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1.
World J Surg ; 46(12): 2939-2945, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficient resource management in the operating room (OR) contributes significantly to healthcare expenditure and revenue generation for health systems. We aim to assess the influence that surgeon, anesthesiology, and nursing team assignments and time of day have on turnover time (TOT) in the OR. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of elective cases at a single academic hospital that were completed between Monday and Friday between the hours of 0700 and 2359 from July 1, 2017, through March 31, 2018. Emergent cases and unplanned, add-on cases were excluded. Data regarding patient characteristics, OR teams, TOT, and procedure start and end times were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2174 total cases across 13 different specialties were included in our study. A multivariate regression of relevant variables affecting TOT was performed. Consecutive specialty (p < 0.0001), consecutive surgeon (p < 0.0001), anesthesiologist (p < 0.0001), and prior case ending before 1400 (p < 0.0001) were independent predictors of lower TOT. A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.848 and a cutoff of 1400 having the highest sensitivity and specificity for TOT difference. CONCLUSIONS: TOT can be significantly affected by the time of the day the procedure is performed. Staffing availability during late procedures and the differences in how OR team staff are scheduled may affect OR efficiency. Additional studies may be needed to determine the long-term implications of changes implemented to decrease organizational operational costs related to the OR.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , Surgeons , Humans , Operating Rooms , Elective Surgical Procedures , Anesthesiologists , Efficiency, Organizational , Operative Time
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e061415, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During 2020 many countries reduced the number of elective surgeries to free up beds and cope with the COVID-19 outbreak. This situation led healthcare systems to prioritise elective interventions and reduce the overall volumes of treatments.The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the pandemic and the prioritisation policies on elective surgery were done considering the potential inappropriateness highlighted by the measurement of geographic variation. SETTING: The setting of the study is acute care with a focus on elective surgical procedures. Data were analysed at the Italian regional level. PARTICIPANTS: The study is observational and relies on national hospitalisation records from 2019 to 2020. The analyses refer to the 21 Italian regional health systems, using 48 917 records for 2019 and 33 821 for 2020. The surgical procedures analysed are those considered at high risk of unwarranted variation: coronary angioplasty, cholecystectomy, colectomy, knee replacement, hysterectomy, tonsillectomy, hip replacement and vein stripping. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary measures were the hospitalisation rate and its reduction per procedure, to understand the level of potential inappropriateness. Secondary measures were the SD and high/low ratio, to map the level of geographic variation. RESULTS: For some procedures, there is a linear negative relationship (eg, tonsillectomy: ρ = -0.92, p<0.01; vein stripping: ρ = -0.93, p<0.01) between the reduction in hospitalisation and its starting point. The only two procedures for which no significant differences were registered are cholecystectomy (ρ = -0.22, p=0.31) and hysterectomy (ρ = -0.22, p=0.33). In particular, in all cases, data show that regions with higher 2019 hospitalisation rates registered a larger reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The Italian data show that the pandemic seems to have led hospital managers and health professionals to cut surgical interventions more likely to be inappropriate. Hence, these findings can inform and guide the healthcare system to manage unwarranted variation when coming back to the new normal. This new starting point (lower volumes in some selected elective surgical procedures) should be used to plan elective surgical treatments that can be cancelled because of their high risk of inappropriateness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hospitalization
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110093

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine hospital services globally. The cancellation of elective surgeries placed a psychological burden on patients. A questionnaire study was conducted to identify the psychological impact of canceling cataract operations on patients at Kowloon East Cataract Center, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Hong Kong, from April to June 2020. In total, 99 participants aged 59 years old and above, who had their cataract surgeries postponed or as scheduled, were studied using the standardized patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). None of the patients who had their cataract surgeries rescheduled reached the cutoff score for major depression in PHQ-9, whereas, according to GAD-7, five patients had mild symptoms of anxiety, and one had severe symptoms. There was no significant psychosocial impact of the cancellation of cataract surgeries on patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Elective Surgical Procedures
6.
BMJ ; 379: o2644, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097964
7.
Lancet ; 400(10363): 1607-1617, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2015 Lancet Commission on global surgery identified surgery and anaesthesia as indispensable parts of holistic health-care systems. However, COVID-19 exposed the fragility of planned surgical services around the world, which have also been neglected in pandemic recovery planning. This study aimed to develop and validate a novel index to support local elective surgical system strengthening and address growing backlogs. METHODS: First, we performed an international consultation through a four-stage consensus process to develop a multidomain index for hospital-level assessment (surgical preparedness index; SPI). Second, we measured surgical preparedness across a global network of hospitals in high-income countries (HICs), middle-income countries (MICs), and low-income countries (LICs) to explore the distribution of the SPI at national, subnational, and hospital levels. Finally, using COVID-19 as an example of an external system shock, we compared hospitals' SPI to their planned surgical volume ratio (SVR; ie, operations for which the decision for surgery was made before hospital admission), calculated as the ratio of the observed surgical volume over a 1-month assessment period between June 6 and Aug 5, 2021, against the expected surgical volume based on hospital administrative data from the same period in 2019 (ie, a pre-pandemic baseline). A linear mixed-effects regression model was used to determine the effect of increasing SPI score. FINDINGS: In the first phase, from a longlist of 103 candidate indicators, 23 were prioritised as core indicators of elective surgical system preparedness by 69 clinicians (23 [33%] women; 46 [67%] men; 41 from HICs, 22 from MICs, and six from LICs) from 32 countries. The multidomain SPI included 11 indicators on facilities and consumables, two on staffing, two on prioritisation, and eight on systems. Hospitals were scored from 23 (least prepared) to 115 points (most prepared). In the second phase, surgical preparedness was measured in 1632 hospitals by 4714 clinicians from 119 countries. 745 (45·6%) of 1632 hospitals were in MICs or LICs. The mean SPI score was 84·5 (95% CI 84·1-84·9), which varied between HIC (88·5 [89·0-88·0]), MIC (81·8 [82·5-81·1]), and LIC (66·8 [64·9-68·7]) settings. In the third phase, 1217 (74·6%) hospitals did not maintain their expected SVR during the COVID-19 pandemic, of which 625 (51·4%) were from HIC, 538 (44·2%) from MIC, and 54 (4·4%) from LIC settings. In the mixed-effects model, a 10-point increase in SPI corresponded to a 3·6% (95% CI 3·0-4·1; p<0·0001) increase in SVR. This was consistent in HIC (4·8% [4·1-5·5]; p<0·0001), MIC (2·8 [2·0-3·7]; p<0·0001), and LIC (3·8 [1·3-6·7%]; p<0·0001) settings. INTERPRETATION: The SPI contains 23 indicators that are globally applicable, relevant across different system stressors, vary at a subnational level, and are collectable by front-line teams. In the case study of COVID-19, a higher SPI was associated with an increased planned surgical volume ratio independent of country income status, COVID-19 burden, and hospital type. Hospitals should perform annual self-assessment of their surgical preparedness to identify areas that can be improved, create resilience in local surgical systems, and upscale capacity to address elective surgery backlogs. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery, NIHR Academy, Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel Research UK, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, and Medtronic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Global Health , Hospitals
8.
AORN J ; 116(5): 416-424, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084985

ABSTRACT

Resuming elective surgeries that were canceled during the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a change to preprocedure patient preparation at a pediatric tertiary care center in middle Tennessee. We conducted a prospective, observational, mixed-methods study to determine the effectiveness of a preprocedure COVID-19 testing team to prevent COVID-19-related cancellations among pediatric patients receiving planned anesthesia. The intervention involved family member and patient education and a change in health record reporting to include COVID-19 test results. A team tasked with follow-up reviewed test results, consulted with families, and coordinated the administration of rapid tests if necessary. We compared preimplementation and postimplementation cancellation rates in four procedural areas and found no significant difference in the cancellation or rescheduling rates (P = .89, 95% confidence interval = -4.29 to 3.09). The team-based intervention was associated with the preservation of low procedural cancellation rates by mitigating barriers to preprocedural testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , Elective Surgical Procedures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies
9.
Ann Ital Chir ; 93: 599-605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073042

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study presents the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on elective surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with colon cancer, in a University Clinic of Surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data from patients who underwent an elective surgery procedure for colon cancer during the pandemic period (26.02.2020-01.10.2021) was analyzed. This period was compared with the same interval for the years 2016-2017 and 2018-2019. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the number of patients that underwent an elective surgery for colon cancer during the pandemic. The Covid-19 generated pandemic has influenced the number of days from diagnosis to treatment, preoperative and postoperative hospitalization. There was an increase in the number of patients with severe symptoms, with complete or incomplete ileus. The number of lymphatic nodes harvested increased during the last period of study, being correlated with the advanced cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: The Covid-19 pandemic had an influence on the management of the patients with colon cancer undergoing an elective surgery procedure. Firstly, their number decreased compared to the other periods, and they presented more severe symptoms. The duration of the surgical act was extended, but the postoperative stay was shortened. KEY WORDS: Colon cancer, Covid-19 Pandemic, Duration of surgery, Elective surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Ileus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ileus/etiology , Pandemics
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043861

ABSTRACT

The review investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the elective surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and the modifications of the duration of hospital stay scheduled for the surgery. Most of the studies included in our analysis showed a decrease in the number of elective surgical procedures applied to patients with colorectal cancer, varying from 14% to 70% worldwide. We have also observed a significant shortening of the hospital stay in most of the cases, associated with a longer waiting time until hospital admission. In the end, we have performed a synthesis of all the valuable data and advice gathered from real life observations, proposing a strategy to deal with the pandemic and with the large number of cancer patients accumulated during these difficult times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Elective Surgical Procedures , Pandemics , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Length of Stay
11.
Ann Surg ; 276(6): 969-974, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictors of postoperative mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive patients. BACKGROUND: COVID-19-positive patients have more postoperative complications. Studies investigating the risk factors for postoperative mortality in COVID-19-positive patients are limited. METHODS: COVID-19-positive patients who underwent surgeries/procedures in Cleveland Clinic between January 2020 and March 2021 were identified retrospectively. The primary outcome was postoperative/procedural 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, intensive care unit admission, and 30-day readmission. RESULTS: A total of 2543 patients who underwent 3027 surgeries/procedures were included. Total 48.5% of the patients were male. The mean age was 57.8 (18.3) years. A total of 71.2% had at least 1 comorbidity. Total 78.7% of the cases were elective. The median operative time was 94 (47.0-162) minutes and mean length of stay was 6.43 (13.4) days. Postoperative/procedural mortality rate was 4.01%. Increased age [odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% CI, 1.4-1.98; P <0.001], being a current smoker [2.76, (1.3-5.82); P =0.008], presence of comorbidity [3.22, (1.03-10.03); P =0.043], emergency [6.35, (3.39-11.89); P <0.001] and urgent versus [1.78, (1.12-2.84); P =0.015] elective surgery, admission through the emergency department [15.97, (2.00-127.31); P =0.009], or inpatient service [32.28, (7.75-134.46); P <0.001] versus outpatients were associated with mortality in the multivariable analysis. Among all specialties, thoracic surgery [3.76, (1.66-8.53); P =0.002] had the highest association with mortality. Total 17.5% of the patients required intensive care unit admission with increased body mass index being a predictor [1.03, (1.01-1.05); P =0.005]. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-positive patients have higher risk of postintervention mortality. Risk factors should be carefully evaluated before intervention. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of pandemic on long-term surgical/procedural outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology
12.
CMAJ Open ; 10(3): E789-E797, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing challenges with respect to access to elective surgery across Canada, and a single-entry model (SEM) approach has been proposed as an equitable and efficient method to help manage the backlog. With Ontario's recent investment in centralized surgical wait-list management, we sought to understand the views of health system leaders on the role of SEMs in managing the elective surgery backlog. METHODS: We used the qualitative method of interpretive description to explore participant perspectives and identify practical strategies for policy-makers, administrators and clinical leaders. We conducted semistructured interviews with health system leaders from across Ontario on Zoom between March and June 2021. We used snowball and purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria included Ontario health care leaders, fluent in English or French, in positions relevant to managing the elective surgery backlog. Exclusion criteria were individuals who work outside Ontario, or do not hold relevant roles. RESULTS: Our interviews with 10 health system leaders - including hospital chief executive officers, surgeons, administrators and policy experts - resulted in 5 emergent domains: perceptions of the backlog, operationalizing and financing SEMs, barriers, facilitators, and equity and patient factors. All participants emphasized the need for clinical leaders to champion SEMs and the utility of SEMs in managing wait-lists for high-volume, low-acuity, low-complexity and low-variation surgeries. INTERPRETATION: Although SEMs are no panacea, the participants in our study stated that they believe SEMs can improve quality and reduce variability in wait times when SEMs are designed to address local needs and are implemented with buy-in from champions. Health care leaders should consider SEMs for improving surgical backlog management in their local jurisdictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Waiting Lists
14.
Ann Ital Chir ; 93: 599-605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2011343

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study presents the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on elective surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with colon cancer, in a University Clinic of Surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data from patients who underwent an elective surgery procedure for colon cancer during the pandemic period (26.02.2020-01.10.2021) was analyzed. This period was compared with the same interval for the years 2016-2017 and 2018-2019. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the number of patients that underwent an elective surgery for colon cancer during the pandemic. The Covid-19 generated pandemic has influenced the number of days from diagnosis to treatment, preoperative and postoperative hospitalization. There was an increase in the number of patients with severe symptoms, with complete or incomplete ileus. The number of lymphatic nodes harvested increased during the last period of study, being correlated with the advanced cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: The Covid-19 pandemic had an influence on the management of the patients with colon cancer undergoing an elective surgery procedure. Firstly, their number decreased compared to the other periods, and they presented more severe symptoms. The duration of the surgical act was extended, but the postoperative stay was shortened. KEY WORDS: Colon cancer, Covid-19 Pandemic, Duration of surgery, Elective surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Ileus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ileus/etiology , Pandemics
15.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223324, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on abdominal wall hernia repair surgeries and cholecystectomy in a referral center hospital. METHODS: a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study carried out at Hospital Universitário Evangélico Mackenzie (HUEM), in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Data obtained through electronic medical records of patients who underwent cholecystectomy and abdominal wall hernia repair from March to December 2019 and 2020 at HUEM were included. Data were analyzed using Pearsons Chi-Square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: a total of 743 medical records were analyzed, with a 63.16% drop in the total number of surgeries in 2020. There was a 91.67% increase in the number of ICU admissions in 2020, as well as a 70% increase in average length of stay. A greater number of complications was observed (in 2020, 27% had complications, while in 2019 this figure was 18.8%) and an increase in mortality (in 2019, this rate was 1.3% and in 2020, 6.5%). There were 6 cases of COVID-19 in 2020, so that of these, 5 patients died. CONCLUSION: during the COVID-19 pandemic, an important reduction in the number of abdominal wall hernia repair surgeries and cholecystectomy was observed. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in postoperative complications, mortality rate and length of stay in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hernia, Ventral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hernia, Ventral/surgery , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Surgery ; 172(6): 1642-1650, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in sweeping shutdowns of surgical operations to increase hospital capacity and conserve resources. Our institution, following national and state guidelines, suspended nonessential surgeries from March 16 to May 4, 2020. This study examines the financial impact of this decision on our institution's health system by comparing 2 waves of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: The total revenue was obtained for surgical cases occurring during the first wave of the pandemic between March 1, 2020 and July 31, 2020 and the second wave between October 1, 2020 and February 29, 2021 for all surgical departments. During the same time intervals, in the prepandemic year 2019, total revenue was also obtained for comparison. Net revenue and work relative value units per month were compared to each respective month for all surgical divisions within the department of surgery. RESULTS: Comparing the 5-month first wave period in 2020 to prepandemic 2019 for all surgical departments, there was a net revenue loss of $99,674,376, which reflected 42% of the health system's revenue loss during this period. The department of surgery contributed to a net revenue loss of $58,368,951, which was 24.9% of the health system's revenue loss. Within the department of surgery, there was a significant difference between the net revenue loss per month per division of the first and second wave: first wave median -$636,952 [interquartile range: -1,432,627; 26,111] and second wave median -$274,626 [-781,124; 396,570] (P = .04). A similar difference was detected when comparing percent change in work relative value units between the 2 waves (wave 1: median -13.2% [interquartile range: -41.3%, -1.8%], wave 2: median -7.8% [interquartile range: -13.0%, 1.8%], P = .003). CONCLUSION: Stopping elective surgeries significantly decreased revenue for a health system. Losses for the health system totaled $234,839,990 during the first wave, with lost surgical revenue comprising 42% of that amount. With elective surgeries continuing during the second wave of COVID-19 cases, the health system losses were substantially lower. The contribution surgery has to a hospital's cash flow is essential in maintaining financial solvency. It is important for hospital systems to develop innovative and alternative solutions to increase capacity, offer comprehensive care to medical and surgical patients, and prevent shutdowns of surgical activity through a pandemic to maintain financial security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hospitals
17.
World J Surg ; 46(10): 2288-2296, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced ERAS program application in colorectal surgery across hospitals in the Lazio region (central district in Italy) participating in the "Lazio Network" project. METHODS: A multi-institutional database was constructed. All patients included in this study underwent elective colorectal surgery for both malignant and benign disease between January 2019 and December 2020. Emergency procedures were excluded. The population was divided into 2 groups: a pre-COVID-19 group (PG) of patients operated on between February and December 2019 and a COVID-19 group (CG) of patients operated on between February and December 2020, during the first 2 waves of the pandemic in Italy. RESULTS: The groups included 622 patients in the PG and 615 in the CG treated in 8 hospitals of the network. The mean number of items applied was higher in the PG (65.6% vs. 56.6%, p < 0.001) in terms of preoperative items (64.2% vs. 50.7%, p < 0.001), intraoperative items (65.0% vs. 53.3%, p < 0.001), and postoperative items (68.8% vs. 63.2%, p < 0.001). Postoperative recovery was faster in the PG, with a shorter time to first flatus, first stool, autonomous mobilization and discharge (6.82 days vs. 7.43 days, p = 0.021). Postoperative complications, mortality and reoperations were similar among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the application of ERAS in the centers of the "Lazio Network" study group, with a reduction in adherence to the ERAS protocol in terms of preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative items. In addition, in the CG, the patients had worse postoperative outcomes with respect to recovery and discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology
18.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(2): e232-e233, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382602
19.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 259, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, an extensive reorganisation of healthcare resources was necessary-with a particular impact on surgical care across all disciplines. However, the direct and indirect consequences of this redistribution of resources on surgical therapy and care are largely unknown. METHODS: We analysed our prospectively collected standardised digital quality management document for all surgical cases in 2020 and compared them to the years 2018 and 2019. Periods with high COVID-19 burdens were compared with the reference periods in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: From 2018 to 2020, 10,723 patients underwent surgical treatment at our centres. We observed a decrease in treated patients and a change in the overall patient health status. Patient age and length of hospital stay increased during the COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002). Furthermore, the distribution of indications for surgical treatment changed in favour of oncological cases and less elective cases such as hernia repairs (p < 0.001). Postoperative thromboembolic and pulmonary complications increased slightly during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were slight differences for postoperative overall complications according to Clavien-Dindo, with a significant increase of postoperative mortality (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic we did not see an increase in the occurrence, or the severity of postoperative complications. Despite a slightly higher rate of mortality and specific complications being more prevalent, the biggest change was in indication for surgery, resulting in a higher proportion of older and sicker patients with corresponding comorbidities. Further research is warranted to analyse how this changed demographic will influence long-term patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology
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