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2.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497818

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Subject(s)
Authorship , Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Women , COVID-19 , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Medicine , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Physicians, Women/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Social Isolation , United States
5.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3031-3033, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457251

ABSTRACT

In this Neuron Q&A, Alejandro Schinder highlights the value of basic science in paving the way for the rapid development of vaccines and diagnostic tools. He discusses the special challenges faced in lower-income countries and how his lab has created resources for helping each other navigate lockdown and maintain good spirits.


Subject(s)
Neurosciences/trends , COVID-19 , Congresses as Topic , Efficiency , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Pandemics , Students
7.
Work ; 69(4): 1171-1189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the COVID-19 pandemic, organizations embraced Work From Home (WFH). An important component of transitioning to WFH is the effect on workers, particularly related to their productivity and work experience. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine how worker-, workspace-, and work-related factors affected productivity and time spent at a workstation on a typical WFH day during the pandemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire was designed and administered to collect the necessary information. Data from 988 respondents were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Overall perception of productivity level among workers did not change relative to their in-office productivity before the pandemic. Female, older, and high-income workers were likely to report increased productivity. Productivity was positively influenced by better mental and physical health statuses, having a teenager, increased communication with coworkers and having a dedicated room for work. Number of hours spent at a workstation increased by approximately 1.5 hours during a typical WFH day. Longer hours were reported by individuals who had school age children, owned an office desk or an adjustable chair, and had adjusted their work hours. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight key factors for employers and employees to consider for improving the WFH experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Efficiency , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1175-1176, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368018
9.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(10): 1306-1311, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343174

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to the largescale scope of the COVID-19 pandemic, strain on the higher education system in the United States has been extraordinary. Yet, with any crisis, there is the opportunity to learn, grow, and develop new knowledge and strategies to benefit educational programs moving forward. The purpose of this study is to describe the leadership lessons learned by academic pharmacy during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of administrators, faculty, and students. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of qualitative data provided by three focus groups. Each focus group was composed of one of three distinct college of pharmacy constituencies: (1) members of the college's executive team, (2) faculty members who currently or in the recent past served in college leadership positions, and (3) students in an elective pharmacy leadership course. Focus groups were semi-structured, and discussion concerned leadership lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. A modified form of inductive content analysis and abstraction was used to assess qualitative data collected during the focus groups. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged across all three focus groups, which include open and ongoing communication, staying connected, turning crisis into opportunity, being adaptable/flexible, and finding ways to stay productive. Themes unique to each focus group were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Core leadership lessons in emergent situations like the COVID-19 pandemic, including adaptability to the changing environment and communicating accurately and with appropriate frequency, illustrate the need for flexibility during times of crisis and highlight areas of focus for future planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Pharmacy , Faculty , Leadership , Students, Pharmacy , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Efficiency , Focus Groups , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Retrospective Studies , United States
10.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12242, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to characterize the working environment, stress levels, and psychological detachment of employees working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines and investigate their relationship to productivity and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of workstation characteristics, stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms to productivity and the indirect effect of psychological detachment to productivity. Data were gathered from a survey of employees working from home during the pandemic from different industries (n = 352). Multigroup analysis was also conducted to determine the effect of age, having a spouse, and having children less than 18 years old, to the model. RESULTS: Ergonomic suitability of the workstation (WES) has a significant effect on musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) (ß = -0.31, SE = 0.06; p < .001). Both workstation suitability (ß = -0.24, SE = 0.03; p < .001) and workstation ergonomic suitability (ß = -0.18, SE = 0.01; p < .01) inversely affect STR. Psychological detachment has a significant inverse effect on stress (ß = -0.31, SE = 0.07; p < .001) and stress has a significant negative effect on productivity (ß = -0.13, SE = 0.09; p = .03). Multigroup analyses showed that stress significantly affected the productivity of those without spouses and young employees. CONCLUSION: Workstation suitability helps improve the productivity of people working from home while stress negatively affects it. Workstation ergonomic suitability and musculoskeletal symptoms have no significant effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency , Teleworking , Adult , Ergonomics , Female , Humans , Male , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Philippines , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace , Young Adult
12.
Clin Imaging ; 76: 195-198, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220116

ABSTRACT

Achieving promotion in rank is considered an important measure of career success for academic radiologists. Multiple studies have shown prevailing gender inequities disadvantaging women in medicine. The recent global pandemic due to COVID-19 has affected all parts of society but has disproportionately impacted women and may delay academic promotion of female academic radiologists. We reviewed the evidence regarding the potential career impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on female radiologists. The pandemic has disproportionately increased women's domestic and childcare responsibilities and decreased female researchers' productivity which may delay academic promotion. Strategies to address the problem of delayed promotion of female radiologists include raising awareness, mentorship and sponsorship, operational flexibility, and support with domestic and childcare responsibilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Radiologists , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(15): 1410-1416, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217812

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the project described here was to use the work outputs identified in part 1 of a 2-part research initiative to build and validate an acute care clinical pharmacist productivity model. METHODS: Following the identification of work outputs in part 1 of the project, relative weighting was assigned to all outputs based on the time intensity and complexity of each task. The number of pharmacists verifying an inpatient medication order each day was selected to represent the labor input. A multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the final work outputs for inclusion in the model. Productivity and productivity index values were calculated for each day from July 1, 2018, through June 30, 2019. RESULTS: Of the 27 work outputs identified via consensus by the clinical pharmacist working team, 17 work outputs were ultimately included in the productivity model. The average productivity during the period July 2018 through June 2019 was derived from the model and will serve as the baseline productivity for acute care clinical pharmacists. CONCLUSION: Validated consensus methodology can be useful for engaging clinical pharmacist in decision-making and developing a clinical productivity model. When thoughtfully designed, the model can replace obsolete measures of productivity that do not account for the responsibilities of clinical pharmacists.


Subject(s)
Pharmacists , Professional Role , Efficiency , Humans , Inpatients
15.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(7): e426-e432, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic made working from home (WFH) the new way of working. This study investigates the impact that family-work conflict, social isolation, distracting environment, job autonomy, and self-leadership have on employees' productivity, work engagement, and stress experienced when WFH during the pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data collected through an online questionnaire completed by 209 employees WFH during the pandemic. The assumptions were tested using hierarchical linear regression. RESULTS: Employees' family-work conflict and social isolation were negatively related, while self-leadership and autonomy were positively related, to WFH productivity and WFH engagement. Family-work conflict and social isolation were negatively related to WFH stress, which was not affected by autonomy and self-leadership. CONCLUSION: Individual- and work-related aspects both hinder and facilitate WFH during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Efficiency , Stress, Psychological , Teleworking , Work Engagement , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(8): 1823-1837, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore changes in quality of life and perceived productivity, focusing on the effects of working from home during the first COVID-19 50-day mitigation period in Austria. METHODS: We conducted an Austrian-representative online survey (N = 1010) of self-reported life- and work-related changes during the first COVID-19 50-day mitigation period (March 16 through May 1 2020) compared to the situation before. We used multinominal logistic regression models to identify correlates of improved/decreased quality of life in the entire sample, and of improved/decreased productivity in a subsample of the working population (N = 686). We also calculated age- and multivariable-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs of an improved/decreased quality of life and an improved/decreased productivity by work from home status. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 mitigation period, quality of life improved in 17.5%, but decreased in 20.7% of the general Austrian population; perceived productivity at work increased in 12.7%, but decreased in 30.2% of the working population. Working from home during the mitigation period was associated with an increased quality of life (vs. none, partially: OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.09-3.91; all the time: 3.69, 1.86-7.29). In contrast, perceived productivity seemed to decrease when people worked from home (vs. none, partially: 1.42, 0.86-2.35; all the time: 1.48, 0.85-2.58). Working from home and related benefits were not equally distributed among gender, age, and educational attainment. CONCLUSIONS: A transition to more flexibility of workplace and working hours for employees could have important positive consequences for family and professional life, for stakeholders, for public health, and ultimately for the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Efficiency , Quality of Life , Teleworking , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e25379, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender imbalances in academia have been evident historically and persist today. For the past 60 years, we have witnessed the increase of participation of women in biomedical disciplines, showing that the gender gap is shrinking. However, preliminary evidence suggests that women, including female researchers, are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of unequal distribution of childcare, elderly care, and other kinds of domestic and emotional labor. Sudden lockdowns and abrupt shifts in daily routines have had disproportionate consequences on their productivity, which is reflected by a sudden drop in research output in biomedical research, consequently affecting the number of female authors of scientific publications. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a disproportionate adverse effect on the productivity of female researchers in the biomedical field in terms of authorship of scientific publications. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational bibliometric study. We investigated the proportion of male and female researchers who published scientific papers during the COVID-19 pandemic, using bibliometric data from biomedical preprint servers and selected Springer-Nature journals. We used the ordinary least squares regression model to estimate the expected proportions over time by correcting for temporal trends. We also used a set of statistical methods, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and regression discontinuity design, to test the validity of the results. RESULTS: A total of 78,950 papers from the bioRxiv and medRxiv repositories and from 62 selected Springer-Nature journals by 346,354 unique authors were analyzed. The acquired data set consisted of papers that were published between January 1, 2019, and August 2, 2020. The proportion of female first authors publishing in the biomedical field during the pandemic dropped by 9.1%, on average, across disciplines (expected arithmetic mean yest=0.39; observed arithmetic mean y=0.35; standard error of the estimate, Sest=0.007; standard error of the observation, σx=0.004). The impact was particularly pronounced for papers related to COVID-19 research, where the proportion of female scientists in the first author position dropped by 28% (yest=0.39; y=0.28; Sest=0.007; σx=0.007). When looking at the last authors, the proportion of women dropped by 7.9%, on average (yest=0.25; y=0.23; Sest=0.005; σx=0.003), while the proportion of women writing about COVID-19 as the last author decreased by 18.8% (yest=0.25; y=0.21; Sest=0.005; σx=0.007). Further, by geocoding authors' affiliations, we showed that the gender disparities became even more apparent when disaggregated by country, up to 35% in some cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings document a decrease in the number of publications by female authors in the biomedical field during the global pandemic. This effect was particularly pronounced for papers related to COVID-19, indicating that women are producing fewer publications related to COVID-19 research. This sudden increase in the gender gap was persistent across the 10 countries with the highest number of researchers. These results should be used to inform the scientific community of this worrying trend in COVID-19 research and the disproportionate effect that the pandemic has had on female academics.


Subject(s)
Authorship , Bibliometrics , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Publishing/statistics & numerical data , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
19.
Laryngoscope ; 131(11): 2471-2477, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of at home drain removal in head and neck surgery patients. METHODS: The study population included patients who underwent head and neck surgery at an academic tertiary care center between February 2020 and November 2020 and were discharged with one to four drains with instructions for home removal. Prior to discharge, patients received thorough drain removal education. Patients were prospectively followed to evaluate for associated outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were evaluated in the study. There was record for ninety-seven patients receiving education at discharge. The most common methods of education were face-to-face education and written instructions with educational video link provided. Of 123 drains upon discharge, 110 drains (89.4%) were removed at home while 13 (10.6%) were removed in office. Most drains were located in the neck (86.4%). There was one seroma, two hematomas, two drain site infections, and five ED visits; however, none of these complications were directly associated with the action of drain removal at home. Calculated cost savings for travel and lost wages was $259.82 per round trip saved. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that home drain removal can provide a safe and efficacious option for patients following head and neck surgery. This approach was safe and associated with patient cost savings and better utilization of provider's time. Furthermore, patients and healthcare providers avoided additional in-person encounters and exposures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings warrant further investigation into cost savings and formal patient satisfaction associated with home drain removal. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2471-2477, 2021.


Subject(s)
Device Removal/adverse effects , Drainage/instrumentation , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Neck Dissection/methods , Patient Discharge/standards , Postoperative Care/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Device Removal/economics , Drainage/methods , Efficiency , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hematoma/epidemiology , Hematoma/etiology , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neck Dissection/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Patient Education as Topic/trends , Postoperative Care/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Seroma/epidemiology , Seroma/etiology , Time Factors
20.
Med Care ; 59(5): 456-460, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telehealth services historically have played a small role in the provision of health care in the United States. However during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, public and private insurers rapidly expanded access to telehealth in order to reduce exposure and avoid transmission. It is unknown whether telehealth will become a more regular substitute for in-person care beyond the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to provide evidence on the value of telehealth by comparing the productivity of physicians and other specialized clinicians who provide telehealth with the productivity of those who do not. RESEARCH DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of 17,705 unique providers in the areas of internal medicine, cardiology, dermatology, psychiatry, psychology, and optometry practicing in the US veterans affairs health care system during the period 2015 to 2018. For each year, we measured individual providers productivity by the total number of relative value units (RVUs) per full-time equivalent (FTE). We estimated the impact of providing telehealth on RVUs/FTE using fixed effects regression models estimated on a panel dataset of 58,873 provider-year observations and controlling for provider and patient characteristics. RESULTS: Overall provider productivity increased in veterans affairs over the period, particularly in cardiology and dermatology. Providers of telehealth had above average productivity by 124 RVUs/FTE, or ∼4% of average total provider productivity. For the highest quartile of telehealth providers, average productivity was 188 RVUs/FTE higher than productivity of other providers. CONCLUSION: Strategies that encourage long-term integration of telehealth into provider practices may contribute to overall health care value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Efficiency , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Relative Value Scales , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
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