating in the COVID months compared with pre-COVID months in both United Kingdom and German centers (P < 0.001). The average number of procedures performed by residents in the United Kingdom center as the primary surgeon decreased from 82 to 72 per month (pre-COVID vs. COVID months), whereas German residents' operating volume increased from 68 to 89 per month (pre-COVID vs. COVID months). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the volume of operating by neurosurgical residents in the United Kingdom center, whereas residents in the German center performed more procedures compared with 2019. This finding may reflect variations in national practice on maintaining surgical activities and provision of critical care beds during the first wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery/education , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Education, Medical, Graduate , Female , Germany , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neurosurgeons , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom , Young Adult
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