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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938821

ABSTRACT

The study had four objectives: (a) identifying and characterizing strategies for involving parents of students with SEN (students with special educational needs) in remote education during the COVID-19 pandemic; (b) comparing these strategies with those used by parents of students without SEN (non-SEN students); (c) identifying predictors of parental involvement in the remote education of students with SEN; (d) checking whether the identified strategies differentiate the perceived barriers and benefits of remote learning. In total, 421 parents of primary school students participated in the study, 83 of whom (20%) were parents of children with SEN (SEN group). Based on the factor analysis of the results (respondents completed a 66-item electronic questionnaire), three main strategies for parental involvement in children's remote education were identified: (1) committed teacher (CT), with 40% in the SEN group and 55% in the non-SEN group; (2) autonomy-supporting coach (ASC), with 22% in the SEN group and 26% in the non-SEN group; (3) committed teacher and reliever (CTR), with 38% in the SEN group and 19% in the non-SEN group. The strongest predictor of parental involvement with SEN students in the role of committed teacher was excessive demands from school. Parents whose children showed low motivation to learn were the most likely to do some of their children's school tasks for them and apply the committed teacher and reliever strategy. The positive aspects of remote education were mostly noticed by moderately committed parents who gave their children a lot of autonomy (autonomy-supporting coaches). The obtained results can be included in the optimization of schools' activities in terms of organizing remote education for students with SEN and cooperating with parents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Special , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Poland , Students
2.
J Community Psychol ; 50(3): 1768-1772, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520227

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on special education teachers. Of 468 surveyed across the United States, 38.4% met clinical criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, a rate 12.4 times greater than the U.S. population, and 37.6% for major depressive disorder, a rate 5.6 times greater than the population. Race/ethnicity, gender, or school funding was not related to mental health. The impact of the pandemic was moderate to extreme on stress (91%), depression (58%), anxiety (76%), and emotional exhaustion (83%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Education, Special , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 141-149, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463115

ABSTRACT

Amid the COVID-19 crisis, children with special needs may have challenges. To determine emotional and behavioral challenges, 116 children aged 4 to 6 years, who received special education, were evaluated. COVID-19 negatively affected the families at a rate of 94.6%; 76.5% of the children's daily routines were worsened. Although the one-on-one time duration with the mother and father increased (73.5% and 66.7%), reading books (40.6%), play (17.2%), and overall activity durations (25.7%) decreased. The median screen time increased from 1 to 3 hours. According to the families, there was a regression in development in 18.8% of children. Special education practices at home were ceased by 17.2% of families, and a significant difference was found between the groups with and without regression in development in terms of the frequency of continuing special education at home. The development of children with special needs is an ongoing urgent situation; thus, besides protecting and promoting physical health during the pandemic, families and children should also be supported for developmental needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disabled Children/statistics & numerical data , Education, Special/standards , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disabled Children/psychology , Disabled Children/rehabilitation , Education, Special/methods , Education, Special/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 377-387, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442722

ABSTRACT

School psychologists play a critical role in school-based Autism (AU) evaluations. Evidence-based AU evaluations should be multimodal, include multiple informants, and assess functioning across several domains. In the current era of COVID-19, school-based AU evaluations have become increasingly complex with school psychologists having to significantly adapt face-to-face evaluation procedures and/or conduct evaluations via teleassessment approaches. This poses profound challenges for some families, many of whom are from vulnerable groups. In the current article, we outline school psychologists' traditional role in school-based AU evaluations and review best practice guidelines. We then discuss the impact of COVID-19 on these processes and provide a framework for school psychologists to use when conducting school-based AU evaluations during this unprecedented time. We also provide resources school psychologists may find useful as they conduct school-based AU evaluations during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Psychology , School Mental Health Services , Schools , Telemedicine , Behavior Rating Scale , Child , Education, Special , Humans , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychology/instrumentation , Psychology/methods , Psychology/standards , School Mental Health Services/standards , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards
6.
Autism ; 26(4): 889-899, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341429

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) disrupted how special educators provided supports and services for students with autism spectrum disorder. School closures and the related pivoting between learning modalities (i.e. virtual, hybrid, and face-to-face) were difficult for all students, but especially for students with autism, who rely on routine and require individualized instruction. In this study, we surveyed 106 special education teachers, behavior specialists, and speech pathologists who work with autistic students to learn about how they adapted instruction to comply with the complex social distancing rules and changing expectations of the pandemic. Participants reported "making the best out of a bad situation" and "constantly using 'trial & error' to find the best way for our students to eLearn." They emphasized the importance of collaboration with parents, who helped deliver intervention and monitor progress across settings. They made alterations to Individualized Education Programs, by adding individualized contingency learning plans, adjusting service minutes, and sometimes eliminating social goals. Participants were surprised that while students with more intense needs struggled, others actually preferred virtual instruction. This raises concerns for what will happen in the future, when social expectations resume. Despite the overwhelming challenges posed by COVID-19, participants demonstrated remarkable resiliency and an innovative ability to adapt instruction.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Education, Special/trends , Education, Distance/standards , Humans , Students
7.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 52(6): 2656-2669, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291768

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected people across the world. The current study examined anxiety and worries during the first UK national lockdown in March 2020. Parents (n = 402) reported on their own anxiety and worries as well as that of their son/daughter with Special Education Needs and Disabilities (SEND) and typically developing (TD) child (n = 186) at three time points. Although both groups showed increased anxiety across the three time points, levels of anxiety in the SEND group, but not the TD siblings, were predicted by awareness about COVID-19. In addition, worries differed between the groups showing that COVID-19 impacts the wellbeing of those with SEND differently to that of their TD siblings.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Education, Special , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Autism ; 25(4): 1047-1059, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030252

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: The lockdown and home isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant transformation in lifestyles. Being a parent in this situation was not easy for anyone, much less for parents of children with special needs. The shutting down of special education systems meant that parents lost a vital support network and had to be the sole full-time caregivers despite often lacking the skills to cope with this new and daunting situation. We interviewed parents and learned that the main difficulties faced by homebound autistic children stemmed from the change in routine, lack of special education services, limited physical space, and food- and sleep-related issues. Some children experienced worsening in behavioral, social, and developmental domains, yet others seemed to not only overcome the challenges of changing conditions but even benefit from them. The children's success or failure was directly related to how their parents coped. The key factors that enabled successful coping were the parents' ability to accommodate to the child's needs, their own creativeness and resourcefulness, and a generally positive outlook. The results of this analysis revealed that the best way to benefit autistic children caught up in drastic changes in their routine lifestyle is to invest in a strong support system for their parents.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19 , Parents/psychology , Physical Distancing , Autistic Disorder/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Education, Special , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Resilience, Psychological
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 109: 103830, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization, the COVID-19 pandemic sweeps across the world inducing considerable fear, worry and concern in the population. AIMS: This study explores anxiety, meaning in life, self-efficacy and resilience in university students belonging to families with one or more members with SEND during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece, the differences between participants and the regression coefficients. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Study population consisted of 61 participants, aged 20-58 years. A Self-report Questionnaire, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Resilience Scale and the Brief Resilience Scale were used for data collection. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Participants presented higher levels of anxiety, meaning in life (presence), general self-efficacy and resilience (than average scale). Parents had higher values than university students in state anxiety, state-trait anxiety (total), meaning in life (presence) and resilience. Individuals with higher levels of resilience and meaning in life had lower anxiety levels. A significant correlation was observed for the regression coefficients according to pathway analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Families having members with SEND, although experiencing difficult situations and anxiety due to the unprecedented conditions of the pandemic, activate mechanisms, such as self-efficacy, meaning in life and resilience, to maintain their balance and mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Disabled Children , Education, Special , Family Health , Parents/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Disabled Children/education , Disabled Children/psychology , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy , Students/psychology
10.
J Pediatr Rehabil Med ; 13(3): 425-431, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970975

ABSTRACT

Over 80% of the children in the world have had their education impacted by COVID-19. For children with disabilities who receive special education services, access to in-person education and other resources at school is particularly important. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates for students to attend school in person, without specifics for how children with disabilities can safely return to school. To appropriately plan and accommodate children with disabilities we must prioritize safety, allow for adherence to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and preserve essential school staff. The less cumbersome default of confining students with disabilities to home is not acceptable. We provide an outline describing why Individual Education Plans and 504 plans are important, how they are related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and recommendations for measures to help with safe return to school for children with disabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disabled Children/statistics & numerical data , Education, Special/organization & administration , Pandemics , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Child , Comorbidity , Humans , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(5): 1772-1780, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690251

ABSTRACT

Parents of children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities in the UK (n = 241) were asked to describe the impact of COVID-19 on their own mental health and that of their child. An inductive content analysis of the data was undertaken. Both parents and children appear to be experiencing loss, worry and changes in mood and behaviour as a result of the rapid social changes that have occurred. Some parents reported feeling overwhelmed and described the impact of child understanding and awareness. Finally, a minority of parents reported that COVID-19 has had little impact on mental health in their family, or has even led to improvements. Implications for how to support these families in the immediate future are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Education, Special/trends , Family/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Parents/psychology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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