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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 513, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915267

ABSTRACT

Loss of photoreceptors in atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) results in severe visual impairment. Since the low-resolution peripheral vision is retained in such conditions, restoration of central vision should not jeopardize the surrounding healthy retina and allow for simultaneous use of the natural and prosthetic sight. This interim report, prespecified in the study protocol, presents the first clinical results with a photovoltaic substitute of the photoreceptors providing simultaneous use of the central prosthetic and peripheral natural vision in atrophic AMD. In this open-label single group feasibility trial (NCT03333954, recruitment completed), five patients with geographic atrophy have been implanted with a wireless 2 x 2 mm-wide 30 µm-thick device, having 378 pixels of 100 µm in size. All 5 patients achieved the primary outcome of the study by demonstrating the prosthetic visual perception in the former scotoma. The four patients with a subretinal placement of the chip demonstrated the secondary outcome: Landolt acuity of 1.17 ± 0.13 pixels, corresponding to the Snellen range of 20/460-20/565. With electronic magnification of up to a factor of 8, patients demonstrated prosthetic acuity in the range of 20/63-20/98. Under room lighting conditions, patients could simultaneously use prosthetic central vision and their remaining peripheral vision in the implanted eye and in the fellow eye.


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation Therapy/instrumentation , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Geographic Atrophy/therapy , Macular Degeneration/therapy , Vision Disorders/therapy , Visual Perception , Visual Prosthesis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Electric Stimulation , Equipment Design , Eyeglasses , Humans , Retina , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 250, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major depression is the second leading cause of years lost to disability worldwide and is a leading contributor to suicide. However, first-line antidepressants are only fully effective for 33%, and only 40% of those offered psychological treatment attend for two sessions or more. Views gained from patients and primary care professionals are that greater treatment uptake might be achieved if people with depression could be offered alternative and more accessible treatment options. Although there is evidence that the Alpha-Stim Anxiety Insomnia and Depression (AID) device is safe and effective for anxiety and depression symptoms in people with anxiety disorders, there is much less evidence of efficacy in major depression without anxiety. This study investigates the effectiveness of the Alpha-Stim AID device, a cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) treatment that people can safely use independently at home. The device provides CES which has been shown to increase alpha oscillatory brain activity, associated with relaxation. METHODS: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of Alpha-Stim AID in treatment-seeking patients (aged 16 years upwards) with moderate to moderately severe depressive symptoms in primary care. The study is a multi-centre parallel-group, double-blind, non-commercial, randomised controlled superiority trial. The primary objective of the study is to examine the clinical efficacy of active daily use of 8 weeks of Alpha-Stim AID versus sham Alpha-Stim AID on depression symptoms at 16 weeks (8 weeks after the end of treatment) in people with moderate severity depression. The primary outcome is the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at 16 weeks. All trial and treatment procedures are carried out remotely using videoconferencing, telephone and postal delivery considering the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. DISCUSSION: This study is investigating whether participants using the Alpha-Stim AID device display a reduction in depressive symptoms that can be maintained over 8 weeks post-treatment. The findings will help to determine whether Alpha-Stim AID should be recommended, including being made available in the NHS for patients with depressive symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRTCN ISRCTN11853110 . Registered on 14 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633758

ABSTRACT

The available data from electroneurography (ENG) studies on the transmission of neural impulses in the motor fibers of upper and lower extremity nerves following neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (NMFES) combined with kinesiotherapy in post-stroke patients during sixty-day observation do not provide convincing results. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of an NMFES of antagonistic muscle groups at the wrist and ankle and kinesiotherapy based mainly on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). An ENG was performed once in a group of 60 healthy volunteers and three times in 120 patients after stroke (T0, up to 7 days after the incident; T1, after 21 days of treatment; and T2, after 60 days of treatment); 60 subjects received personalized NMFES and PNF treatment (NMFES+K), while the other 60 received only PNF (K). An ENG studied peripheral (M-wave recordings), C8 and L5 ventral root (F-wave recordings) neural impulse transmission in the peroneal and the ulnar nerves on the hemiparetic side. Both groups statistically differed in their amplitudes of M-wave recording parameters after peroneal nerve stimulation performed at T0 and T2 compared with the control group. After 60 days of treatment, only the patients from the NMFES+K group showed significant improvement in M-wave recordings. The application of the proposed NMFES electrostimulation algorithm combined with PNF improved the peripheral neural transmission in peroneal but not ulnar motor nerve fibers in patients after ischemic stroke. Combined kinesiotherapy and safe, personalized, controlled electrotherapy after stroke give better results than kinesiotherapy alone.


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation Therapy , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke Rehabilitation , Ankle , Electric Stimulation , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lower Extremity , Muscles , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Synaptic Transmission , Treatment Outcome , Wrist
4.
Restor Neurol Neurosci ; 39(6): 393-408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An effective treatment is needed for long-COVID patients which suffer from symptoms of vision and/or cognition impairment such as impaired attention, memory, language comprehension, or fatigue. OBJECTIVE: Because COVID-19infection causes reduced blood flow which may cause neuronal inactivation, we explored if neuromodulation with non-invasive brain stimulation using microcurrent (NIBS), known to enhance blood flow and neuronal synchronization, can reduce these symptoms. METHODS: Two female long-COVID patients were treated for 10-13 days with alternating current stimulation of the eyes and brain. While one patient (age 40) was infected with the SARS CoV-2 virus, the other (age 72) developed symptoms following AstraZeneca vaccination. Before and after therapy, cognition was assessed subjectively by interview and visual fields quantified using perimetry. One patient was also tested with a cognitive test battery and with a retinal dynamic vascular analyser (DVA), a surrogate marker of vascular dysregulation in the brain. RESULTS: In both patients NIBS markedly improved cognition and partially reversed visual field loss within 3-4 days. Cognitive tests in one patient confirmed recovery of up to 40-60% in cognitive subfunctions with perimetry results showing stable and visual field recovery even during follow-up. DVA showed that NIBS reduced vascular dysregulation by normalizing vessel dynamics (dilation/constriction), with particularly noticeable changes in the peripheral veins and arteries. CONCLUSIONS: NIBS was effective in improving visual and cognitive deficits in two confirmed SARS-COV-2 patients. Because recovery of function was associated with restoration of vascular autoregulation, we propose that (i) hypometabolic, "silent" neurons are the likely biological cause of long-COVID associated visual and cognitive deficits, and (ii) reoxygenation of these "silent" neurons provides the basis for neural reactivation and neurological recovery. Controlled trials are now needed to confirm these observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Vision Disorders , Adult , Aged , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Female , Humans , Vision Disorders/therapy , Vision Disorders/virology
5.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1148-1151, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604793

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this observational study was to report the experience of a 1-yr home training with functional electrical stimulation cycling of a person with T4 American Impairment Scale A paraplegia for 9 yrs, homebound due to the COVID-19 health crisis. The 40-yr-old participant had a three-phase training: V1, isometric stimulation; V2, functional electrical stimulation cycling for 3 sessions/wk; and V3, functional electrical stimulation cycling for 2-4 sessions/wk. Data on general and physical tolerance, health impact, and performance were collected. Borg Scale score relating to fatigue was 10.1 before training and 11.8 after training. The average score for satisfaction at the end of sessions was 8.7. Lean leg mass increased more than 29%, although total bone mineral density dropped by 1.6%. The ventilatory thresholds increased from 19.5 to 29% and the maximum ventilatory peak increased by 9.5%. Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale score returned to its highest level by the end of training. For the only track event on a competition bike, the pilot covered a distance of 1607.8 m in 17 mins 49 secs. When functional electrical stimulation cycling training is based on a clear and structured protocol, it offers the person with paraplegia the opportunity to practice this activity recreationally and athletically. In times of crisis, this training has proven to be very relevant.


Subject(s)
Bicycling/physiology , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Exercise Therapy/methods , Paraplegia/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , Paraplegia/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Case Studies as Topic , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(1): 24-29, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465265

ABSTRACT

Electrotherapy or electrical stimulation (ES) is a part of clinical intervention in the rehabilitation field. With rehabilitation intervention, electrotherapy may be provided as a treatment for pain relief, strengthening, muscle education, wound recovery, or functional training. Although these interventions may not be considered as the primary therapy for patients, the advantages of the ease of operation, lower costs, and lower risks render ES to be applied frequently in clinics. There have also been emerging ES tools for brain modulation in the past decade. ES interventions are not only considered analgesics but also as an important assistive therapy for motor improvement in orthopedic and neurological rehabilitation. In addition, during the coronavirus disease pandemic, lockdowns and self-quarantine policies have led to the discontinuation of orthopedic and neurological rehabilitation interventions. Therefore, the feasibility and effectiveness of home-based electrotherapy may provide opportunities for the prevention of deterioration or extension of the original therapy. The most common at-home applications in previous studies showed positive effects on pain relief, functional ES, muscle establishment, and motor training. Currently, there is a lack of certain products for at-home brain modulation; however, transcranial direct current stimulation has shown the potential of future home-based rehabilitation due to its relatively small and simple design. We have organized the features and applications of ES tools and expect the future potential of remote therapy during the viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Neurological Rehabilitation , Orthopedic Procedures , SARS-CoV-2 , Electric Stimulation Therapy/adverse effects , Humans , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
7.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1148-1151, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447684

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this observational study was to report the experience of a 1-yr home training with functional electrical stimulation cycling of a person with T4 American Impairment Scale A paraplegia for 9 yrs, homebound due to the COVID-19 health crisis. The 40-yr-old participant had a three-phase training: V1, isometric stimulation; V2, functional electrical stimulation cycling for 3 sessions/wk; and V3, functional electrical stimulation cycling for 2-4 sessions/wk. Data on general and physical tolerance, health impact, and performance were collected. Borg Scale score relating to fatigue was 10.1 before training and 11.8 after training. The average score for satisfaction at the end of sessions was 8.7. Lean leg mass increased more than 29%, although total bone mineral density dropped by 1.6%. The ventilatory thresholds increased from 19.5 to 29% and the maximum ventilatory peak increased by 9.5%. Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale score returned to its highest level by the end of training. For the only track event on a competition bike, the pilot covered a distance of 1607.8 m in 17 mins 49 secs. When functional electrical stimulation cycling training is based on a clear and structured protocol, it offers the person with paraplegia the opportunity to practice this activity recreationally and athletically. In times of crisis, this training has proven to be very relevant.


Subject(s)
Bicycling/physiology , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Exercise Therapy/methods , Paraplegia/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , Paraplegia/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Case Studies as Topic , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266717

ABSTRACT

Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), an innovative training technology, is considered as a joint-friendly, highly customizable and particularly time-effective option for improving muscle strength and stability, body composition and pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS on maximum isometric trunk (MITS), leg extensor strength (MILES), lean body mass (LBM) and body-fat content. A cohort of 54 male amateur golfers, 18 to 70 years old and largely representative for healthy adults, were randomly assigned to a WB-EMS (n = 27) or a control group (CG: n = 27). Bipolar low-frequency WB-EMS combined with low-intensity movements was conducted once per week for 20 min at the participants' locations, while the CG maintained their habitual activity. The intention to treat analysis with multiple imputation was applied. After 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS application with an attendance rate close to 100%, we observed significant WB-EMS effects on MITS (p < 0.001), MILES (p = 0.001), LBM (p = 0.034), but not body-fat content (p = 0.080) and low-back pain (LBP: p ≥ 0.078). In summary, the commercial setting of once-weekly WB-EMS application is effective to enhance stability, maximum strength, body composition and, to a lower extent, LBP in amateur golfers widely representative for a healthy male cohort.


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation Therapy , Low Back Pain , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Composition , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , Young Adult
9.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(7): 2053-2059, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245796

ABSTRACT

Persons suffering with systemic neuromuscular disorders or chronic organ failures, spend less time for daily physical activity, aggravating their mobility impairments. From 2020, patients at risk are also older adults, who, though negative for the SARS-Cov-2 infection, suffer with a fatigue syndrome due to home restriction/quarantine. Besides eventual psycological managements, it could be useful to offer to these patients a rehabilitation workouts easy to learn and to independently repeat at home (Full-Body In-Bed Gym). Inspired by the proven capability to recover skeletal muscle contractility and strength by home-based volitional exercises and functional electrical stimulation (FES), we suggest for this fatigue syndrome a 10-20 min long daily routine of easy and safe physical exercises that may recover from muscle weakness the main 400 skeletal muscles used for every-day activities. Leg muscles could be trained also by an adjunctive neuro-muscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in frail old persons. Many of the exercises could be performed in bed (Full-Body in-Bed Gym), thus hospitalized patients can learn this light training before leaving the hospital. Full-Body in-Bed Gym is, indeed, an extension of well-established cardiovascular-ventilation rehabilitation training performed by patients after heavy surgery. Blood pressure readings, monitored before and after daily routine of Full-Body in-Bed Gym, demonstrate a transient decrease in peripheral resistance due to increased blood flow to major body muscles. Continued regularly, Full-Body in-Bed Gym may help maintaining independence of frail people, including those suffering with the fatigue syndrome related to the restrictions/quarantine imposed to the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Aged , Electric Stimulation , Exercise , Humans , Muscle Strength , Muscle Weakness , Muscle, Skeletal , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 148, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant portion of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at high risk of developing intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired swallowing dysfunction (neurogenic dysphagia) as a consequence of requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) is a simple and safe treatment for neurogenic dysphagia. It has been shown that PES can restore safe swallowing in orally intubated or tracheotomized ICU patients with neurogenic dysphagia following severe stroke. We report the case of a patient with severe neurogenic post-extubation dysphagia (PED) due to prolonged intubation and severe general muscle weakness related to COVID-19, which was successfully treated using PES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old Caucasian female patient with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection developed neurogenic dysphagia following prolonged intubation in the ICU. To avoid aerosol-generating procedures, her swallowing function was evaluated non-instrumentally as recommended by recently published international guidelines in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Her swallowing function was markedly impaired and PES therapy was recommended. PES led to a rapid improvement of the PED, as evaluated by bedside swallowing assessments using the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) and Dysphagia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS), and diet screening using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). The improved swallowing, as reflected by these measures, allowed this patient to transfer from the ICU to a non-intensive medical department 5 days after completing PES treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PES treatment contributed to the restoration of a safe swallowing function in this critically ill patient with COVID-19 and ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Early clinical bedside swallowing assessment and dysphagia intervention in COVID-19 patients is crucial to optimize their full recovery. PES may contribute to a safe and earlier ICU discharge of patients with ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Earlier ICU discharge and reduced rates of re-intubation following PES can help alleviate some of the pressure on ICU bed capacity, which is critical in times of a health emergency such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pharynx , Recovery of Function , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(3): jrm00164, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105975

ABSTRACT

The rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 after prolonged treatment in the intensive care unit is often complex and challenging. Patients may develop a myriad of long-term multiorgan impairments, affecting the respiratory, cardiac, neurological, digestive and musculoskeletal systems. Skeletal muscle dysfunction of respiratory and limb muscles, commonly referred to as intensive care unit acquired weakness, occurs in approximately 40% of all patients admitted to intensive care. The impact on mobility and return to activities of daily living is severe. Furthermore, many patients experience ongoing symptoms of fatigue, weakness and shortness of breath, in what is being described as "long COVID". Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is a technique in which small electrical impulses are applied to skeletal muscle to cause contractions when voluntary muscle contraction is difficult or impossible. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can prevent muscle atrophy, improve muscle strength and function, maintain blood flow and reduce oedema. This review examines the evidence, current guidelines, and proposed benefits of using neuromuscular electrical stimulation with patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Practical recommendations for using electrical muscle stimulation in patients with COVID-19 are provided, and suggestions for further research are proposed. Evidence suggests NMES may play a role in the weaning of patients from ventilators and can be continued in the post-acute and longer-term phases of recovery. As such, NMES may be a suitable treatment modality to implement within rehabilitation pathways for COVID-19, with consideration of the practical and safety issues highlighted within this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Physiotherapy ; 111: 4-22, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To establish the evidence for rehabilitation interventions tested in populations of patients admitted to ICU and critical care with severe respiratory illness, and consider whether the evidence is generalizable to patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The authors undertook a rapid systematic review. Medline (via OvidSP), CINAHL Complete (via EBSCOhost), Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CENTRAL (via Wiley), Epistemonikos (via Epistemonikos.org), PEDro (via pedro.org.au) and OTseeker (via otseeker.com) searched to 7 May 2020. The authors included systematic reviews, RCTs and qualitative studies involving adults with respiratory illness requiring intensive care who received rehabilitation to enhance or restore resulting physical impairments or function. Data were extracted by one author and checked by a second. TIDier was used to guide intervention descriptions. Study quality was assessed using Critical Skills Appraisal Programme (CASP) tools. RESULTS: Six thousand nine hundred and three titles and abstracts were screened; 24 systematic reviews, 11 RCTs and eight qualitative studies were included. Progressive exercise programmes, early mobilisation and multicomponent interventions delivered in ICU can improve functional independence. Nutritional supplementation in addition to rehabilitation in post-ICU hospital settings may improve performance of activities of daily living. The evidence for rehabilitation after discharge from hospital following an ICU admission is inconclusive. Those receiving rehabilitation valued it, engendering hope and confidence. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, early mobilisation and multicomponent programmes may improve recovery following ICU admission for severe respiratory illness that could be generalizable to those with COVID-19. Rehabilitation interventions can bring hope and confidence to individuals but there is a need for an individualised approach and the use of behaviour change strategies. Further research is needed in post-ICU settings and with those who have COVID-19. Registration: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/prc2y.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/diet therapy , Early Ambulation , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Exercise Therapy/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mobility Limitation , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 556335, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993352

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Right now, we are facing a global pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes the highly contagious human disease COVID-19. The number of COVID-19 cases is increasing at an alarming rate, more and more people suffer from it, and the death toll is on the rise since December 2019, when COVID-19 has presumably appeared. We need an urgent solution for the prevention, treatment, and recovery of the involved patients. Methods: Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) is known as an immuno-supportive therapy in oncology. Our proposal is to apply this method to prevent the progression of the disease after its identification, to provide treatment when necessary, and deliver rehabilitation to diminish the fibrotic-often fatal-consequences of the infection. Hypothesis: The effects of mEHT, which are proven for oncological applications, could be utilized for the inactivation of the virus or for treating the fibrotic consequences. The hypothesized mEHT effects, which could have a role in the antiviral treatment, it could be applied for viral-specific immune-activation and for anti-fibrotic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Hyperthermia, Induced , Immunotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/rehabilitation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology
18.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(12): 2109-2111, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721969

ABSTRACT

NONE: This is a case series of 3 patients with moderate-severe OSA who were PAP-intolerant and underwent implantation of the hypoglossal nerve stimulator. All patients recorded baseline overnight pulse oximetry without the hypoglossal nerve stimulator and at least 1 night at each hypoglossal nerve stimulator setting as they up-titrated the device at home. Because of the impact of the novel coronavirus on sleep laboratories, all patients proceeded directly to type 3 sleep studies performed at a single setting determined by a combination of self-reported improvement and pulse oximetry data.


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Hypoglossal Nerve/physiology , Oximetry/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110259, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753088

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the most devastating health emergency that humans have seen over the past century. The war against the disease has been handicapped by unavailability of effective therapeutic options. Till date, there is no clinically approved vaccine or drug for the treatment of COVID-19, and the ongoing search to find a novel therapy is progressing at pandemic pace. Herein, we propose a novel hypothesis based on sound research evidence that electric stimulation can be a potential adjuvant to the currently used symptomatic therapies and antiviral drugs. Based on preclinical evidence, we propose that electric stimulation can improve respiratory functions, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 growth, reduce pain, boost immunity and improve the penetration of antiviral drugs. We envisage that our hypothesis, if used clinically as an adjuvant, may significantly improve the therapeutic outcomes of the current treatment regimen being used around the globe for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Immune System , Models, Theoretical , Pain Management , Respiration , Respiration Disorders/immunology , Respiration Disorders/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
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