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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 6951-6966, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various liver and gastrointestinal involvements occur in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at variable prevalence. Most studies report mild liver function disturbances correlated with COVID-19 severity, though liver failure is unusual. AIM: To study liver and gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Egyptian patients with COVID-19 and their relation to disease outcomes. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study was conducted on 547 Egyptian patients from April 15, 2020 to July 29, 2020. Consecutive polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included from four quarantine hospitals affiliated to the Egyptian ministry of health. Demographic information, laboratory characteristics, treatments, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, COVID-19 severity, and outcomes were recorded and compared according to the degree of liver enzyme elevation and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Follow-ups were conducted until discharge or death. Regression analyses were performed to determine the independent factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: This study included 547 patients, of whom 53 (9.68%) died during hospitalization and 1 was discharged upon his request. Patients' mean age was 45.04 ± 17.61 years, and 21.98% had severe or critical COVID-19. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were available for 430 and 428 patients, respectively. In total, 26% and 32% of patients had elevated ALT and AST, respectively. Significant liver injury with ALT or AST elevation exceeding 3-fold was recorded in 21 (4.91%) and 16 (3.73%) patients, respectively. Male gender, smoking, hypertension, chronic hepatitis C, and lung involvement were associated with elevated AST or ALT. AST was elevated in 50% of patients over 60-years-old. FIB-4 was significantly higher in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), those with more severe COVID-19, and non-survivors. The independent variables affecting outcome were supplementary vitamin C intake (1 g daily capsules) [odds ratio (OR): 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.008-0.337]; lung consolidation (OR: 4.540, 95%CI: 1.155-17.840); ICU admission (OR: 25.032, 95%CI: 7.110-88.128); and FIB-4 score > 3.25 (OR: 10.393, 95%CI: 2.459-43.925). Among 60 (13.98%) patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 52 (86.67%) had diarrhoea. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were predominantly females with higher body mass index, and 50 (83.40%) patients had non-severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Few Egyptian patients with COVID-19 developed a significant liver injury. The independent variables affecting mortality were supplementary vitamin C intake, lung consolidation, ICU admission, and FIB-4 score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Egyptian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Six databases were searched for relevant papers. The quality of the selected articles was measured using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool. We used a fixed-effects model when there was no heterogeneity and a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. RESULTS: After screening 197 records, 10 studies were ultimately included. Anxiety was the most commonly reported psychiatric disorder among HCWs, with a prevalence of 71.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.4 to 86.9), followed by stress (66.6%; 95% CI, 47.6 to 81.3), depression (65.5%; 95% CI, 46.9 to 80.3), and insomnia (57.9%; 95% CI, 45.9 to 69.0). As measured using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the most common level of severity was moderate for depression (22.5%; 95% CI, 19.8 to 25.5) and stress (14.5%; 95% CI, 8.8 to 22.9), while high-severity anxiety was more common than other levels of severity (28.2%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 79.6). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on Egyptian HCWs' psychological well-being. More psychological support and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the further development of psychiatric illness among physicians and other HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Egyptian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Six databases were searched for relevant papers. The quality of the selected articles was measured using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool. We used a fixed-effects model when there was no heterogeneity and a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. RESULTS: After screening 197 records, 10 studies were ultimately included. Anxiety was the most commonly reported psychiatric disorder among HCWs, with a prevalence of 71.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.4 to 86.9), followed by stress (66.6%; 95% CI, 47.6 to 81.3), depression (65.5%; 95% CI, 46.9 to 80.3), and insomnia (57.9%; 95% CI, 45.9 to 69.0). As measured using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the most common level of severity was moderate for depression (22.5%; 95% CI, 19.8 to 25.5) and stress (14.5%; 95% CI, 8.8 to 22.9), while high-severity anxiety was more common than other levels of severity (28.2%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 79.6). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on Egyptian HCWs' psychological well-being. More psychological support and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the further development of psychiatric illness among physicians and other HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103259, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding onset, course, associated symptoms, prognosis and relation to patients' demographics, treatment received and other symptoms. PATIENTS& METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on patients proven to be infected with COVID-19 and with olfactory/gustatory dysfunction symptoms. Detailed history was taken from each patient about the onset of this dysfunction, associated symptoms. Then follow-up survey was done after 6 months to evaluate the prognosis. RESULTS: 1031 patients were included in the study, aged 18 to 69 years old, with 31.8% were male. Olfactory/gustatory dysfunctions occurred after other COVID-19 symptoms in 43.5% of cases, occurred suddenly in 80.4% and gradually in 19.6%. These dysfunctions were anosmia & ageusia in 50.2%, hyposmia & hypogeusia in 23.3%, anosmia alone in 17.7%, phantosmia in 18%, Parosmia in 28.4%. In terms of recovery 6-month follow up, 680 patients (66%) recovered completely, 22.1% recovered partially while 11.9% did not recover. Most improvement occurred in the first two weeks. Headache, malaise, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea were the commonest COVID-19 symptoms associated. CONCLUSION: Most recovery of olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection occurs at the first two weeks and is unrelated to patient demographics, treatment or olfactory training. Parosmia is an independent predictor for complete recovery, while phantosmia is significantly associated with lower probability of complete recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5833-5838, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432414

ABSTRACT

Researchers around the world are working at record speed to find the best ways to treat and prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of hospitalized mild to moderate COVID-19 infected patients. This was a randomized open-label controlled study that included 164 patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized into two groups where Group 1 (Ivermectin group) included patients who received ivermectin 12 mg once daily for 3 days with standard care and Group 2 (control group) included patients who received standard protocol of treatment alone for 14 days. The main outcomes were mortality, the length of hospital stay, and the need for mechanical ventilation. All patients were followed up for 1 month. Overall, 82 individuals were randomized to receive ivermectin plus standard of care and 82 to receive standard of care alone. Patients in the ivermectin group had a shorter length of hospital stay (8.82 ± 4.94 days) than the control group (10.97 ± 5.28 days), but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.085). Three patients (3.7%) in each group required mechanical ventilation (p = 1.00). The death rate was three patients in the ivermectin group (3.7%) versus four patients (4.9%) in the control group without any significant difference between the two groups (p = 1.00). Although there was no statistically significant difference in any endpoints by ivermectin doses (12 mg/day for 3 days); there was an observed trend to reducing hospital stay in the ivermectin-treated group.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1474-1480, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a high risk for disease exposure. Given the limited availability of nucleic acid testing by PCR in low resource settings, serological assays can provide useful data on the proportion of HCWs who have recently or previously been infected. Therefore, in this study, we conducted an immunologic study to determine the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in two university hospitals in Egypt. METHODS: in this cross sectional study, HCWs who were working in SARS-CoV-2 Isolation Hospitals were interviewed. Estimating specific antibodies (IgM and IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 was carried out using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay targeting the Spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2 virus. RESULTS: Out of 111, 82 (74%) HCWs accepted to participate with a mean age of 31.5 ± 8.5 years. Anti-SARS-COV2 antibodies were detected in 38/82 (46.3%) of cases with a mean age of 31 years and female HCWs constituted 57.6% of cases. The highest rate of seropositivity was from the nurses (60.5%), and physicians (31.6%) with only (7.9%) technicians. Only 28/82 (34.1%) HCWs reported previous history of COVID19. We reported a statistically significant difference in the timing of exposure (p = 0.010) and the frequency of contact with COVID-19 cases (p = 0.040) between previously infected and on-infected HCWs. Longer time of recovery was reported from IgG positive HCWs (p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: The high frequency of seropositive HCWs in investigated hospitals is alarming, especially among asymptomatic personnel. Confirmation of diseased HCWs (among seropositive ones) are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Humans , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 696082, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394839

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected countries across the world. While the zoonotic aspects of SARS-CoV-2 are still under investigation, bats and pangolins are currently cited as the animal origin of the virus. Several types of vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed and are being used in vaccination drives across the world. A number of countries are experiencing second and third waves of the pandemic, which have claimed nearly four million lives out of the 180 million people infected globally as of June 2021. The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and mutants are posing high public health concerns owing to their rapid transmissibility, higher severity, and in some cases, ability to infect vaccinated people (vaccine breakthrough). Here in this mini-review, we specifically looked at the efforts and actions of the Egyptian government to slow down and control the spread of COVID-19. We also review the COVID-19 statistics in Egypt and the possible reasons behind the low prevalence and high case fatality rate (CFR%), comparing Egypt COVID-19 statistics with China (the epicenter of COVID-19 pandemic) and the USA, Brazil, India, Italy, and France (the first countries in which the numbers of patients infected with COVID-19). Additionally, we have summarized the SARS-CoV-2 variants, vaccines used in Egypt, and the use of medicinal plants as preventive and curative options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14762, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388269

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is considered one of the most important public health crises all over the world and in Egypt. Community pharmacists represent the third largest health care professional group after physicians and nurses. Community pharmacists are expected to be fully prepared at the frontline of defending their community needs by limiting the spread of COVID-19 via different pharmaceutical care services. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the sources of knowledge and readiness of community pharmacists in facing COVID-19 early outbreak in Egypt. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed via a self-administered online google form questionnaire during the early period from 14 April to 3 June 2020. The questionnaire focused on; evaluating education level, sources of information, and readiness of Egyptian community pharmacists in the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. RESULTS: A total of 318 community pharmacists from Egypt participated in this questionnaire. About half of the surveyed pharmacists reported that they were frequently consulted and that their patients were seeking consultation regarding COVID-19 management more than 10 times per day. More than half of the pharmacists reported using social media as a source of information and knew the right social distancing recommendations. Regarding protective measures, only a quarter of pharmacists disclosed the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE). Nevertheless, the majority of pharmacists significantly reported some initial lack of support either inform of recommendations or PPE supply. CONCLUSION: The study revealed the dependence of community pharmacists on social media as the main source of information and the lack of early awareness of evidence-based practice resources. Community pharmacists were in need of more initial support to achieve better satisfaction, patient counselling and infection control. Corrective measures were promptly undertaken to support and satisfy the Egyptian community pharmacists' initial awareness and readiness facing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacists , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(3): 576-594, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373858

ABSTRACT

This mixed-method study explores the accessibility of developmental assets among Egyptian and Roma minority youth in Albania during the COVID-19 pandemic. Six focus groups were conducted in August 2020 with Egyptian (n = 16) and Roma (n = 15) adolescents (14-20 years, Mage  = 16.71; SDage  = 2.00; 14 girls and 17 boys). In addition, adolescents rated how much they experienced each developmental asset. Descriptive and thematic analyses highlighted: (1) low developmental assets and barriers to accessing resources, (2) mental health concerns and coping strategies, (3) the role of proximal contexts of life, and (4) experiences within the society in terms of discrimination, integration, and contribution to society. Inter-sectoral community-based interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on minority youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Roma , Adolescent , Albania , Child, Preschool , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(10): 3066-3073, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major epidemic outbreaks create an increased demand for healthcare workers (HCWs) and pose increased health risk and psychological distress to them as well. AIM: The aim of this cross sectional study was to find out the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among Egyptian dermatologists and their possible predictor factors. PATIENTS/METHODS: A cross sectional study was designed and data were collected using structured self-administered online depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: The depression scale of DASS was 18.98 ± 9.56 among which 38% of dermatologists had either severe or extremely severe depression and 34.2% complained of moderate depression. Meanwhile, the anxiety scale was 12.92 ± 7.75 and 35.4 % of surveyed dermatologists had either severe or extremely severe anxiety. Thirty three percent of dermatologists were normal on stress score. Female dermatologists possessed more significant depression and stress than males (19.70 ± 9.71 vs. 16.62 ± 8.68, p = 0.003; 21.42 ± 9.53 vs. 17.40 ± 8.49, p <0.001 respectively). On the contrary, male dermatologists expressed more anxiety than female dermatologists however this was not statistically significant (13.26 ± 7.99 vs. 12.82 ± 7.69, p = 0.625). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the differential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Egyptian dermatologists. Mental health care and support are of extreme importance to physicians mid this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Dermatologists , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1358-1366, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that belongs to the coronaviruses and causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we explored the demographic details, clinical features, and routinely conducted laboratory investigations of patients with COVID-19 during the second and third waves of the pandemic to understand their possible diagnostic and prognostic values in Egypt. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the demographic characteristics, detailed medical history, laboratory findings, and symptoms of all enrolled patients with SARS-CoV-2 were collected from the medical records of Beni Suef University Hospitals between December 15, 2020, and April 15, 2021. RESULTS: This retrospective study included 473 patients, almost all of whom were elderly. The median age of the patients was 48 years, and those with moderate and severe disease were older than those with mild infections. The proportion of females was higher (63.4%) than males (36.6%). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was the most common comorbidity (17.3%), and fever was the most typical manifestation of COVID-19 (62.6%). Those with severe disease showed a higher C-reactive protein level (CRP) than those with moderate (p-value 0.009) or mild (p-value 0.01) diseases. Serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than in those with moderate disease (p-value 0.018). In contrast, d-dimer and serum creatinine were normal and showed no significant difference in all comparisons (p-value overall 0.21). CONCLUSION: This study observed several variations in COVID-19 patients' characteristics. The new manifestations included skin rash, bone and low back pains, and rigors. In contrast to females, most males had moderate-to-severe illness. Old age and higher body mass index was associated with increasing severity. d-dimer and complete blood count were normal and could not identify potential COVID-19 patients. Patients who had mild illness were still at risk of developing post-COVID complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Demography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(6): 750-756, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reported laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases underestimate the true burden of disease as cases without laboratory confirmation, and asymptomatic and mild cases are missed by local surveillance systems. Population-based seroprevalence studies can provide better estimates of burden of disease by taking into account infections that were missed by surveillance systems. Additionally, little is known about the determinants of seroconversion in community settings. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional serologic survey among 888 participants in Egypt. RESULTS: Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 30% of study volunteers. Age and educational level were associated with being seropositive as people older than 70 years and people with graduate degrees had lower seroprevalence. Self-reporting cases having COVID-19-related symptoms such as fever, malaise, headache, dyspnea, dry cough, chest pain, diarrhea, and loss of taste or smell were all associated with having antibodies. Fever and loss of taste or smell were strong predictors with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-3.5) and 4.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-7.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results can guide COVID-19 prevention and control policies and assist in determining the immunity level in some Egyptian communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302500

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant strain on hepatitis programs and interventions (screening, diagnosis, and treatment) at a critical moment in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. We sought to quantify changes in Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) utilization among different countries during the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis between 1 September 2018 and 31 August 2020, using the IQVIA MIDAS database, which contains DAA purchase data for 54 countries. We examined the percent change in DAA units dispensed (e.g., pills and capsules) from March to August 2019 to the same period of time in 2020 across the 54 countries. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to examine the impact of COVID-19 on monthly rates of DAA utilization across each of the major developed economies (G7 nations). Overall, 46 of 54 (85%) jurisdictions experienced a decline in DAA utilization during the pandemic, with an average of -43% (range: -1% in Finland to -93% in Brazil). All high HCV prevalence (HCV prevalence > 2%) countries in the database experienced a decline in utilization, average -49% (range: -17% in Kazakhstan to -90% in Egypt). Across the G7 nations, we also observed a decreased trend in DAA utilization during the early months of the pandemic, with significant declines (p < 0.01) for Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The global response to COVID-19 led to a large decrease in DAA utilization globally. Deliberate efforts to counteract the impact of COVID-19 on treatment delivery are needed to support the goal of HCV elimination.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Finland/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States
16.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(3): 322-328, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257868

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) prevalence among the other respiratory viruses such as parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and non-enteric adenoviruses in clinical specimens of Egyptian children and raw sewage samples. One hundred clinical specimens were collected from Egyptian children suffering from upper and lower respiratory viral infections in the years 2005-2006 to detect HCoV-NL63 genome using RT-PCR. All the specimens were negative for the virus. Also, a complete absence of HCoV-NL63 genome was observed in the twenty-four raw sewage samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants within Greater Cairo from February 2006 to January 2007. Using nested RT-PCR, parainfluenza virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus type A, adenovirus type 4, and adenovirus type 7 were detected in 3%, 2%, 5%, and 2% of the clinical specimens, respectively. Of these viruses, only adenovirus type 4 was detected in 1/24 (4.17%) of the raw sewage samples, while a complete absence of the other investigated respiratory viruses was observed in the raw sewage samples. The low percentage of positivity in the clinical specimens, the concentration method of the raw sewage samples, and the indirect routes of transmission may be the reasons for the absence of respiratory viruses in raw sewage samples. On the other hand, enteric adenoviruses were detected in 21/24 (87.5%) of the raw sewage samples with a higher prevalence of adenovirus type 41 than adenovirus type 40. A direct route of transmission of enteric viruses to raw sewage may be the reason for the high positivity percentage of enteric adenoviruses in raw sewage samples.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sewage/virology , Adenoviridae Infections/virology , Child, Preschool , Cities , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respirovirus Infections/virology , Specimen Handling , Viruses
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1381-1388, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The characteristics, outcomes, and risk factors for in-hospital death of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have been described in patients from Europe, North America and China, but there are few data from COVID-19 patients in Middle Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, outcomes, and risk factors for in-hospital death of critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the ICUs of a University Hospital in Egypt. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted between April 28 and July 29, 2020 to two ICUs dedicated to the isolation and treatment of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Cairo University Hospitals. Diagnosis was confirmed in all patients using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on respiratory samples and radiologic evidence of pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 177 patients admitted to the ICUs during the study period, 160 patients had COVID-19 pneumonia and were included in the analysis (mean age: 60 ± 14 years, 67.5% males); 23% of patients had no known comorbidities. The overall ICU and hospital mortality rates were both 24.4%. The ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 7 (25-75% interquartile range: 4-10) and 10 (25-75% interquartile range: 7-14) days, respectively. In a multivariable analysis with in-hospital death as the dependent variable, ischemic heart disease, history of smoking, and secondary bacterial pneumonia were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death, whereas greater PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission to the ICU was associated with a lower risk. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, ischemic heart disease, history of smoking, and secondary bacterial pneumonia were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Aged , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211027432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and its relationship to stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among healthcare workers (HCWs) compared to controls during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 80 HCWs in Suez Canal University Hospital in Ismailia, Egypt, and 80 controls were analyzed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 21) questionnaire was used, and serum IL-6 level was determined in both groups. RESULTS: IL-6 levels were high in 81.2% (65) of HCWs compared to 36% (45) of controls (P < .05). The DASS score was higher in participants with high IL-6 levels (>3 ng/mL) than in those with mild to moderate levels (P < .05). The regression model revealed that the type of work as a healthcare staff, irregular or night shift, and stress were predictors of increased IL-6 levels among the studied sample (P < .05) (odds ratio = 20.30, 2.44, and 2.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: The IL-6 level and DASS score were higher in HCWs compared to those in controls during the COVID-19 pandemic. The type of work as a healthcare staff, stress, and irregular or night shift were predictors of increased IL-6 levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 6662476, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280504

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study evaluated the clinical manifestation of COVID-19 and adverse outcomes in patients with comorbidities (outcome: death). Methods: A comparative follow-up investigation involving 148 confirmed cases of COVID-19 was performed for a month (between April and May 2020) at Qaha Hospital to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes resulting from comorbidities. Participants were divided into two clusters based on the presence of comorbidities. Group I comprised cases with comorbidities, and Group II included subjects without comorbidity. Survival distributions were outlined for the group with comorbidities after the follow-up period. Results: Fever (74.3%), headache (78.4%), cough (78.4%), sore throat (78.4%), fatigue (78.4%), and shortness of breath (86.5%) were the most prevalent symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. Such patients also suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome (37.8%) and pneumonia three times more than patients without comorbidities. The survival distributions were statistically significant (chi-square = 26.06, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Multiple comorbidities in COVID-19 patients are linked to severe clinical symptoms, disease complications, and critical disease progression. The presence of one or more comorbidities worsened the survival rate of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cause of Death , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 59945-59952, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274918

ABSTRACT

Internet addiction is one of the most growing addictive behaviors worldwide, especially among university students affecting their physical and mental health negatively. During COVID-19, accessing online books, completing assignments, and online assessments are highly recommended by universities, teachers, and students. The Internet has increasingly become a vital part of our lives, and distant online classes increase the dependency of students on the Internet. The aim of this study is to assess the level of internet addiction among medical or non-medical students in Tanta University, Egypt. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during October and November 2020. It included 373 students from the faculty of medicine and 373 non-medical students from the faculty of science. The validated (IAT-20) was used to assess the level of Internet addiction among these students. A total of 51.7% of medical students were found severe internet addicts and 43.4% of them were possible addicts compared to only 11.3% of non-medical students who were found severely addicted to the Internet and 68.9% of them were possible addicts with statistically significant difference between them. Female students of both colleges were found addicted to the Internet than males. Female medical and non-medical students suffered from severe Internet addiction more than non-medical and male ones. Appropriate awareness creation intervention strategies should be implemented to decrease the level of Internet addiction among university students and to reduce its harmful and negative consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Students, Medical , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
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