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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605662

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Despite strong efforts that have been taking place to control the pandemic globally, the virus is on the rise in many countries. Hence, this study assessed the maternal health care services utilization amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in West Shoa zone, Central Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 844 pregnant women or those who gave birth in the last 6 months before the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the presence of significant associations, and an adjusted odds ratio with 95%CI was employed for the strength and directions of association between the independent and outcome variables. A P-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. The prevalence of maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic was 64.8%. The odds of maternal health service utilization was higher among mothers who had primary (AOR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.29-3.60), secondary (AOR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.13-3.44), and college and above education (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.34-6.22) than those who could not read and write. Besides, mothers who did travel 30-60 minutes (AOR = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.23-0.59) and 60-90minutes (AOR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05-0.19) to reach the health facility had a lower odds of maternal health service utilization than those who did travel <30 minutes. Moreover, mothers who earn 1000-2000 (AOR = 3.10, 95%CI: 1.73-5.55) and > 2000 birrs (AOR = 2.66 95%CI: 1.52-4.64) had higher odds of maternal health service utilization than those who earn <500 birrs. Similarly, the odds of utilizing maternal health service were higher among mothers who did not fear COVID-19 infection (AOR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.85-4.20), who had not had to request permission from husband to visit the health facility (AOR = 7.24, 95%CI: 2.65-19.75), who had practicedCOVID-19 prevention measure (AOR = 5.82, 95%CI: 3.87-8.75), and used face mask (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.28-3.31) than their counterpart. Empowering mothers and creating awareness on COVID-19 preventionis recommended to improve maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Masks , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As advocated by WHO in "Closing the Health Gap in a Generation", dramatic differences in child health are closely linked to degrees of social disadvantage, both within and between communities. Nevertheless, research has not examined whether child health inequalities include, but are not confined to, worse acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms among the socioeconomic disadvantaged in Pakistan. In addition to such disadvantages as the child's gender, maternal education, and household poverty, the present study also examined the linkages between the community environment and ARI symptoms among Pakistan children under five. Furthermore, we have assessed gender contingencies related to the aforementioned associations. METHODS: Using data from the nationally representative 2017-2018 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, a total of 11,908 surviving preschool age children (0-59 months old) living in 561 communities were analyzed. We employed two-level multilevel logistic regressions to model the relationship between ARI symptoms and individual-level and community-level social factors. RESULTS: The social factors at individual and community levels were found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of the child suffering from ARI symptoms. A particularly higher risk was observed among girls who resided in urban areas (AOR = 1.42; p<0.01) and who had a birth order of three or greater. DISCUSSIONS: Our results underscore the need for socioeconomic interventions in Pakistan that are targeted at densely populated households and communities within urban areas, with a particular emphasis on out-migration, in order to improve unequal economic underdevelopment. This could be done by targeting improvements in socio-economic structures, including maternal education.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Child, Preschool , Educational Status , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Male , Multilevel Analysis , Pakistan/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Urban Population
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581731

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 has resulted in a transition from physical education to online learning, leading to a collapse of the established educational order and a wisdom test for the education governance system. As a country seriously affected by the pandemic, the health of the Indian higher education system urgently requires assessment to achieve sustainable development and maximize educational externalities. This research systematically proposes a health assessment model from four perspectives, including educational volume, efficiency, equality, and sustainability, by employing the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution Model, Principal Component Analysis, DEA-Tobit Model, and Augmented Solow Model. Empirical results demonstrate that India has high efficiency and an absolute health score in the higher education system through multiple comparisons between India and the other selected countries while having certain deficiencies in equality and sustainability. Additionally, single-target and multiple-target path are simultaneously proposed to enhance the Indian current education system. The multiple-target approach of the India-China-Japan-Europe-USA process is more feasible to achieve sustainable development, which would improve the overall health score from .351 to .716. This finding also reveals that the changes are relatively complex and would take 91.5 years considering the relationship between economic growth rates and crucial indicators. Four targeted policies are suggested for each catching-up period, including expanding and increasing the social funding sources, striving for government expenditure support to improve infrastructures, imposing gender equality in education, and accelerating the construction of high-quality teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Educational Status , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustainable Development , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Principal Component Analysis/methods , United States/epidemiology
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1618-1624, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The paper aims to estimate consumers' demand for personal protecting products (PPP) from COVID-19. Thus, the paper collected primary data on consumers' demand for PPP utilizing the timeframe of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The paper uses two sample t-test and Anova test to examine mean differences in the quantity consumed of PPP. Also, the paper uses Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) to estimate the responsiveness of quantity demanded of PPP for changes in prices and consumers' income. RESULTS: The results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demanded of facemasks among men and women. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demand for facemasks, gloves, and hand sanitizer based on respondents' level of education. In addition, the paper analyzed the effect of price and income changes on quantity demanded of PPP. The findings indicate that the quantity demanded of facemask and gloves are sensitive to changes in consumers' income. Also, soap, hand sanitizer, and gloves were recognized as complementary products. Furthermore, facemasks were identified as a complementary product with glove use. Lastly, the own-price elasticities of demand revealed that the demand for PPP is price insensitive. CONCLUSIONS: the paper recommends that the consumer protection unit closely monitor the prices of PPP since the sellers have an opportunity to increase those products prices and maximize their revenue by exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfectants/economics , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , N95 Respirators/economics , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 739270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572341

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health with the level of education, relationship status, and awareness on mental health among low-income earners in Western Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among 253 participants. Anxiety, anger, and depression were assessed using a modified generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, and Beck Depression Inventory item tools, respectively. Results: The majority of our respondents were male (n = 150/253, 59.3), had a secondary level of education (104/253, 41.1), and were single (137/253, 54.2). No formal education and primary education (r 2 = 47.4% and 6.4%, respectively) had a negative correlation with awareness of mental health care. In addition, no formal education had a positive correlation with anger and depression (r 2 = 1.9% and 0.3%, respectively). Singleness in this study had a negative correlation with awareness of mental health care, anger, and depression (r 2 = 1.9, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively), and a positive correlation with anxiety (r 2 = 3.9%). Conclusion: It is evident that education and relationship status influenced awareness on mental health care and mental health state among low-income earners in Western Uganda during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Therefore, policymakers should strengthen social transformation through the proper engagement of low-income earners in this COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138904, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567895
7.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 263-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535083

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTS: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chile/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 28-37, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the cancellation of in-person testing across the country. We sought to understand the feasibility of conducting virtual oral examinations as well as solicit opinions of vascular surgery program directors (PD) regarding the use of virtual platforms to conduct both low stakes mock oral examinations with their trainees and potentially "real" high stakes certifying examinations (CE) moving forward. METHODS: Forty-four senior vascular surgery trainees from 17 institutions took part in a virtual mock oral examination conducted by 38 practicing vascular surgeons via Zoom. Each examination lasted 30 minutes with four clinical scenarios. An anonymous survey pertaining to the conduct of the examination and opinions on feasibility of using virtual examinations for the vascular surgery CE was sent to all examiners and examinees. A similar survey was sent to all vascular surgery program directors. RESULTS: The overall pass rate was 82% (36/44 participants) with no correlation with training paradigm. 32/44 (73%) of trainees, 29/38 (76%) of examiners and 49/103 (48%) of PDs completed the surveys. Examinees and examiners thought the experience was beneficial and PDs also thought the experience would be beneficial for their trainees. While the majority of trainees and examiners believed they were able to communicate and express (or evaluate) knowledge and confidence as easily virtually as in person, PDs were less likely to agree confidence could be assessed virtually. The majority of respondents thought the CE of the Vascular Surgery Board of the American Board of Surgery could be offered virtually, although no groups thought virtual exams were superior to in person exams. While cost benefit was perceived in virtual examinations, the security of the examination was a concern. CONCLUSIONS: Performing virtual mock oral examinations for vascular surgery trainees is feasible. Both vascular surgery trainees as well as PDs feel that virtual CEs should be considered by the Vascular Surgery Board.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Certification , Education, Medical, Graduate , Educational Measurement , Internship and Residency , Surgeons/education , Vascular Surgical Procedures/education , Clinical Competence , Educational Status , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Test Taking Skills , Verbal Behavior
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 384, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are among high-risk groups for COVID-19. Africa is the continent with the lowest number of cases in the general population but we have little information about the disease burden in dialysis patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the hemodialysis population of Senegal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional survey, between June and September 2020 involving 10 public dialysis units randomly selected in eight regions of Senegal. After seeking their consent, we included 303 patients aged ≥ 18 years and hemodialysis for ≥ 3 months. Clinical symptoms and biological parameters were collected from medical records. Patients' blood samples were tested with Abbott SARS-CoV-2 Ig G assay using an Architect system. Statistical tests were performed with STATA 12.0. RESULTS: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 21.1% (95% CI = 16.7-26.1%). We noticed a wide variability in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence between regions ranging from 5.6 to 51.7%. Among the 38 patients who underwent nasal swab testing, only six had a PCR-confirmed infection and all of them did seroconvert. Suggestive clinical symptoms were reported by 28.1% of seropositive patients and the majority of them presented asymptomatic disease. After multivariate analysis, a previous contact with a confirmed case and living in a high population density region were associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CONCLUSION: This study presents to our knowledge the first seroprevalence data in African hemodialysis patients. Compared to data from other continents, we found a higher proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but a lower lethality rate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Geography, Medical , Health Surveys , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Population Density , Prevalence , Senegal/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132777, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516694

ABSTRACT

Importance: A slow or incomplete civil registry makes it impossible to determine excess mortality due to COVID-19 and difficult to inform policy. Objective: To quantify the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with excess mortality and household income in rural Bangladesh in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated survey study is based on an in-person census followed by 2 rounds of telephone calls. Data were collected from a sample of 135 villages within a densely populated 350-km2 rural area of Bangladesh. Household data were obtained first in person and subsequently over the telephone. For the analysis, mortality data were stratified by month, age, sex, and household education. Mortality rates were modeled by bayesian multilevel regression, and the strata were aggregated to the population by poststratification. Data analysis was performed from February to April 2021. Exposures: Date and cause of any changes in household composition, as well as changes in income and food availability. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality rates were compared for 2019 and 2020, both without adjustment and after adjustment for nonresponse and differences in demographic variables between surveys. Income and food availability reported for January, May, and November 2020 were also compared. Results: Enumerators collected data from an initial 16 054 households in January 2020; 14 551 households (91%) responded when contacted again by telephone in May 2020, and 11 933 households (74%)responded when reached again over the telephone in November 2020, for a total of 58 806 individuals (29 726 female participants [50.5%]; mean [SD] age, 26.4 [19.8] years). A total of 276 deaths were reported between February and the end of October 2020 for the subset of the population that could be contacted twice over the telephone, slightly below the 289 deaths reported for the same population over the same period in 2019. After adjustment for survey nonresponse and poststratification, 2020 mortality changed by -8% (95% CI, -21% to 7%) compared with an annualized mortality of 6.1 deaths per 1000 individuals in 2019. However, in May 2020, salaried primary income earners reported a 40% decrease in monthly income (from 17 485 to 10 835 Bangladeshi Taka), and self-employed earners reported a 60% decrease in monthly income (23 083 to 8521 Bangladeshi Taka), with only a small recovery observed by November 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of households in rural Bangladesh, all-cause mortality was lower in 2020 compared with 2019. Restrictions imposed by the government may have limited the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic in rural areas, although economic data suggest that these restrictions need to be accompanied by expanded welfare programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Family Characteristics , Income , Pandemics , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Educational Status , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
12.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Latency , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512291

ABSTRACT

There is a need for trained health professionals who can swiftly respond to disasters occurring worldwide. Little is known about whether the currently available programmes in disaster management are in line with the recommendations of expert researchers. Our objective was to qualitatively review the characteristics of European educational programmes in health emergency and disaster management and to provide guidance to help improve their curricula. We carried out an integrative review to extract the main characteristics of the 2020/21 programmes available. We identified 34 programmes, the majority located in Spain, the UK or France. The primary qualification types awarded were master's degrees, half of them lasting one year, and the most common teaching method was in person. Almost all of the programmes used a virtual university classroom, a third offered multidisciplinary disaster management content and teachers, and half of them employed situational simulations. The quality of European educational programmes in health emergency and disaster management has improved, especially in terms of using more practical and interactive teaching methodologies and in the inclusion of relevant topics such as communication, psychological approaches and evaluation of the interventions. However, generally, the educational programmes in disaster management have not yet incorporated the skills related to the intercultural and interprofessional awareness aspects.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Curriculum , Educational Status , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Humans
14.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(6S): S23-S30, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study projects the potential impact of COVID-19 on child marriage in the five countries in which the burden of child marriage is the largest: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Nigeria. METHODS: The projected impact of the pandemic on child marriage is based on a Markov model. A review of empirical and theoretical literature informed construction and parameter estimates of five pathways through which we expect an elevated marriage hazard: death of a parent, interruption of education, pregnancy risk, household income shocks, and reduced access to programs and services. Models are produced for an unmitigated scenario and a mitigated scenario in which effective interventions are applied to reduce the impact. RESULTS: The total number of excess child marriages in these five countries could range from 3.5 million to 4.9 million in the unmitigated scenario and from 1.8 million to 2.7 million in the mitigated scenario. The elevated risk compared with the baseline projection would continue until 2035. CONCLUSIONS: These projections represent the impact in five countries that account for 50% of child marriages globally, implying that if similar patterns hold, we might expect the number of excess child marriages due to the pandemic to reach 7 million to 10 million globally. These estimates are necessarily subject to high levels of uncertainty because of limited evidence on the impacts in relation to child marriage and for parameter estimates. It will likely take years to understand the full impact of the pandemic. Despite these limitations, the potential for harm is unquestionably large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Marriage , Child , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21751, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504251

ABSTRACT

Adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) remains critical to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Using self-reported adherence to NPIs in Canada, assessed through a national cross-sectional survey of 4498 respondents, we aimed to identify and characterize non-adopters of NPIs, evaluating their attitudes and behaviours to understand barriers and facilitators of adoption. A cluster analysis was used to group adopters separately from non-adopters of NPIs. Associations with sociodemographic factors, attitudes towards COVID-19 and the public health response were assessed using logistic regression models comparing non-adopters to adopters. Of the 4498 respondents, 994 (22%) were clustered as non-adopters. Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with the non-adoption cluster were: (1) being male, (2) age 18-34 years, (3) Albertans, (4) lower education level and (5) higher conservative political leaning. Participants who expressed low concern for COVID-19 and distrust towards several institutions had greater odds of being non-adopters. This information characterizes individuals at greatest odds for non-adoption of NPIs to inform targeted marketing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alberta/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Health Literacy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Politics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemics of COVID-19 in student populations at universities were a key concern for the 2020-2021 school year. The University of California (UC) System developed a set of recommendations to reduce campus infection rates. SARS-CoV-2 test results are summarized for the ten UC campuses during the Fall 2020 term. METHODS: UC mitigation efforts included protocols for the arrival of students living on-campus students, non-pharmaceutical interventions, daily symptom monitoring, symptomatic testing, asymptomatic surveillance testing, isolation and quarantine protocols, student ambassador programs for health education, campus health and safety pledges, and lowered density of on-campus student housing. We used data from UC campuses, the UC Health-California Department of Public Health Data Modeling Consortium, and the U.S. Census to estimate the proportion of each campus' student populations that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and compared it to the fraction individuals aged 20-29 years who tested positive in their respective counties. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 cases in campus populations were generally low in September and October 2020, but increased in November and especially December, and were highest in early to mid-January 2021, mirroring case trajectories in their respective counties. Many students were infected during the Thanksgiving and winter holiday recesses and were detected as cases upon returning to campus. The proportion of students who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during Fall 2020 ranged from 1.2% to 5.2% for students living on campus and was similar to students living off campus. For most UC campuses the proportion of students testing positive was lower than that for the 20-29-year-old population in which campuses were located. CONCLUSIONS: The layered mitigation approach used on UC campuses, informed by public health science and augmented perhaps by a more compliant population, likely minimized campus transmission and outbreaks and limited transmission to surrounding communities. University policies that include these mitigation efforts in Fall 2020 along with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, may alleviate some local concerns about college students returning to communities and facilitate resumption of normal campus operations and in-person instruction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , California/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Educational Status , Epidemics , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Quarantine , Students , Young Adult
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2135592, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490647
18.
Med Educ ; 55(11): 1310-1311, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483927
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 680726, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477886

ABSTRACT

Introduction/Objective: Pandemic of COVID-19 is a major public health problem. At the time of development of this study, no specific medication/vaccine for this disease was approved. Therefore, preventive measures were the main key to control this pandemic. Health literacy (HL) is the ability to obtain, understand and use the information to make free and informed decisions about the health of an individual and to promote community empowerment. Thus, the HL of COVID-19 is important for community empowerment and the adoption of preventive measures. This article aims to understand possible predictors of HL of COVID-19, functional domain. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed, applying the Questionnaire of COVID-19 (previously designed and submitted to a preliminary pilot testing) through an online platform from April 23 to June 23, 2020. An Index of Health Knowledge of COVID-19 Questionnaire (IHK-COV19) was constructed. Associations between independent variables ("Gender," "Age," "Education," and "Risk Factor" for COVID-19 codified by ICPC-2) and HL were assessed using multivariate analyses (mixed effects models). The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Our sample includes 864 subjects (median age, 44.33 years), mostly women (n = 619; 71.76%), undergraduate (n = 392; 45.37%) and with at least one risk factor for COVID-19 (n = 266; 30.79%). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated "Age" as a negative predictor of IHK-COV19 and "Education" and "Risk Factor" as positive predictors of IHK-COV19. Conclusions: Health knowledge regarding COVID-19 is associated with the level of education. Future interventions should consider including HL mechanisms in interventions designed to improve communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051574, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the relationship between initial school closures and children's health by comparing health and well-being outcomes collected during school closures (April-June 2020) via HAPPEN (the Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network) with data from the same period in 2019 and 2018 via the HAPPEN Survey. SETTING: The study was conducted online with 161 primary schools across Wales involved in the 'HAPPEN At Home' Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected via the 'HAPPEN At Home' Survey capturing the typical health behaviours of children aged 8-11 years from 1333 participants across Wales. These data were compared with data in 2018 and 2019 also collected between April and June, from HAPPEN (2019 (n=1150) and 2018 (n=475)). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes included validated measures of physical activity, screen time, diet and dental health, as well as well-being, competency and autonomy. Free school meal (FSM) status was used as a proxy for socioeconomic deprivation. Analyses were repeated stratifying by FSM. RESULTS: Comparing responses between April-June in 2020 (n=1068), 2019 (n=1150) and 2018 (n=475), there were improvements in physical activity levels, sleep time, happiness and general well-being for children during school closures compared with previous years. However, children on FSM ate fewer fruits and vegetables (21% less at five or more portions of fruits and vegetables (95% CI: 5.7% to 37%)) and had lower self-assessed school competence compared with 2019. Compared with those not on FSM, they also spent less time doing physical activity (13.03%, 95% CI: 3.3% to 21.7%) and consumed more takeaways (16.3%, 95% CI: 2% to 30%) during school closures. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that schools are important in reducing inequalities in physical health. The physical health (eg, physical activity and diet) of children eligible for FSM may be affected by prolonged school closures.


Subject(s)
Information Storage and Retrieval , Schools , Child , Educational Status , Humans , United Kingdom , Wales
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