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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(6): 661-674, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933184

ABSTRACT

With the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, businesses are rapidly expanding their online practices, and the online medical care system has been established and is growing. The field of pharmacy education is also looking for ways to conduct practical online training. Hence, we developed an online role-play-based medical interview training method for fourth-year pharmacy students. The purpose of this study was to describe in detail this method and to clarify the effect of online on medical interviewing practice. The training sessions were conducted using video teleconferencing software. Two settings were used for the role-play scenarios: the pharmacy and hospital. To evaluate the effectiveness of the sessions, a questionnaire was sent to the students, and the results were analyzed using text mining. The most important requirement for successfully conducting the interviews was a stable voice connection, and we reduced audio interruptions and delays by connecting the host personal computer to a wired local area network. We also solved the problem of howling when multiple terminals were installed in the same room by muting all devices in the room. Results of the analysis of the questionnaires suggested that students were more tense online. We also found that students perceived a difference between online and face-to-face interviews in terms of eye contact and the presentation of documents. In this way, we succeeded in conducting smooth online role-playing sessions while taking countermeasures against infection. In the future, it will be necessary to devise nonverbal communication methods and digital methods of presenting the training material.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Pharmacy , Pharmacies , Students, Pharmacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Humans , Patient Care
2.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(4): 536-546, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy student proficiency in direct patient interactions is an integral component of the doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Service-learning experiences offer pharmacy students valuable opportunities to develop self-efficacy and empathy while serving communities with unmet needs. The objective of this review is to evaluate the impact of service-learning experiences on the self-efficacy and empathy of pharmacy and other health professions students. METHODS: A narrative literature review was conducted using PubMed, ERIC, and CINAHL databases. Articles were included if they described the relationship between any health professions student service-learning experience and changes in self-efficacy and empathy. Articles were excluded if they involved simulation experiences, standardized patients, or international experiences. RESULTS: A total of 11 relevant articles were identified, seven examined changes in student self-efficacy and six assessed student empathy. Articles included students representing seven health professions, with one eligible article in pharmacy. All articles investigating self-efficacy reported a positive impact of service learning on student confidence. Most articles focusing on empathy found that service learning had a positive impact on student empathy, and only one article noted a negative trend. Students with limited prior direct patient care experience had the greatest improvement in clinical confidence and empathy. IMPLICATIONS: This review adds a new perspective to the literature by evaluating evidence-based service-learning models in pharmacy education. Offering additional structured service-learning opportunities for pharmacy students fosters self-efficacy and empathy while supporting communities with unmet needs. Future studies evaluating innovative service-learning models and methods of continuous assessment within the pharmacy curriculum are warranted.


Subject(s)
Education, Pharmacy , Students, Pharmacy , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Empathy , Humans , Learning , Self Efficacy
3.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(2): 145-152, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707742

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To describe the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on teaching, research, practice, and work-life integration for pharmacy faculty at research-intensive institutions. METHODS: An online survey related to transition to remote work, impact on faculty responsibilities, demographics, and other elements was sent to nine research-intensive United States public schools/colleges of pharmacy. Respondents were asked to describe challenges in moving to remote instruction as a result of the pandemic. The 75-item survey asked respondents to rate the degree to which factors were challenging and levels of concern with the abrupt transition. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparison of means using paired samples t-tests between spring and fall semesters, for the types of students taught, and for faculty discipline. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 279 faculty (36% response rate), with 62% self-identifying as pharmacy practice faculty. The highest reported challenges were family/home responsibilities (41%), assisting children with schoolwork (28%), and availability of childcare (22%). Concerns most identified by respondents were increased workload, potential for academic dishonesty, and inability to effectively conduct hands-on activities. Practice faculty encountered barriers using telehealth and delivering virtual experiential education, while both practice and research faculty reported concerns with research progress. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has led to substantial challenges and increased workload in many areas. As the pandemic persists, administration should consider reported barriers and concerns to inform expectations. Evaluation of novel instructional design, assessment methods, and best practices in the virtual learning environment is highly encouraged to ensure student competencies are met.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Pharmacy , Pharmacy , Child , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Faculty , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Pharmacy , United States
4.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(3): 372-378, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, students at the University of Waterloo in spring 2020 enrolled in the injections training curriculum were unable to complete the practical assessment component under the usual in-person model. Therefore, an alternative assessment strategy needed to be adopted to meet these curricular outcomes. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: To allow students to complete their training and apply this skill during co-operative work placements in fall 2020, pharmacist supervisors (preceptors) who were authorized to administer injections were asked to evaluate the practical assessment on behalf of the university. Students were mailed supplies to use for practice and assessment, and preceptors were provided the grading rubric and a copy of the didactic training materials for their reference. To obtain feedback on the process and identify areas for improvement, students and supervisors were invited to complete a brief survey containing both Likert scale and open-ended questions upon completion of the assessment. FINDINGS: By fall 2020 term end, 69 of 121 students successfully completed the practical assessment component at a workplace. Survey responses indicated that, despite some challenges accommodating the assessment within a busy pharmacy's existing workflow and identifying volunteers to receive the injections, the modified assessment was well received. SUMMARY: Supervisors can be effective adjuncts to in-class instruction and assessment of injection technique. Even when initial assessments can take place at the university, providing supervisors with access to training materials and rubrics can reinforce these skills for students immediately prior to their implementation into practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Pharmacy , Students, Pharmacy , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacists
5.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(6): 1743-1749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388307

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Continuing education is essential for pharmacists to acquire and maintain the knowledge, skills, and ethical attitudes necessary for clinical practice. However, with the emergence of COVID-19, the social circumstances and face-to-face learning environments have changed. The objectives of this study were to determine Japanese pharmacists' perception of a web-based educational programme in oncology, and assess changes in their understanding of pharmaceutical care in oncology before and after their participation in the webinar. METHODS: Questionnaire-based surveys were conducted for the participants of the web-based educational programme to determine their perspectives on the webinar, and their degree of comprehension of the five cancer types covered before and after watching the webinar. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the 1936 pharmacists taking the programme, all participated in the pre-webinar survey, and 1861 (96.1%) in the post-webinar survey. Compared with previous seminars that were held in the offline mode before the COVID-19 pandemic, 76.8% of respondents were significantly satisfied with the web-based educational programme. The median post-webinar comprehension scores in all modules were significantly higher than the median pre-webinar scores (p < 0.0001). A majority of the participants agreed that a web-based educational programme was satisfactory in acquiring knowledge. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This web-based educational programme was effective for Japanese pharmacists for postgraduate education in pharmaceutical care in oncology. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to report the effectiveness of a web-based educational programme for oncology pharmacists using a large population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Continuing/methods , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Internet , Pharmacists/statistics & numerical data , Program Evaluation/methods , Adult , Female , Health Care Surveys/methods , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 85(4): 8291, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215658

ABSTRACT

Objective. To characterize the impact of COVID-19 transitions on first professional year (P1) students' domain-specific and overall well-being.Methods. All P1 students (N=74) enrolled at one college of pharmacy self-reported their career, community, financial, physical, social, and overall well-being on a weekly basis from January 6 through April 27, 2020. Parametric statistical tests and effect sizes were used to compare well-being scores pre-transition and post-transition and to compare well-being scores to a previous cohort of P1 students.Results. Mean well-being scores decreased when comparing pre-transition vs post-transition scores, with effect sizes ranging from dav=.16 for financial well-being to dav=.84 for social well-being. The average percent of students that reported struggling increased by 86.1% (16.8% vs 31.2%) post-transition, and the average percent of students that reported suffering post-transition was 351% higher (1.3% vs 6%) than pre-transition.Conclusion. Pharmacy students' domain specific and overall well-being significantly decreased with COVID-19-related transitions. The percentage of students reporting struggling or suffering significantly increased post-transition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Education, Pharmacy/statistics & numerical data , Students, Pharmacy/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Population Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transfer, Psychology
7.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 49(3): 320-322, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173781

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to an abrupt suspension of face-to-face teaching activities in higher education institutions across the globe. The instructors and faculty at most institutions have had to adapt, invent, and implement adjustments quickly to adopt an online learning environment. This has been an extraordinarily challenging time for both students and instructors, particularly as many were not aware of the affordances and weaknesses of the online learning environment before it was uptaken. Particularly for chemistry and related disciplines, this change in delivery mode is even more disruptive in courses that have laboratory components due to loss of access to laboratories. As a teaching community, it was our responsibility to respond quickly and effectively to students' learning needs during this unprecedented global crisis. In our course, we provided succinct pre-recorded lecture-videos by topic rather than live-streaming of lectures. The recordings were made available to students a minimum of 24 h before the scheduled lecture time. Students were then provided opportunities to attend live tutorial sessions (held on Zoom and live Q&A feature on Piazza) if they had any questions that they wanted to ask the lecturer directly. We believe that the asynchronous sessions were more equitable than synchronous ones. This meant that students with difficult and challenging home/learning environments (i.e., disruptions at home, work/family schedules, poor internet, limited access to devices, etc.) were minimally disadvantaged. The approach worked well in general for teaching chemistry to pharmacy students and we believe that it can be adopted for other subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemistry/education , Education, Distance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/education , Curriculum , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 881-884, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this reflection or wisdom of experience article is to describe and reflect on the impacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on experiential education (EE) leadership and teams. Additionally, this reflection will shift the focus from the spring 2020 environment of SARS-CoV-2 to what EE teams and college administration can learn from those experiences. Moving forward, EE teams and administrators can be better equipped to proactively plan for future emergencies. DESCRIPTION: Using the "What? So What? Now What?" model of reflection, this manuscript will broadly describe the experiences of three EE administrators and their teams during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Proposed lessons learned as well as future planning strategies will be presented. ANALYSIS/INTERPRETATION: The world of education was unprepared for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and most sectors were left scrambling to adjust to new models very quickly with no planning or preparation. In the realm of pharmacy education, SARS-CoV-2 caused complete disruption for pharmacy students on rotations, clinical sites, preceptors, and EE teams. In reflecting on spring 2020, much can be gained and applied to future planning efforts so that institutions can be better prepared for future crises. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: While still in the pandemic, schools must plan for the coming year. EE teams can work together to prepare for emergencies, craft contingency plans, and build additional capacity into their teams and available rotation offerings.


Subject(s)
Education, Pharmacy/methods , Preceptorship/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Students, Pharmacy/psychology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 739-742, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163593

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: One of the challenges of pharmacy schools worldwide is the need to link theoretical training with the mastery of practical skills. A virtual pharmacy simulation, MyDispense, developed by the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at Monash University, enables students to practice the skills of a professional pharmacist, from novice to highly advanced, in a safe virtual environment that is web-based and highly accessible. The free online simulation allows students to undertake scenarios where patients can present with prescription or self-care requirements, and are also challenged with validation tasks requiring them to check the work of virtual colleagues for accuracy, legality, and medicine safety. COMMENTARY: This commentary describes the use of a virtual simulation, MyDispense, in enhancing didactic instruction, complementing experiential education, and the challenges of the virtual simulation to pharmacy educators. MyDispense is now deployed to 186 schools of pharmacy across 34 countries to over 25,000 students worldwide who have completed over 963,000 exercises globally. IMPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (aka COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to pharmacy education requiring many educators to switch to remote online learning. Simulation programs, such as MyDispense, help to replicate aspects of pharmacy practice and can be used creatively to meet course needs. The use of MyDispense is an excellent example of pharmacy educators collaborating globally and learning from each other to improve student learning.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Curriculum , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Professional Competence , Humans
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(10): 890-895, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091260

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A collaborative advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) education model established within a healthcare institution during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is described. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a nationwide disruption of APPE pharmacy education. Healthcare institutions faced the challenge of educating APPE students while attempting to simultaneously de-densify work areas and reduce transmission risk for employees and patients. A pharmacist coordinator and pharmacist academic partners at a large teaching hospital created a collaborative common core curriculum model for resourceful implementation of APPE education. Healthcare network pharmacists, clinical pharmacist academic partners, and pharmacy residents delivered the curriculum to 35 pharmacy students over a 9-week time period. Main components of the curriculum included patient case discussions, topic discussions, journal club presentations, live continuing education (CE) webinars, and development of pharmacy technician CE programs. A majority of students reported positive experiences working with a variety of preceptors from different specialties (81%) and collaborating with students from other universities (62%). CONCLUSION: A health system can leverage institutional, network-wide, and academic partner resources to implement a collaborative APPE curriculum during challenging times such as those experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curriculum , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Pandemics , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Adult , Education, Pharmacy, Continuing , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , Male , Pharmacists , Pharmacy Residencies , Pharmacy Technicians/education , Students, Pharmacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(1): 22-24, 2021 01.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054910

ABSTRACT

The output of medical and scientific literature is on the rise and the health emergency caused by the covid-19 pandemic has led to a further growth in the number of articles published each year in International medical journals. Finding your way around this ocean of information is very difficult: the critical evaluation of scientific documentation requires time and specific skills, which are not easy to acquire. In addition to doctors and nurses, hospital and clinical pharmacists also struggle to keep up to date. Also for this reason, many institutions and various players in the publishing arena are developing tools that enable health personnel to access the best scientific knowledge, minimizing the risk inherent in the individually performed evaluation of evidence. In any case, it is essential to reconsider and update the methods of continuous education of the hospital pharmacist, also considering the changes that have taken place in his role, now integrated into the clinical teams together with the other professionals who guarantee health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Continuing , Education, Pharmacy , Information Seeking Behavior , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Evidence-Based Medicine , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Information Dissemination , Internet , Peer Review, Research , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Publishing/standards , Publishing/trends , Smartphone , Thinking
16.
Farm Hosp ; 44(7): 71-73, 2020 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599561

ABSTRACT

The health crisis situation we have experienced caused by the SARSCoV-2 virus  has changed our daily life in numerous aspects, including those related to  training (undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing education, etc). Training  activities, conferences, lectures, face-to-face workshops were suspended until  the Health Situation was over. Alternatives to face-to-face training were needed  to guarantee the continuity of these activities. Online training, teaching and  evaluation emerged as a relatively fast, simple, operational and flexible solution. Universities and faculties promoted online teaching through virtual  classes. The Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy supported this initiative by  signing an agreement with the Board of Deans and Chancellors of Pharmacy to  make it possible for undergraduate students to continue their studies and  supervised practices in hospital pharmacy departments. Specialized training was  affected. Pharmacy residency programs were significantly modified by hospital  pharmacies to be able to provide the new clinical and research activities  required, everyday, by the pandemic situation. Postgraduate and residency  training were also negatively affected. Again, online activities made up for  restrictions to face-to-face teaching and training. The Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy promoted continuing education and provided updated information on  the SARS-CoV-2 virus through its website. Thus, numerous virtual sessions,  lectures and webinars have been held, and high-quality material was offered to  provide up-todate knowledge, on the pharmacological management of patients  with COVID-19. Online teaching and education has demonstrated to be an  invaluable tool for hard times. During the lockdown, technology has kept us  closer and has emerged as an ally. Many of us have found a new means of  communication, information, and training. The Spanish Society of Hospital  Pharmacy has substantially contributed to make it possible.


La situación de crisis sanitaria que hemos vivido con motivo de la pandemia causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 ha cambiado nuestro día a día en muchos aspectos, incluidos los relacionados con nuestra formación (de  pregrado, especializada, continuada, etc.). Se suspendieron las actividades docentes, congresos, charlas y talleres presenciales hasta la  resolución de la situación sanitaria. Era necesario buscar alternativas a la  presencialidad que garantizasen la continuidad de estas actividades. La  formación, docencia y evaluación en línea se presentaba como una solución  relativamente rápida, sencilla, operativa y flexible. Desde las universidades y  facultades se promovía la docencia en remoto con material docente y clases  virtuales. La Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria ha facilitado esta  iniciativa al firmar un convenio con la Conferencia de Decanos de Farmacia para  que estudiantes matriculados en Prácticas tuteladas, y en formación en un  servicio de farmacia hospitalaria, pudieran seguir con sus estudios de pregrado. La formación especializada resultó afectada. Los planes de formación de los farmacéuticos internos residentes requirieron cambios  importantes por la necesidad de dar respuesta desde los servicios de farmacia a  las nuevas actividades asistenciales y de investigación que se producían, cada día de manera cambiante, en la situación de pandemia. La formación continuada de los especialistas (y residentes) quedó también alterada. De nuevo, las  actividades en línea permitieron salvar, en cierto grado, el déficit de actividades  docentes y formativas. A través de su página web, la Sociedad Española de  Farmacia Hospitalaria promovió la formación continuada y el seguimiento de la  actualidad sobre la pandemia por el virus SARS-CoV-2; organizó sesiones  virtuales, jornadas y talleres en formato webinar y proporcionó material de alta  calidad que facilitaba el conocimiento, en tiempo real, de la gestión del  tratamiento farmacológico en pacientes con COVID-19. La aplicación de la  docencia y formación en línea ha demostrado ser una herramienta  imprescindible en tiempos complicados, como los vividos. Durante el  confinamiento, la tecnología nos ha acercado y se ha convertido en la gran  aliada. También ha supuesto el descubrimiento, para muchos de nosotros, de  una nueva manera de comunicarnos, informarnos y formarnos. La Sociedad  Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria ha colaborado de manera importante a que  esto sea así.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Education, Pharmacy/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Pharmacy, Continuing/methods , Education, Pharmacy, Continuing/organization & administration , Forecasting , Humans , Internet , Internship, Nonmedical/methods , Internship, Nonmedical/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Scientific
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