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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958591

ABSTRACT

In response to global efforts to control and exterminate infectious diseases, this study aims to provide insight into the productivity of remdesivir research and highlight future directions. To achieve this, there is a need to summarize and curate evidence from the literature. As a result, this study carried out comprehensive scientific research to detect trends in published articles related to remdesivir using a bibliometric analysis. Keywords associated with remdesivir were used to access pertinent published articles using the Scopus database. A total of 5321 research documents were retrieved, primarily as novel research articles (n = 2440; 46%). The number of publications increased exponentially from 2020 up to the present. The papers published by the top 12 institutions focusing on remdesivir accounted for 25.69% of the overall number of articles. The USA ranked as the most productive country, with 906 documents (37.1%), equivalent to one-third of the global publications in this field. The most productive institution was Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, in the USA (103 publications). The New England Journal of Medicine was the most cited, with an h-index of 13. The publication of research on remdesivir has gained momentum in the past year. The importance of remdesivir suggests that it needs continued research to help global health organizations detect areas requiring instant action to implement suitable measures. Furthermore, this study offers evolving hotspots and valuable insights into the scientific advances in this field and provides scaling-up analysis and evidence diffusion on remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate , Alanine , Bibliometrics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Databases, Factual , Efficiency , Global Health , Publications/trends
2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140429

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented challenges for working conditions for scientists, but little is known for how the associations of these challenges with scientists' mental health and productivity differ by sex and status as a parent. This online survey study in six languages collected data from 4,494 scientists in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine fields across 132 countries during October-December 2021. We compared the type of challenges for work, changes in work hours, and perception in productivity during the pandemic by sex and status as a parent (children <18 years living at home). Regression analyses analyzed the impacts of changed working conditions and work-life factors on productivity and mental health. We found that the percentage of participants with increased work hours was the highest in female participants, especially without children. Disproportionately higher increases in work hours were found for teaching and administration in women than men and for research/fundraising in non-parent participants than parent participants (p-value<0.001). Female participants were more concerned about the negative impacts of the pandemic on publications and long-term career progress, and less satisfied with their career progress than their male counterparts. There were differences in the type of institutional actions for the pandemic across study regions. The identified obstacles for work and home-life factors were associated with higher risks of experiencing depression, anxiety, and stress. Decision makers should consider the gender differences in the pandemic's adverse impacts on productivity in establishing equitable actions for career progress for scientists during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Self Concept
3.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): e677-e684, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the association of working from home (WFH) with work productivity loss due to caregiving responsibilities or health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of family/friend caregivers (n = 150 WFH/75 non-WFH) and patients (n = 95/91) who worked during the past 7 days in May and July 2020, respectively. Absenteeism and presenteeism were measured using the Valuation of Lost Productivity questionnaire. RESULTS: Working from home was associated with higher odds of absenteeism (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.77) and presenteeism (2.79; 1.26 to 6.18) among caregivers and higher odds of presenteeism among patients (2.78; 1.13 to 6.84). However, among caregivers with absenteeism more than 0 days, WFH was significantly associated with fewer absent workdays. CONCLUSIONS: Working from home was not associated with overall absenteeism and presenteeism in caregivers or patients. Working from home allows a more flexible and inclusive workplace without impacting productivity, although further research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Efficiency , Presenteeism , Absenteeism , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1267, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to compute surgical total factor productivity with Malmquist index, and to evaluate the effects of states of emergency against the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on its productivity change. We hypothesized that the states of emergency significantly reduced surgical total factor productivity in Japan. METHODS: The authors collected data from all the surgical procedures performed in Teikyo University Hospital from April 1 through September 30 in 2019-21. Non-radial and non-oriented Malmquist model under the variable returns-to-scale assumptions was employed. The decision making unit (DMU) was defined as a surgical specialty department. Inputs were defined as (1) the number of medical doctors who assisted surgery, and (2) the duration of surgical operation from skin incision to closure. The output was defined as the surgical fee for each surgery. The study period was divided into fifty-one ten- (or eleven-) day periods. We added all the inputs and outputs of the surgical procedures for each DMU during these study periods, and computed its Malmquist index, efficiency change and technical change. RESULTS: Seven thousand nine hundred and thirty-one surgical procedures were analyzed. The overall productivity and efficiency progressed significantly both during states of emergency and during no states of emergency. Our subgroup analysis demonstrated that there were no surgical specialties that had significantly different productivity, efficiency or technical changes between states of emergency and no states of emergency. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the surgical productivity did not suffer despite the states of emergency against the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency, Organizational , Pandemics , Japan/epidemiology , Efficiency
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065124

ABSTRACT

Work-from-home has become an increasingly adopted practice globally. Given the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, such arrangements have risen substantially in a short timeframe. Work-from-home has been associated with several physical and mental health outcomes. This relationship has been supported by previous research; however, these health and safety issues often receive little resources and attention from business perspectives compared to organizational and worker performance and productivity. Therefore, aligning work-from-home practices with business goals may help catalyze awareness from decision makers and serve to effectively implement work-from-home policies. We conducted a review to synthesize current knowledge on the impact of work-from-home arrangements on personal and organizational performance and productivity. Four large databases including Scopus, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Business Source Complete were systematically searched. Through a two-step screening process, we selected and extracted data from 37 relevant articles. Key search terms surrounded two core concepts: work-from-home and productivity/performance. Of the articles published prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, 79% (n = 19) demonstrated that work-from-home increased productivity and performance whereas 21% (n = 5) showed mixed or no effects. Of the articles published during the pandemic, 23% (n = 3) showed positive effects, 38% (n = 5) revealed mixed results, and 38% (n = 5) showed negative effects. Findings suggest that non-mandatory work-from-home arrangements can have positive impacts on productivity and performance. When work-from-home becomes mandatory and full-time, or external factors (i.e., COVID-19 pandemic) are at play, the overall impacts are less positive and can be detrimental to productivity and performance. Results will help foster an understanding of the impact of work-from-home on productivity and performance and inform the development of organizational strategies to create an effective, resilient, and inclusive work-from-home workplace by helping to effectively implement work-from-home policies that are aligned with business goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency , Humans , Teleworking , Workplace
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023660

ABSTRACT

Emergency response capability evaluation is an essential means to strengthen emergency response capacity-building and improve the level of government administration. Based on the whole life cycle of emergency management, the emergency capability evaluation index system is constructed from four aspects: prevention and emergency preparedness, monitoring and early warning, emergency response and rescue, and recovery and reconstruction. Firstly, the entropy method is applied to measure the emergency response capability level of 31 Chinese provinces from 2011 to 2020. Second, the Theil index and ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis) are applied in exploring the regional differences and spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of China's emergency response capacity. Finally, the obstacle degree model is used to explore the obstacle factors and obstacle degrees that affect the emergency response capability. The results show that: (1) The average value of China's emergency response capacity is 0.277, with a steady growth trend and a gradient distribution of "high in the east, low in the west, and average in center and northeast" in the four major regions. (2) From the perspective of spatial distribution characteristics, the unbalanced regional development leads to the obvious aggregation effect of "high-efficiency aggregation and low-efficiency aggregation", and the interaction of the "centripetal effect" and "centrifugal effect" finally forms the spatial clustering result of emergency response capability level in China. (3) Examining the source of regional differences, inter-regional differences are the decisive factor affecting the overall differences in emergency response capability, and the inter-regional differences show a reciprocating fluctuation of narrowing-widening-narrowing from 2011 to 2020. (4) Main obstacles restricting the improvement of China's emergency response capabilities are "the business volume of postal and telecommunication services per capita", "the daily disposal capacity of city sewage" and "the general public budget revenue by region". The extent of the obstacles' impacts in 2020 are 12.19%, 7.48%, and 7.08%, respectively. Based on the evaluation results, the following countermeasures are proposed: to realize the balance of each stage of emergency management during the holistic process; to strengthen emergency coordination and balanced regional development; and to implement precise measures to make up for the shortcomings of emergency response capabilities.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Efficiency , China , Entropy , Spatial Analysis
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994058

ABSTRACT

This paper uses the unbalanced panel data of 156 countries during the period of 2002 to 2018 to explore the possible impact of government efficiency on health outcomes. Firstly, we used the fixed-effect model to examine the relationship between government efficiency and health outcomes and found that the increase in government efficiency can significantly improve health outcomes. Then, a series of robustness checks were carried out, which confirmed the reliability of the above result. Thirdly, this paper conducted a heterogeneity analysis from the perspective of life cycle. Fourthly, this paper investigated the mechanisms of the impact of government efficiency on health outcomes from the perspectives of economic growth, health innovation, education and corruption control. Finally, this paper studied the moderating effects of the ruling party's ideology and democracy on the relationship between government efficiency and health outcomes. The findings of this study provide some references for governments to improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Government , China , Efficiency , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Reproducibility of Results
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271998, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987155

ABSTRACT

Bibliographic properties of more than 75 million scholarly articles, are examined and trends in overall research productivity are analysed as a function of research field (over the period of 1970-2020) and author gender (over the period of 2006-2020). Potential disruptive effects of the Covid-19 pandemic are also investigated. Over the last decade (2010-2020), the annual number of publications have invariably increased every year with the largest relative increase in a single year happening in 2019 (more than 6% relative growth). But this momentum was interrupted in 2020. Trends show that Environmental Sciences and Engineering Environmental have been the fastest growing research fields. The disruption in patterns of scholarly publication due to the Covid-19 pandemic was unevenly distributed across fields, with Computer Science, Engineering and Social Science enduring the most notable declines. The overall trends of male and female productivity indicate that, in terms of absolute number of publications, the gender gap does not seem to be closing in any country. The trends in absolute gap between male and female authors is either parallel (e.g., Canada, Australia, England, USA) or widening (e.g., majority of countries, particularly Middle Eastern countries). In terms of the ratio of female to male productivity, however, the gap is narrowing almost invariably, though at markedly different rates across countries. While some countries are nearing a ratio of .7 and are well on track for a 0.9 female to male productivity ratio, our estimates show that certain countries (particularly across the Middle East) will not reach such targets within the next 100 years. Without interventional policies, a significant gap will continue to exist in such countries. The decrease or increase in research productivity during the first year of the pandemic, in contrast to trends established before 2020, was generally parallel for male and female authors. There has been no substantial gender difference in the disruption due to the pandemic. However, opposite trends were found in a few cases. It was observed that, in some countries (e.g., The Netherlands, The United States and Germany), male productivity has been more negatively affected by the pandemic. Overall, female research productivity seems to have been more resilient to the disruptive effect of Covid-19 pandemic, although the momentum of female researchers has been negatively affected in a comparable manner to that of males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency , Engineering , Female , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Male , Pandemics , United States
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268047, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962995

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess and analyse the efficiency of the tourism centres in the Southern Red Sea region, Egypt to apply coastal tourism development through the blue economy perspective. According to this aim, the study used two efficiency methods: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Free Disposal Hull (FDH). A total of 29 tourism centres were selected to conduct the DEA and FDH methods. These efficiency methods (DEA-FDH) used inputs and outputs variables to estimate the efficiency of the tourism centres. The selected inputs were the length of the shoreline (km), area (ha), tourism investments (million EGP), quality of coral reefs, numbers of hotels, and tourism accommodation capacity. While the outputs were employees' number and tourists' number. The results indicate that, generally, the tourism centres in the Southern Red Sea region of Egypt showed high-efficiency scores, which reflects their good preparedness to implement the various coastal tourism development strategies from the blue economy perspective. The tourism centres in the Safaga-Quseir tourism sector were the most efficient ones, regardless of the efficiency models used. While the tourist centres representing the Ras Banas tourism sector were the least efficient centres in the whole sample (29 tourism centres).


Subject(s)
Coral Reefs , Tourism , Efficiency , Egypt , Humans , Indian Ocean
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934046

ABSTRACT

Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, this paper examines whether rural broadband adoption affects agricultural carbon reduction efficiency (ACRE), using panel data from 30 Chinese provinces from 2011 to 2019. This paper achieves a measurement of ACRE by taking the carbon sink of agricultural as one of the desired outputs and using a Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) model and the global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index. The results show that: (1) Rural broadband adoption has a positive effect on ACRE. The relationship between the income of rural residents and ACRE was an inverted U-shaped, which confirms the EKC hypothesis. (2) Land transfer has a significant promoting effect on the relationship between rural broadband adoption and ACRE. When the land transfer rate is high, the positive effect of broadband adoption is obvious. (3) The positive effect of broadband adoption on ACRE was more obvious when farmers invested more in production equipment, that is to say, it has a significant positive moderating effect. As farmers in many developing countries suffer from increasingly frequent and severe extreme weather events, we believe that the results of this study also have implications for the implementation of agricultural carbon reduction and smart agricultural equipment roll-out in many countries.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Carbon , Carbon/analysis , China , Economic Development , Efficiency , Farmers , Humans
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 882, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928184

ABSTRACT

The evolving COVID-19 pandemic has unevenly affected academic medical centers (AMCs), which are experiencing resource-constraints and liquidity challenges while at the same time facing high pressures to improve patient access and clinical outcomes. Technological advancements in the field of data analytics can enable AMCs to achieve operational efficiencies and improve bottom-line expectations. While there are vetted analytical tools available to track physician productivity, there is a significant paucity of analytical instruments described in the literature to adequately track clinical and financial productivity of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) employed at AMCs. Moreover, there is no general guidance on the development of a dashboard to track PA/NP clinical and financial productivity at the individual, department, or enterprise level. At our institution, there was insufficient tracking of PA/NP productivity across many clinical areas within the enterprise. Thus, the aim of the project is to leverage our institution's existing visualization tools coupled with the right analytics to track PA/NP productivity trends using a dashboard report.MethodsWe created an intuitive and customizable highly visual clinical/financial analytical dashboard to track productivity of PAs/NPs employed at our AMC.ResultsThe APP financial and clinical dashboard is organized into two main components. The volume-based key performance indicators (KPIs) included work relative value units (wRVUs), gross charges, collections (payments), and payer-mix. The session utilization (KPIs) included (e.g., new versus return patient ratios, encounter type, visit volume, and visits per session by provider). After successful piloting, the dashboard was deployed across multiple specialty areas and results showed improved data transparency and reliable tracking of PAs/NPs productivity across the enterprise. The dashboard analytics were also helpful in assessing PA/NP recruitment requests, independent practice sessions, and performance expectations.ConclusionTo our knowledge, this is the first paper to highlight steps AMCs can take in developing, validating, and deploying a financial/clinical dashboard specific to PAs/NPs. However, empirical research is needed to assess the impact of qualitative and quantitative dashboards on provider engagement, revenue, and quality of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurse Practitioners , Physician Assistants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency , Humans , Pandemics
13.
Health Econ ; 31(9): 2050-2071, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905855

ABSTRACT

Governments worldwide have issued massive amounts of debt to inject fiscal stimulus during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper analyzes fiscal responses to an epidemic, in which interactions at work increase the risk of disease and mortality. Fiscal policies, which are designed to borrow against the future and provide transfers to individuals suffering economic hardship, can facilitate consumption smoothing while reduce hours worked and hence mitigate infections. We examine the optimal fiscal policy and characterize the condition under which fiscal policy improves social welfare. We then extend the model analyzing the static and dynamic pecuniary externalities under scale economies-the decrease in labor supply during the epidemic lowers the contemporaneous average wage rate while enhances the post-epidemic workforce health and productivity. We suggest that fiscal policy may not work effectively unless the government coordinates working time, and the optimal size of public debt is affected by production technology and disease severity and transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fiscal Policy , Pandemics/economics , Social Welfare/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Efficiency , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Time Factors , Workflow , Workforce/economics , Workload/economics
14.
Work ; 72(4): 1655-1671, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Working via databases has become an integral and necessary part of work in businesses. The availability of knowledge and information from any location contributes to better networking and more transparency in companies and enables collaborative work regardless of the location. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020/21, physical distancing and digital work have become imperative for a greater number of people. This, in turn, can severely restrict both formal and informal means of communication, which can lead to rising cognitive job demands and decreasing productivity at work. Against this background, the question of whether and to what extent digital databases are able to guarantee effective task fulfilment without parallel communication has acquired new relevance. OBJECTIVE: The relationship between informal communication via four communication channels and a) the efficiency of work via databases and b) their necessity for the quality of work are investigated. METHODS: Employee surveys are evaluated in the form of cross-sectional data from three medium-sized German companies using econometric regression analyses. RESULTS: A clear relationship is revealed between informal communication and the effectiveness of work via databases as well as their necessity for work quality. The level of this relationship, however, varies depending on the type and purpose of informal communication. CONCLUSION: This article highlights the necessity of informal communication for digital collaborative work and hence has significant implications for business practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Efficiency , Humans
15.
Public Health ; 208: 72-79, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to suggestions that cost-effectiveness analyses should adopt a broader perspective when estimating costs. This review aims to provide an overview of economic evaluations of interventions against viral pandemics in terms of the perspective taken, types of costs included, comparators, type of economic model, data sources and methods for estimating productivity costs. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping literature review. METHODS: Publications were eligible if they conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, cost-benefit analysis or cost-minimisation analysis and evaluated interventions aimed at viral pandemics or for patients infected with viral pandemic disease. We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for relevant references and charted data from the selected full-text publications into a predefined spreadsheet based on research sub-questions, summary tables and figures. RESULTS: From 5410 references, 36 full-text publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The economic evaluations were mainly model based and included direct medical costs of hospital treatment. Around half of the studies included productivity costs and the proportion of total costs attributed to productivity costs ranged from 10% to 90%, depending on estimation methods, assumptions about valuation of time, type of intervention, severity of illness and degree of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Economic evaluations of interventions against viral pandemics differed in terms of estimation methods and reporting of productivity costs, even for similar interventions. Hence, the literature on economic evaluations for pandemic response would benefit from having standards for conducting and reporting economic evaluations, especially for productivity costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Efficiency , Humans
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884158

ABSTRACT

Eco-efficiency analysis can provide useful information about sustainability in the tourism industry, which has an important role in both global economy recovery and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), generating considerable indirect carbon emissions with respect to the supply chain due to its significant connections to other industries. This study, from the perspective of tourism sectors, including tourism hotels, travel agencies, and scenic spots, integrated the environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIO) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to develop a research framework, analyzing the indirect carbon emissions of the tourism supply chain, evaluating eco-efficiency with respect to both direct carbon emissions and total carbon emissions (including direct and indirect parts), and exploring the driving factors of eco-efficiency of tourism sectors using Tobit regression models. This study took Gansu as a case, a province in China characterized by higher carbon intensity, an underdeveloped economy, and rapid tourism growth. The results demonstrate that (1) tourism hotels contribute the most carbon emissions in tourism sectors, especially indirectly due to the supply chain, with carbon emissions mainly resulting from the manufacturing of food and tobacco; (2) the eco-efficiency of tourism sectors in Gansu presents a U-shaped curve, which is consistent with Kuznets' theory; and (3) energy technology is key to improving the eco-efficiency of tourism sectors. The research results provide a clear path for the reduction of carbon emissions and the improvement of eco-efficiency in Gansu tourism sectors. Against the backdrop of global climate change and the post-COVID-19 era, our research framework and findings provide a reference for similar regions and countries who are in urgent need of rapid tourism development to effect economic recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon , Carbon Dioxide , China , Economic Development , Efficiency , Humans , Industry , Tourism
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875630

ABSTRACT

Under the background of tightening resource constraints and a deteriorating ecological environment, innovation is aimed at saving energy, reducing consumption, abating pollution and achieving sustainable economic growth. This has gradually become an important way to improve industrial structure, competitiveness and environmental performance worldwide. In this study, we use the super-efficiency SBM model to calculate the innovation efficiency of 283 cities in China from 2009 to 2019. Then, based on the dynamic threshold regression model, we explore the impact of innovation efficiency on ecological footprint in innovative cities or non-innovative cities under different economic development levels. The main conclusions that can be drawn are as follows. (1) Within the research period, the influence of innovation efficiency on ecological footprint in China shows a negative double threshold feature, that is, increasing regional innovation efficiency has an inhibitory effect on ecological footprint. (2) For innovative cities, innovation efficiency has a strong inhibitory effect on ecological footprint, and it becomes stronger and stronger with the growth of night light data; but this inhibitory effect is gradually decreasing with improvement of economic development level in non-innovative cities. (3) Under the threshold of different levels of economic development, the number of scientific human resources, scientific financial resources, scientific information resources and scientific papers has a positive effect on ecological footprint, while the number of patent applications has a negative effect on ecological footprint.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Economic Development , China , Cities , Efficiency , Humans
18.
Work ; 72(1): 39-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the work environment worldwide and forced companies to adopt work from home (WFH) suddenly. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify factors that influence productivity in the WFH modality, considering the Brazilian scenario in the COVID-19 context. METHODS: The approach used was a Delphi method with 19 specialists in the subject. Three rounds were conducted; in the third round, specialists indicated how the factor influences productivity through a scale. For the data collected in this last round, data was analysed via Grey Relational Analysis technique. RESULTS: The results indicated that 17 factors could influence productivity in the WFH modality in the analysed context. Comparatively, the five factors with more capacity to influence productivity are 1) Availability of adequate equipment and peripherals to develop the work activities; 2) leadership support; 3) The adequate place to develop work activities; 4) Internet and electricity supply stability; and 5) Clarity from the collaborator regarding their role in the company, responsibilities and activities to be developed. The frequency analysis indicated that factors affect at least moderately productivity in WFH modality. CONCLUSIONS: This article contributes to increasing knowledge associated with the WFH modality in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The information present here can be used by academics and managers, even in a post-pandemic scenario, to debate productivity in remote work modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855623

ABSTRACT

The digital economy is booming in China and has become the world's largest after the United States'. Since China entered the era of the digital economy, its digital technology has radiated into various fields. This study is to examine the impact of China's digital economy on the provision efficiency of public health institutions and the mechanism of action between them. Specifically, it measures the development level of China's digital economy, and the provision efficiency of public health institutions from 2009 to 2018. The research also explores the relationship between China's digital economy and its provision efficiency, through the Tobit-DEA model. An analysis of the regional heterogeneity indicated that the performance of China's digital economy in the eastern region has a significant positive effect on improving the efficiency of the public health sector. This further confirms that the digital economy has strengthened China's ability to deal with public health crises during the COVID-19 pandemic. A further mediation effect analysis showed that China's digital economy optimizes the efficiency of public health provision by improving governmental performance and regulatory quality. This shows that the development of the digital economy promotes the construction of digital government, and thus improves the quality of governmental supervision and governmental performance, which has a significant positive effect on the efficiency of the supply of public health services. During the COVID-19 pandemic especially, government delivery of public health services was critical in addressing public health crises. Therefore, based on the results of our empirical analysis, this study provides policy suggestions for improving the efficiency of public health service provision in the era of the digital economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Efficiency , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , United States
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