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1.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(6): 106212, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385672

ABSTRACT

Introduction Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been proposed as a SARS-CoV-2 treatment but the frequency of long QT (LQT) during use is unknown. Objective To conduct a meta-analysis of the frequency of LQT in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection treated with HCQ. Data Sources PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and preprint servers (medRxiv, Research Square) were searched for studies published between December 2019 and June 30, 2020. Methods Effect statistics were pooled using random effects. The quality of observational studies and randomized controlled trials was appraised with STROBE and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment tools, respectively. Outcomes Critical LQT was defined as: (1) maximum QT corrected (QTc)≥500 ms (if QRS<120 ms) or QTc≥550 ms (if QRS≥120 ms), and (2) QTc increase ≥60 ms. Results In the 28 studies included (n=9124), the frequency of LQT during HCQ treatment was 6.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-10.2). In 20 studies (n=7825), patients were also taking other QT-prolonging drugs. The frequency of LQT in the other 8 studies (n=1299) was 1.7% (95% CI: 0.3-3.9). Twenty studies (n=6869) reported HCQ discontinuation due to LQT, with a frequency of 3.7% (95% CI: 1.5-6.6). The frequency of ventricular arrhythmias during HCQ treatment was 1.68% (127/7539) and that of arrhythmogenic death was 0.69% (39/5648). Torsades de Pointes occurred in 0.06% (3/5066). Patients aged >60 years were at highest risk of HCQ-associated LQT (P<0.001). Conclusions HCQ-associated cardiotoxicity in SARS-CoV-2 patients is uncommon but requires ECG monitoring, particularly in those aged >60 years and/or taking other QT-prolonging drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e017144, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255736

ABSTRACT

Background Despite a lack of clinical evidence, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are being administered widely to patients with verified or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both drugs may increase risk of lethal arrhythmias associated with QT interval prolongation. Methods and Results We analyzed a case series of COVID-19-positive/suspected patients admitted between February 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, who were treated with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, or a combination of both drugs. We evaluated baseline and postmedication QT interval (corrected QT interval [QTc]; Bazett) using 12-lead ECGs. Critical QTc prolongation was defined as follows: (1) maximum QTc ≥500 ms (if QRS <120 ms) or QTc ≥550 ms (if QRS ≥120 ms) and (2) QTc increase of ≥60 ms. Tisdale score and Elixhauser comorbidity index were calculated. Of 490 COVID-19-positive/suspected patients, 314 (64%) received either/both drugs and 98 (73 COVID-19 positive and 25 suspected) met study criteria (age, 62±17 years; 61% men). Azithromycin was prescribed in 28%, hydroxychloroquine in 10%, and both in 62%. Baseline mean QTc was 448±29 ms and increased to 459±36 ms (P=0.005) with medications. Significant prolongation was observed only in men (18±43 ms versus -0.2±28 ms in women; P=0.02). A total of 12% of patients reached critical QTc prolongation. Changes in QTc were highest with the combination compared with either drug, with much greater prolongation with combination versus azithromycin (17±39 ms versus 0.5±40 ms; P=0.07). No patients manifested torsades de pointes. Conclusions Overall, 12% of patients manifested critical QTc prolongation, and the combination caused greater prolongation than either drug alone. The balance between uncertain benefit and potential risk when treating COVID-19 patients should be carefully assessed.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(4): e12846, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since there was no proven treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) combination is being used in different countries as a treatment option. Many controversies exist related to the safety and effectiveness of this combination, and questions about how HCQ-AZM combination affects the ventricular repolarization are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to show whether the hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) combination prolonged Tpeak-to-end (TpTe) duration and TpTe/QT interval ratio or not. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six consequent COVID-19(+) patients meeting the study criteria were enrolled in this study. Baseline ECGs were obtained immediately after hospitalization and before commencing the HCQ-AZM combination. On-treatment ECG was obtained 24-48 hr after the loading dose of HCQ/AZM. ECG parameters including PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, QTc interval, TpTe duration, and TpTe/QT interval ratio were assessed. Demographic and laboratory findings were collected from an electronic recording system. RESULTS: ECGs of 126 COVID-19(+) patients who received HCQ-AZM combination were assessed. Mean baseline QTc (by Fridericia formula), TpTe, and TpTe/QT ratio were 420.0 ± 26.5 ms, 82.43 ± 9.77 ms, and 0.22 ± 0.02, respectively. On-treatment QTc, TpTe and TpTe/QT ratio were 425.7 ± 27.18 ms, 85.17 ± 11.17 ms, and 0.22 ± 0.03, respectively. No statistically significant acute impacts of HCQ-AZM combination on TpTe duration and TpTe/QT interval ratio were observed compared with baseline values. No ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation and the significant conduction delays were seen during in-hospital follow-up. CONCLUSION: HCQ-AZM combination increased TpTe duration. However, no significant impact on TpTe/QT interval ratio was observed.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2021: 6683098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin was one of the common therapies at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. They can prolong QT interval, cause torsade de pointes, and lead to sudden cardiac death. We aimed to assess QT interval prolongation and its risk factors in patients who received hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. One hundred seventy-two confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this study, hospitalized at Babol University of Medical Sciences hospitals between March 5, 2020, and April 3, 2020. Patients were divided into two groups: hydroxychloroquine alone and hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. Electrocardiograms were used for outcome assessment. RESULTS: 83.1% of patients received hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin vs. 16.9% of patients who received only hydroxychloroquine. The mean age of patients was 59.2 ± 15.4.The mean of posttreatment QTc interval in the monotherapy group was shorter than the mean of posttreatment QTc interval in the combination therapy group, but it had no significant statistical difference (462.5 ± 43.1 milliseconds vs. 464.3 ± 59.1 milliseconds; p = 0.488). Generally, 22.1% of patients had a prolonged QTc interval after treatment. Male gender, or baseline QTc ≥ 450 milliseconds, or high-risk Tisdale score increased the likelihood of prolonged QTc interval. Due to QTc prolongation, fourteen patients did not continue therapy after four days. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients treated by hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin had no significant difference in prolongation of QT interval and outcome. The numbers of patients with prolonged QT intervals in this study emphasize careful cardiac monitoring during therapy, especially in high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(3): 1133-1146, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096723

ABSTRACT

We applied a set of in silico and in vitro assays, compliant with the Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) paradigm, to assess the risk of chloroquine (CLQ) or hydroxychloroquine (OH-CLQ)-mediated QT prolongation and Torsades de Pointes (TdP), alone and combined with erythromycin (ERT) and azithromycin (AZI), drugs repurposed during the first wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Each drug or drug combination was tested in patch clamp assays on seven cardiac ion channels, in in silico models of human ventricular electrophysiology (Virtual Assay) using control (healthy) or high-risk cell populations, and in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes. In each assay, concentration-response curves encompassing and exceeding therapeutic free plasma levels were generated. Both CLQ and OH-CLQ showed blocking activity against some potassium, sodium, and calcium currents. CLQ and OH-CLQ inhibited IKr (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50 ]: 1 µM and 3-7 µM, respectively) and IK1 currents (IC50 : 5 and 44 µM, respectively). When combining OH-CLQ with AZI, no synergistic effects were observed. The two macrolides had no or very weak effects on the ion currents (IC50  > 300-1000 µM). Using Virtual Assay, both antimalarials affected several TdP indicators, CLQ being more potent than OH-CLQ. Effects were more pronounced in the high-risk cell population. In hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, all drugs showed early after-depolarizations, except AZI. Combining CLQ or OH-CLQ with a macrolide did not aggravate their effects. In conclusion, our integrated nonclinical CiPA dataset confirmed that, at therapeutic plasma concentrations relevant for malaria or off-label use in COVID-19, CLQ and OH-CLQ use is associated with a proarrhythmia risk, which is higher in populations carrying predisposing factors but not worsened with macrolide combination.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Off-Label Use , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Humans , Ion Channels/drug effects
6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(2): 233-241, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 outbreak, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested for effective therapies, and the relevant researches have shown controversial results. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted after a thorough search of relevant studies from databases. Trials that have evaluated HCQ for COVID-19 treatment were recruited for statistical analysis with fixed- and random-effect models. RESULTS: Nine trials involving 4112 patients were included in present meta-analysis. It was seen that HCQ-azithromycin (HCQ-AZI) combination regimen increased the mortality rate in COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-3.36) patients; however, it also showed benefits associated with the viral clearance in patients (OR, 27.18; 95% CI, 1.29-574.32). HCQ-alone when used as a therapy in COVID-19 did not reveal significant changes in mortality rate, clinical progression, viral clearance, and cardiac QT prolongation. Subsequent subgroup analysis showed that HCQ treatment could decrease mortality rate and progression to severe illness in severely infected COVID-19 patients (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.58). A lower risk of mortality rate was also noted in the stratified group of >14 days follow-up period (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.58) compared to ≤14 days follow-up period group that conversely showed an increased mortality rate (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.41-3.10). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that HCQ-AZI combination treatment increased mortality rate in patients with COVID-19, but it also showed benefits associated with viral clearance in patients. HCQ-alone used for treatment has revealed benefits in decreasing the mortality rate among severely infected COVID-19 group and showed potential to be used for COVID-19 treatment in long-term follow-up period group. Accordingly, more rigorous, large-scale, and long follow-up period studies in patients with COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Publication Bias , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 255-260, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065148

ABSTRACT

The antiretroviral drug lopinavir/ritonavir has been recently repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19. Its empirical use has been associated with multiple cardiac adverse reactions pertaining to its ancillary multi-channel blocking properties, vaguely characterized until now. We aimed to characterize qualitatively the cardiotoxicity associated with lopinavir/ritonavir in the setting of COVID-19. Spontaneous notifications of cardiac adverse drug reactions reported to the national Pharmacovigilance Network were collected for 8 weeks since March 1st 2020. The Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance, whose scope of expertise is drug-induced long QT syndrome, analyzed the cases, including the reassessment of all available ECGs. QTc ≥ 500 ms and delta QTc > 60 ms from baseline were deemed serious. Twenty-two cases presented with 28 cardiac adverse reactions associated with the empirical use of lopinavir/ritonavir in a hospital setting. Most adverse reactions reflected lopinavir/ritonavir potency to block voltage-gated potassium channels with 5 ventricular arrhythmias and 17 QTc prolongations. An average QTc augmentation of 97 ± 69 ms was reported. Twelve QTc prolongations were deemed serious. Other cases were likely related to lopinavir/ritonavir potency to block sodium channels: 1 case of bundle branch block and 5 recurrent bradycardias. The incidence of cardiac adverse reactions of lopinavir/ritonavir was estimated between 0.3% and 0.4%. These cardiac adverse drug reactions offer a new insight in its ancillary multi-channel blocking functions. Lopinavir/ritonavir cardiotoxicity may be of concern for its empirical use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Caution should be exerted relative to this risk where lopinavir/ritonavir summary of product characteristics should be implemented accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiotoxicity/epidemiology , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiotoxicity/diagnosis , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Electrocardiography/trends , Female , France/epidemiology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Potassium Channel Blockers/adverse effects
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 242-248, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZT) have been proposed for COVID-19 treatment. Data available in the literature reported a potential increased risk of fatal arrhythmias under these therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of these drugs on QT interval and outcome in a COVID-19 population. METHOD: A total of 112 consecutive COVID-19 patients were included in this analysis and were divided in 3 groups according to the receiving therapeutic regimens: 19 (17%) patients in Group 1 (no treatment), 40 (36%) in Group 2 (HCQ only), 53 (47%) in Group 3 (HCQ/AZT). RESULTS: A prolonged QTc interval was found in 61% of patients treated with HCQ alone or in combination with AZT, but only 4 (4%) patients showed a QTc > 500 ms. HCQ/AZT combination determined a greater increase of QTc duration compared to the other two strategies (Group 3 452 ± 26.4 vs Group 2 436.3 ± 28.4 vs Group 1 424.4 ± 24.3 ms, respectively; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that HCQ/AZT combination (OR 9.02, p = 0.001) and older age (OR 1.04, p = 0.031) were independent predictors of QTc prolongation. The risk increased with age (incremental utility analysis p = 0.02). Twenty patients (18%) died, and no cardiac arrest neither arrhythmic fatalities were documented. CONCLUSIONS: The HCQ/AZT combination therapy causes a significantly increase of QT interval compared to HCQ alone. Older patients under such regimen are at higher risk of experiencing QT prolongation. The use of such drugs may be considered as safe relating to arrhythmic risk in the treatment of COVID-19 patients as no arrhythmic fatalities occurred.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/chemically induced , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Electrocardiography/trends , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies
10.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(3): 1092-1100, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010763

ABSTRACT

The risk of fatal arrhythmias is the major concern for using chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the reported number of life-threatening arrhythmic events or deaths is relatively small. The objective of this study was to assess the arrhythmogenic risk of these two drugs using a multiscale heart simulation, which allows testing even at high concentrations, including those that cause fatal arrhythmias. We measured the inhibitory action of CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with 30 µM azithromycin (AZ) on six ion currents (fast [INa] and late [INa,L] components of the sodium current, L-type calcium current [ICa,L], rapid [IKr/hERG], and slow [IKs] components of delayed rectifier potassium, and inward rectifier potassium [IK1]) over a wide range of concentrations using the automated patch-clamp system. Using the concentration-inhibition relationship that was thus obtained, we simulated the drug effects while increasing the concentration until the life-threatening arrhythmia, torsade de pointes (TdP), was observed. The obtained threshold concentrations for TdP were 12.5, 35, and 22.5 µM for CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with AZ, respectively. Adding therapeutic concentrations of mexiletine or verapamil successfully prevented the occurrence of TdP, and verapamil was more effective. CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with AZ thresholds for TdP were larger than both antiviral concentrations that were reported by in vitro experiments and free plasma concentrations that were attained by the clinically used dosage. The current simulation data provided a safety margin to the currently used clinical dose for CQ and HCQ/AZ. Study Highlights WHAT IS THE CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ON THE TOPIC? Despite the potent in vitro antiviral effect, clinical trials have failed to show the therapeutic effects of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)/azithromycin (AZ) to treat coronavirus disease 2019. Torsadogenic potentials may limit the dosage of these drugs, but the reported incidence of fatal arrhythmias is rare. WHAT QUESTION DID THIS STUDY ADDRESS? Our objective was to assess the arrhythmogenicity of CQ and HCQ/AZ over a wide range of drug concentrations using a multiscale heart simulation. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO OUR KNOWLEDGE? Our study showed that CQ and HCQ/AZ do not induce fatal arrhythmias even at concentrations much higher than in vitro antiviral half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values at which QT prolongation exceeds 150 ms. We also found that estimated free plasma concentrations of CQ and HCQ/AZ achieved by currently used dosing protocols are lower than the antiviral EC50 for these drugs. HOW MIGHT THIS CHANGE CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OR TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE? Our simulation data provided a safety margin to the currently used clinical dose for CQ and HCQ/AZ.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Computer Simulation , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Humans
11.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(4): 314-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002172

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine is used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection, although there is no substantial evidence for a beneficial effect. Chloroquine is known to prolong the QRS and QTc interval on the ECG. To assess the effect of chloroquine on QRS and QTc intervals in COVID-19 patients, we included all inpatients treated with chloroquine for COVID-19 in the Spaarne Gasthuis (Haarlem/Hoofddorp, the Netherlands) and had an ECG performed both in the 72 h before and during or at least 48 h after treatment. We analyzed the (change in) QRS and QTc interval using the one-sample t-test. Of the 106 patients treated with chloroquine, 70 met the inclusion criteria. The average change in QRS interval was 6.0 ms (95% CI 3.3-8.7) and the average change in QTc interval was 32.6 ms (95% CI 24.9-40.2) corrected with the Bazett's formula and 38.1 ms (95% CI 30.4-45.9) corrected with the Fridericia's formula. In 19 of the 70 patients (27%), the QTc interval was above 500 ms after start of chloroquine treatment or the change in QTc interval was more than 60 ms. A heart rate above 90 bpm, renal dysfunction, and a QTc interval below 450 ms were risk factors for QTc interval prolongation. Chloroquine prolongs the QTc interval in a substantial number of patients, potentially causing rhythm disturbances. Since there is no substantial evidence for a beneficial effect of chloroquine, these results discourage its use in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Electrocardiography/trends , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Risk Factors
13.
J Electrocardiol ; 64: 30-35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Administration of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prolongs QTc corrected interval (QTc). The effect and safety of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in combination with these therapies have seldom been studied. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate changes in QTc in patients receiving double (Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin) and triple therapy (Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin + Lopinavir/Ritonavir) to treat COVID-19. Secondary outcome was the incidence of in-hospital all-cause mortality. METHODS: Patients under treatment with double (DT) and triple therapy (TT) for COVID-19 were consecutively included in this prospective observational study. Serial in-hospital electrocardiograms were performed to measure QTc at baseline and during therapy. RESULTS: 168 patients (±66.2 years old) were included: 32.1% received DT and 67.9% received TT. The mean baseline QTc was 410.33 ms. Patients under DT and TT prolonged QTc interval respect baseline values (p < 0.001), without significant differences between both therapy groups (p = 0.748). Overall, 33 patients (19.6%) had a peak QTc and/or an increase QTc 60 ms from baseline, with a higher prevalence among those with hypokalemia (p = 0.003). All-cause mortality was similar between both strategy groups (p = 0.093) and high risk QTc prolongation was no related to clinical events in this series. CONCLUSIONS: DT and TT prolong the QTc in patients with COVID-19. Addition of Lopinavir/Ritonavir on top of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin did not increase QTc compared to DT.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
14.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(10): 153-157, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess and identify the risk of prolonged QT about hydroxychloroquine (HQ) and azithromycin (AZ) used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kirdar City Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from March to May 2020. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and forty-four patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19, confirmed by Rt-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), were restrospectively reviewed. Patients who were hospitalised, received HQ or HQ plus AZ treatment, had a baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), and had at least one ECG after treatment were included in the study. Patients with missing data were excluded. RESULTS: Fifty-one (35.4%) patients were given hydroxychloroquine monoterapy (HQ), 93 (64.6%) were given hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (HA), and 70 (48.6%) were women. Pre-treatment mean QTc measurements were calculated as 410.61 ± 29.44 milliseconds (ms) for HQ group and 412.02 ± 25.37 ms for HA group, while the mean values of post-treatment QTc measurements were calculated as 432.31 ± 33.97 ms for HQ group and 432.03 ± 27.0 ms for the HA group. Post-treatment QTc measurements of both HA group and HQ group were prolonged compared to pre-treatment measurements. Ventricular arrhythmia was not observed in any patient. CONCLUSION: For COVID-19, no globally accepted definite treatment has yet been found. Both of hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin treatment regimens cause QTc measurement to increase at a statistically significant level. We concluded that this increase in QTc did not cause ventricular arrhythmia. Key Words: COVID-19, QTc interval, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 389-391, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954717

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the QTc prolongation and related adverse cardiac events during the administration of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its combinations for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hospitalized patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who received HCQ and had initial and follow-up electrocardiograms performed between March 10 and May 30, 2020 were included. Critical QTc prolongation was detected in 12% of the patients. On multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 5.8, 95% confidence interval 1.11-30.32, p = 0.037) and the use of oseltamivir (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 1.02-28, p = 0.047) were found to be associated with critical QTc prolongation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use
16.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(1): 159-168, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926348

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial drug, combined with azithromycin has been considered a potential treatment for COVID-19. However, these drugs may cause electrocardiogram QT prolongation (QTp) and torsade de Pointes (TdP). We examined potential safety signals for these cardiac arrhythmias. Methods: Using the OpenVigil 2.1 MedDRA platform, we mined data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from December 2019 to June 2020. We extracted individual case safety reports based on exposures of seven antimalarial drugs, azithromycin, and combinations. All other drugs in FAERS served as controls. Events of interest included QTp and TdP, with associations between drug exposures and events expressed as adjusted Reporting-Odds-Ratios (aRORs) and confidence intervals. The lower end of aROR 95% confidence interval >1 was used as the statistically significant signal detection threshold. Results: QTp safety signals were found for hydroxychloroquine[aROR:11.70 (10.40-13.16)], chloroquine[aROR:18.97 (11.30-31.87)], quinine[aROR:16.66 (10.18-27.25)], atovaquone[aROR:6.91 (4.14-11.56)], azithromycin alone [aROR:28.02 (22.87-34.32)] and hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin [aROR:75.23 (51.15-110.66)]. TdP safety signals were found for hydroxychloroquine [aROR: 5.62 (4.94-6.38)], chloroquine[aROR:49.37 (30.63-79.58)], and hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin[aROR:33.09 (21.22-51.61)]. Conclusion: Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and/or azithromycin was associated with QTp/TdP safety signals and their use should be monitored carefully.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pharmacovigilance , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/epidemiology , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8008, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740553

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new strain of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, China, which produced severe lung involvement and progressed to respiratory distress. To date, more than seventeen million confirmed cases and more than half a million died worldwide from COVID-19. Patients with cardiovascular disease are more susceptible to contracting this disease and presenting more complications. We did a literature search on the association of cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 in databases such as Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information for health professionals who care for patients with COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease, given that they have a high risk of complications and mortality. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and receptor blockers is controversial, and there is no evidence not to use these medications in patients with COVID-19. Regarding treatment with hydroxychloroquine associated or not with azithromycin, there is evidence of a higher risk with its use than clinical benefit and decreased mortality. Likewise, patients with heart failure are an important risk group due to their condition per se. Patients with heart failure and COVID-19 are a diagnostic dilemma because the signs of acute heart failure could be masked. On the other hand, in patients with acute coronary syndrome, the initial therapeutic approach could change in the context of the pandemic, although only based on expert opinions. Nonetheless, many controversial issues will be the subject of future research.


En diciembre de 2019 se reportó en Wuhan, China, la aparición de una nueva cepa de coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 que producía un compromiso pulmonar severo y progresaba a estrés respiratorio agudo. A la fecha, son más de diecisiete millones los casos confirmados y más de medio millón los fallecidos en todo el mundo a causa de COVID-19. Los estudios reportan que los pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular son más susceptibles a contraer esta enfermedad y a presentar más complicaciones. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar información actualizada para los profesionales de la salud que atienden a pacientes con COVID-19 y que tienen además enfermedad cardiovascular y por ende un riesgo elevado de complicaciones y mortalidad. Realizamos una búsqueda de bibliografía científica acerca de la asociación de enfermedad cardiovascular y COVID-19 en diferentes bases de datos como Scopus, MEDLINE vía PubMed y Cochrane Library. El tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina y bloqueadores del receptor de angiotensina ha sido motivo de discusión y no hay evidencia sólida para contraindicarlo en pacientes con COVID-19. Respecto al tratamiento con hidroxicloroquina asociado o no con azitromicina, hay evidencia que demuestra un mayor riesgo con su utilización, que beneficio clínico y/o disminución de mortalidad. En este contexto, los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca representan un grupo importante de riesgo por su condición per se y por el dilema diagnóstico generado al evaluar un paciente con COVID-19, en el que los signos de insuficiencia cardíaca aguda podrían enmascararse. Por otro lado, en los pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo, el enfoque terapéutico inicial podría cambiar en el contexto de la pandemia, aunque sólo sobre la base de opiniones de expertos. Quedan, sin embargo, muchos temas en controversia que serán motivo de investigaciones futuras.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Algorithms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725618

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China and its declaration as a global pandemic by WHO has left the medical community under significant pressure to rapidly identify effective therapeutic and preventative strategies. Chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were found to be efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 when investigated in preliminary in vitro experiments. Reports of success in early clinical studies were widely publicised by news outlets, politicians and on social media. These results led several countries to approve the use of these drugs for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Despite having reasonable safety profiles in the treatment of malaria and certain autoimmune conditions, both drugs are known to have potential cardiotoxic side effects. There is a high incidence of myocardial injury and arrhythmia reported with COVID-19 infection, and as such this population may be more susceptible to this side-effect profile. Studies to date have now demonstrated that in patients with COVID-19, these drugs are associated with significant QTc prolongation, as well as reports of ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, subsequent studies have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit from either drug. Indeed, clinical trials have also been stopped early due to safety concerns over HCQ. There is an urgent need for credible solutions to the global pandemic, but we argue that in the absence of high-quality evidence, there needs to be greater caution over the routine use or authorisation of drugs for which efficacy and safety is unproven.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Risk Assessment , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Heart Vessels ; 36(1): 115-120, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most of the drugs associations that have been used to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection increase the risk of prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an association therapy of hydroxychloroquine (HY) plus ritonavir/darunavir (RD) or azithromycin (AZ) on QTc intervals. METHODS: At the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic patients admitted to our hospital were treated with the empiric association of HY/RD; one week later the therapeutic protocol was modified with the combination of HY/AZ. Patients underwent an ECG at baseline, then 3 and 7 days after starting therapy. We prospectively enrolled 113 patients (61 in the HY/RD group-52 in the HY/AZ group). RESULTS: A significant increase in median QTc was reported after seven days of therapy in both groups: from 438 to 452 ms in HY/RD patients; from 433 to 440 ms in HY/AZ patients (p = 0.001 for both). 23 patients (21.2%) had a QTc > 500 ms at 7 days. The risk of developing a QTc > 500 ms was greater in patients with prolonged baseline QTc values (≥ 440 ms for female and ≥ 460 ms for male patients) (OR 7.10 (95% IC 1.88-26.81); p = 0.004) and in patients with an increase in the QTc > 40 ms 3 days after onset of treatment (OR 30.15 (95% IC 6.96-130.55); p = 0.001). One patient per group suffered a malignant ventricular arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: Hydroxychloroquine with both ritonavir/darunavir or azithromycin therapy significantly increased the QTc-interval at 7 days. The risk of developing malignant arrhythmias remained relatively low when these drugs were administered for a limited period of time.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Darunavir/adverse effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
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