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1.
Talanta ; 263: 124678, 2023 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320337

ABSTRACT

As a common antioxidant and nutritional fortifier in food chemistry, rutin has positive therapeutic effects against novel coronaviruses. Here, Ce-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (Ce-PEDOT) nanocomposites derived through cerium-based metal-organic framework (Ce-MOF) as a sacrificial template have been synthesized and successfully applied to electrochemical sensors. Due to the outstanding electrical conductivity of PEDOT and the high catalytic activity of Ce, the nanocomposites were used for the detection of rutin. The Ce-PEDOT/GCE sensor detects rutin over a linear range of 0.02-9 µM with the limit of detection of 14.7 nM (S/N = 3). Satisfactory results were obtained in the determination of rutin in natural food samples (buckwheat tea and orange). Moreover, the redox mechanism and electrochemical reaction sites of rutin were investigated by the CV curves of scan rate and density functional theory. This work is the first to demonstrate the combined PEDOT and Ce-MOF-derived materials as an electrochemical sensor to detect rutin, thus opening a new window for the application of the material in detection.


Subject(s)
Cerium , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Rutin , Polymers , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(4)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315555

ABSTRACT

Biosensors are analytical tools that can be used as simple, real-time, and effective devices in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, and environmental monitoring. Nanoscale functional materials possess unique properties such as a large surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful for biomedical diagnostic purposes. Nanoengineering has resulted in the increased use of nanoscale functional materials in biosensors. Various types of nanostructures i.e., 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D, have been intensively employed to enhance biosensor selectivity, limit of detection, sensitivity, and speed of response time to display results. In particular, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have been extensively employed in electrochemical biosensors, which have become an interdisciplinary frontier between material science and viral disease detection. This review provides an overview of the current research activities in nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors for diagnostic purposes. The clinical applications of these nanobiosensors are also highlighted, along with a discussion of the future directions for these materials in diagnostics. The aim of this review is to stimulate a broader interest in developing nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis. In this review, we summarize some of the most recent advances achieved in point of care (PoC) electrochemical biosensor applications, focusing on new materials and modifiers enabling biorecognition that have led to improved sensitivity, specificity, stability, and response time.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanofibers , Nanostructures , Nanotubes, Carbon , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1265: 341326, 2023 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311677

ABSTRACT

Herein, we have proposed a straightforward and label-free electrochemical immunosensing strategy supported on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a biocompatible and conducting biopolymer functionalized molybdenum disulfide-reduced graphene oxide (CS-MoS2/rGO) nanohybrid to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CS-MoS2/rGO nanohybrid-based immunosensor employs recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD protein (rSP) that specifically identifies antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus via differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The antigen-antibody interaction diminishes the current responses of the immunosensor. The obtained results indicate that the fabricated immunosensor is extraordinarily capable of highly sensitive and specific detection of the corresponding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with a LOD of 2.38 zg mL-1 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) samples over a broad linear range between 10 zg mL-1-100 ng mL-1. In addition, the proposed immunosensor can detect attomolar concentrations in spiked human serum samples. The performance of this immunosensor is assessed using actual serum samples from COVID-19-infected patients. The proposed immunosensor can accurately and substantially differentiate between (+) positive and (-) negative samples. As a result, the nanohybrid can provide insight into the conception of Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) platforms for cutting-edge infectious disease diagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Molybdenum , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
4.
Talanta ; 260: 124614, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311488

ABSTRACT

A novel immunosensor based on electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) for the sensitive determination of N protein of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is described. For this purpose, bifunctional core@shell nanoparticles composed of a Pt-coated Au core and finally decorated with small Au inlays (Au@Pt/Au NPs) have been synthesized to act as ECL acceptor, using [Ru (bpy)3]2+ as ECL donor. These nanoparticles are efficient signaling probes in the immunosensor developed. The proposed ECL-RET immunosensor has a wide linear response to the concentration of N protein of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus with a detection limit of 1.27 pg/mL. Moreover, it has a high stability and shows no response to other proteins related to different virus. The immunosensor has achieved the quantification of N protein of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in saliva samples. Results are consistent with those provided by a commercial colorimetric ELISA kit. Therefore, the developed immunosensor provides a feasible and reliable tool for early and effective detection of the virus to protect the population.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Gold , SARS-CoV-2 , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Immunoassay/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Limit of Detection
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 215: 114580, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311736

ABSTRACT

Rational detection of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial to prevention, control, and treatment of disease. Herein, a dual-wavelength ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on resonance energy transfer (RET) between g-C3N4 nanosheets and Ru-SiO2@folic acid (FA) nanomaterials was designed to realize ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus (RdRp gene). Firstly, the unique g-C3N4 nanosheets displayed very intense and stable ECL at 460 nm, then the triple helix DNA was stably and vertically bound to g-C3N4 on electrode by high binding affinity between ssDNA and g-C3N4. Meanwhile, trace amounts of target genes were converted to a large number of output by three-dimensional (3D) DNA walker multiple amplification, and the output bridged a multifunctional probe Ru-SiO2@FA to electrode. Ru-SiO2@FA not only showed high ECL at 620 nm, but also effectively quenched g-C3N4 ECL. As a result, ECL decreased at 460 nm and increased at 620 nm, which was used to design a rational ECL biosensor for detection of SARS gene. The results show that the biosensor has excellent detection sensitivity for RdRp gene with a dynamic detection range of 1 fM to 10 nM and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.18 fM. The dual-wavelength ratio ECL biosensor has inestimable value and application prospects in the fields of biosensing and clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Energy Transfer , Folic Acid , Humans , Limit of Detection , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Nanostructures , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Ruthenium , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Silicon Dioxide
6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(4)2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295971

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report results of the studies relating to the development of an impedimetric, magnetic bead-assisted supersandwich DNA hybridization assay for ultrasensitive detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of a sexually transmitted infection (STI), gonorrhea. First, a conductive ink was formulated by homogenously dispersing carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) in a stable emulsion of terpineol and an aqueous suspension of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The ink, labeled C5, was coated onto paper substrates to fabricate C5@paper conductive electrodes. Thereafter, a magnetic bead (MB)-assisted supersandwich DNA hybridization assay was optimized against the porA pseudogene of N. gonorrhoeae. For this purpose, a pair of specific 5' aminated capture probes (SCP) and supersandwich detector probes (SDP) was designed, which allowed the enrichment of target gonorrheal DNA sequence from a milieu of substances. The SD probe was designed such that instead of 1:1 binding, it allowed the binding of more than one T strand, leading to a 'ladder-like' DNA supersandwich structure. The MB-assisted supersandwich assay was integrated into the C5@paper electrodes for electrochemical analysis. The C5@paper electrodes were found to be highly conductive by a four-probe conductivity method (maximum conductivity of 10.1 S·cm-1). Further, the biosensing assay displayed a wide linear range of 100 aM-100 nM (109 orders of magnitude) with an excellent sensitivity of 22.6 kΩ·(log[concentration])-1. The clinical applicability of the biosensing assay was assessed by detecting genomic DNA extracted from N. gonorrhoeae in the presence of DNA from different non-gonorrheal bacterial species. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a highly sensitive, cost-effective, and label-free paper-based device for STI diagnostics. The ink formulation prepared for the study was found to be highly thixotropic, which indicates that the paper electrodes can be screen-printed in a reproducible and scalable manner.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Gonorrhea , Nanotubes, Carbon , Humans , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Ink , DNA/analysis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes
7.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 152: 108434, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300718

ABSTRACT

For clinical research, the precise measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose (Glu) is of paramount importance, due to their imbalanced concentrations in blood glucose, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a huge role in COVID-19 viral disease. It is critical to construct and develop a simple, rapid, flexible, long-term, and sensitive detection of H2O2 and glucose. In this paper, we have developed a unique morphological structure of MOF(Cu) on a single-walled carbon nanotube-modified gold wire (swnt@gw). Highly designed frameworks with nanotube composites enhance electron rate-transfer behavior while extending conductance and electroactive surface area.The composite sensing system delivers wide linear-range concentrations, low detection limit, and interference-free performance in co-existence with other biomolecules and metal ions. Endogenous quantitative tracking of H2O2 was performed in macrophage live-cells with the help of a strong stimulator lipopolysaccharide.The composite device was effectively utilized for the measurement of H2O2 and glucose in turbid samples of whole blood and milk samples without a pretreatment process. The practical results of biofluids showed favorable voltammetric results and acceptance recovery percentage levels between 97.49 and 98.88%. Finally, a flexible MOF-based hybrid system may provide a suitable detection platform in the construction of electro-biosensors and hold potential promise for clinical-sensory applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Copper/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Glucose , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Limit of Detection
8.
Anal Biochem ; 662: 115013, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298807

ABSTRACT

This study developed a novel, ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for detecting the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). By electrochemical co-deposition of graphene and Prussian blue, a Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode was made, further modified with PEDV-monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to create a new PEDV immunosensor using the double antibody sandwich technique. The electrochemical characteristics of several modified electrodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV). We optimized the pH levels and scan rate. Additionally, we examined specificity, reproducibility, repeatability, accuracy, and stability. The study indicates that the immunosensor has good performance in the concentration range of 1 × 101.88 to 1 × 105.38 TCID50/mL of PEDV, with a detection limit of 1 × 101.93 TCID50/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3σ. The composite membranes produced via co-deposition of graphene and Prussian blue effectively increased electron transport to the glassy carbon electrode, boosted response signals, and increased the sensitivity, specificity, and stability of the immunosensor. The immunosensor could accurately detect PEDV, with results comparable to real-time quantitative PCR. This technique was applied to PEDV detection and served as a model for developing additional immunosensors for detecting hazardous chemicals and pathogenic microbes.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Graphite , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Swine , Carbon , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Immunoassay/methods , Electrodes , Limit of Detection , Gold
9.
Chembiochem ; 24(9): e202300030, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276697

ABSTRACT

One of the main problems in developing immunosensors featuring carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is immobilizing antibodies (Abs) onto the CNT surface to afford selective binding to target antigens (Ags). In this work, we developed a practical supramolecular Ab conjugation strategy based on resorc[4]arene modifiers. To improve the Ab orientation on the CNTs surface and optimizing the Ab/Ag interaction, we exploited the host-guest approach by synthesizing two newly resorc[4]arene linkers R1 and R2 via well-established procedures. The upper rim was decorated with eight methoxyl groups to promote selective recognition of the fragment crystallizable (Fc ) region of the Ab. Moreover, the lower rim was functionalized with 3-bromopropyloxy or 3-azidopropiloxy substituents to bind the macrocycles on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface. Accordingly, several chemical modifications of MWCNTs were evaluated. After the morphological and electrochemical characterization of nanomaterials, the resorc[4]arene-modified MWCNTs were deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface to evaluate their potential applicability for label-free immunosensor development. The most promising system showed an improved electrode active area (AEL ) of almost 20 % and a site-oriented immobilization of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 antibody (Ab-SPS1). The developed immunosensor revealed a good sensitivity (23.64 µA mL ng-1 cm-2 ) towards the SPS1 antigen and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.01 ng mL-1 .


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanotubes, Carbon , Humans , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Immunoassay , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies/chemistry , Antigens , Limit of Detection , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 225: 115101, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288794

ABSTRACT

The electrochemical biosensor with outstanding sensitivity and low cost is regarded as a viable alternative to current clinical diagnostic techniques for various disease biomarkers. However, their actual analytical use in complex biological samples is severely hampered due to the biofouling, as they are also highly sensitive to nonspecific adsorption on the sensing interfaces. Herein, we have constructed a non-fouling electrochemical biosensor based on antifouling peptides and the electroneutral peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which was used as the recognizing probe for the specific binding of the viral RNA of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Different from the negatively charged DNA probes that will normally weaken the biosensors' antifouling capabilities owing to the charge attraction of positively charged biomolecules, the neutral PNA probe will generate no side-effects on the biosensor. The biosensor demonstrated remarkable sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA, possessing a broad linear range (1.0 fM - 1.0 nM) and a detection limit down to 0.38 fM. Furthermore, the sensing performance of the constructed electrochemical biosensor in human saliva was nearly similar to that in pure buffer, indicating satisfying antifouling capability. The combination of PNA probes with antifouling peptides offered a new strategy for the development of non-fouling sensing systems capable of assaying trace disease biomarkers in complicated biological media.


Subject(s)
Biofouling , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Peptide Nucleic Acids , Humans , Peptide Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Biofouling/prevention & control , Saliva , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptides/chemistry , Biomarkers
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5139, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263674

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 caused a global panic among populations. Rapid diagnostic procedures for the virus are crucial for disease control. Thus, the designed signature probe from a highly conserved region of the virus was chemically immobilized onto the nanostructured-AuNPs/WO3-screen printed electrodes. Different concentrations of the matched oligonucleotides were spiked to test the specificity of the hybridization affinity whereas the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used for tracking the electrochemical performance. After a full assay optimization, limits of detection and quantification were calculated based on linear regression and were valued at 298 and 994 fM, respectively. Further, the high performance of the fabricated RNA-sensor chips was confirmed after testing the interference status in the presence of the mismatched oligos in one nucleotide and completely one. Worthy to mention that the single-stranded matched oligos can be hybridized to the immobilized probe in 5 min at room temperature. The designed disposable sensor chips are capable of detecting the virus genome directly. Therefore, the chips are a rapid tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Gold/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Electrodes , RNA , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 415(8): 1559-1570, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258083

ABSTRACT

A novel voltammetric platform based on pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modification has been proposed, containing bimetallic (NiFe) Prussian blue analogue nanopolygons decorated with electro-polymerized glyoxal polymer nanocomposites (p-DPG NCs@NiFe PBA Ns/PGE). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and square wave voltammetry (SWV) were utilized to investigate the electrochemical performance of the proposed sensor. The analytical response of p-DPG NCs@NiFe PBA Ns/PGE was evaluated through the quantity of amisulpride (AMS), one of the most common antipsychotic drugs. Under the optimized experimental and instrumental conditions, the method showed linearity over the range from 0.5 to 15 × 10-8 mol L-1 with a good correlation coefficient (R = 0.9995) and a low detection limit (LOD) reached, 1.5 nmol L-1, with excellent relative standard deviation for human plasma and urine samples. The interference effect of some potentially interfering substances was negligible, and the sensing platform demonstrated an outstanding reproducibility, stability, and reusability. As a first trial, the proposed electrode aimed to shed light on the AMS oxidation mechanism, where the oxidation mechanism was monitored and elucidated using the FTIR technique. It was also found that the prepared p-DPG NCs@NiFe PBA Ns/PGE platform had promising applications for the simultaneous determination of AMS in the presence of some co-administered COVID-19 drugs, which could be attributed to the large active surface area, and high conductivity of bimetallic nanopolygons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Humans , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Amisulpride , Polymers/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Electrodes , Graphite/chemistry
13.
Talanta ; 259: 124490, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249477

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is one of the global health problems. Herein, a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor has been designed to detect the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (SARS-CoV-2 RdRP). Herein, the surface-initiated reversible-addition-fragmentation-chain-transfer polymerization was used to amplify the electrochemical signal. To do that, the thiol-terminated peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were first immobilized on the surface of a screen-printed electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide-gold nanocomposite and then the fixed concentration of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP was added to the electrode surface to interact with PNA probes. Subsequently, the Zr 4+ ions were added to interact with the phosphate groups of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP. It allowed us to polymerase the ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate (FcMMA) and 4-cyano-4-(phenylcarbonothioylthio)-pentanoic acid on the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP chain. Since the poly-FcMMA has an electrochemical signal, the response of the PNA-based sensor to SARS-CoV-2 RdRP was increased in the range of 5-500 aM. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.8 aM which is lower than the previous sensor for SARS-CoV-2 RdRP detection. The proposed PNA-based sensor showed high selectivity to the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP in the presence of the gene fragments of influenza A and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Peptide Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Polymerization , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
14.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1234: 340522, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269394

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a cluster of atypical pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been known as a highly contagious disease. Herein, we report the MXene/P-BiOCl/Ru(bpy)32+ heterojunction composite to construct an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (CoVNP) determination. Two-dimensional (2D) material ultrathin phosphorus-doped bismuth oxychloride (P-BiOCl) is exploited and first applied in ECL. 2D architectures MXene not only act as "soft substrate" to improve the properties of P-BiOCl, but also synergistically work with P-BiOCl. Owing to the inimitable set of bulk and interfacial properties, intrinsic high electrochemical conductivity, hydrophilicity and good biocompatible of 2D/2D MXene/P-BiOCl/Ru(bpy)32+, this as-exploited heterojunction composite is an efficient signal amplifier and co-reaction accelerator in the presence of tri-n-propylamine (TPA) as a coreactant. The proposed MXene/P-BiOCl/Ru(bpy)32+-TPA system exhibits a high and stable ECL signal and achieves ECL emission quenching for "signal on-off" recognition of CoVNP. Fascinatingly, the constructed ECL biosensor towards CoVNP allows a wide linear concentration range from 1 fg/mL to 10 ng/mL and a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.49 fg/mL (S/N = 3). Furthermore, this presented strategy sheds light on designing a highly efficient ECL nanostructure through the combination of 2D MXene architectures with 2D semiconductor materials in the field of nanomedicine. This ECL biosensor can successfully detect CoVNP in human serum, which can promote the prosperity and development of diagnostic methods of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Bismuth , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246853

ABSTRACT

In this article, we report the development of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (rS). A gold disc electrode was electrochemically modified to form the nanocrystalline gold structure on the surface. Then, it was further altered by a self-assembling monolayer based on a mixture of two alkane thiols: 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (6-MCOH) (SAMmix). After activating carboxyl groups using a N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide mixture, the rS protein was covalently immobilized on the top of the SAMmix. This electrode was used to design an electrochemical sensor suitable for determining antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 rS protein (anti-rS). We assessed the association between the immobilized rS protein and the anti-rS antibody present in the blood serum of a SARS-CoV-2 infected person using three electrochemical methods: cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and potential pulsed amperometry. The results demonstrated that differential pulse voltammetry and potential pulsed amperometry measurements displayed similar sensitivity. In contrast, the measurements performed by cyclic voltammetry suggest that this method is the most sensitive out of the three methods applied in this research.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , Electrodes , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry
16.
Talanta ; 257: 124348, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228338

ABSTRACT

Electrochemical immunosensors are excellent alternatives to prepare portable platforms used for rapid and inexpensive diagnostic of infectious diseases such as the recently emerged COVID-19. Incorporating synthetic peptides as selective recognition layers combined with nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can significantly enhance the analytical performance of immunosensors. In the present study, an electrochemical immunosensor based on solid-binding peptide was built and evaluated towards SARS-CoV-2 Anti-S antibodies detection. The peptide used as recognition site has two important portions: one based on the viral receptor binding domain (RBD), capable of recognizing antibodies of the spike protein (Anti-S), and another suitable for interacting with gold nanoparticles. Gold-binding peptide (Pept/AuNP) dispersion was used directly to modify a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPE). The voltammetric behavior of the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- probe after every construction and detection step was recorded using cyclic voltammetry by assessing the stability of the Pept/AuNP as a recognition layer onto the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry was used as a detection technique, and a linear working range from 75 ng mL-1 to 15 µg mL-1 was established, with 1.059 µA dec-1 of sensitivity and R2 = 0.984. The response selectivity against SARS-CoV-2 Anti-S antibodies was investigated in presence of concomitant species. The immunosensor was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 Anti-spike protein (Anti-S) antibodies in human serum samples, successfully differentiating between negative and positive responses of samples at a 95% confidence level. Therefore, the gold-binding peptide is a promising tool to be applied as a selective layer for antibody detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Gold/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Immunoassay/methods , Antibodies, Viral , Peptides , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
17.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(6): 870-879, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890289

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed a crystal-reconstructed-BiVO4 aptamer photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor by a high-energy laser treatment technique. This biosensor achieves a limit of detection (LOD) (0.82 ag mL-1), linear detection range (1 ag mL-1 to 2 ng mL-1), and resolution ratio (∼18 molecules per mL) for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tumor biomarker detection. Furthermore, reconstructed surface microstructure and oxygen vacancy doping energy formation after crystal reconstruction induce the stereo-hindrance effect and photogenerated hole energy is reduced during PSA target detection. In this case, a photocurrent inhibition phenomenon for PSA detection is noticed. Based on this photocurrent inversion phenomenon, some dysoxidizable nucleonic acid tumor (miRNA-21) and virus biomarkers (RdRp-COVID) can be detected with a LOD level of ∼10-16 M by linking the corresponding base paring probe on the surface of the crystal-reconstructed photoanode. In addition to high sensitivity, this PEC biosensor presents high detection specificity, stability, and accuracy in clinical verification. Thus, this crystal-reconstructed PEC biosensor shows application potential in the fields of multi-tumor or viral biomarker detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Biomarkers, Tumor , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Semiconductors
18.
Talanta ; 251: 123783, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049948

ABSTRACT

The current approaches of diagnostic platforms for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections mostly relied on adapting the existing technology. In this work, a simple and low-cost electrochemical sensing platform for detecting SAR-CoV-2 antigen was established. The proposed sensor combined the innovative disposable paper-based immunosensor and cost-effective plant-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody CR3022, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The cellulose nanocrystal was modified on screen-printed graphene electrode to provide the abundant COOH functional groups on electrode surface, leading to the high ability for antibody immobilization. The quantification of the presence receptor binding domain (RBD) spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was performed using differential pulse voltammetry by monitoring the changing current of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- redox solution. The current change of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- before and after the presence of target RBD could be clearly distinguished, providing a linear relationship with RBD concentration in the range from 0.1 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL with the minimum limit of detection of 2.0 fg/mL. The proposed platform was successfully applied to detect RBD in nasopharyngeal swab samples with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the paper-based immunosensor was extended to quantify the RBD level in spiked saliva samples, demonstrating the broadly applicability of this system. This electrochemical paper-based immunosensor has the potential to be employed as a point-of-care testing for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cellulose , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215583

ABSTRACT

The demand for new devices that enable the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at a relatively low cost and that are fast and feasible to be used as point-of-care is required overtime on a large scale. In this sense, the use of sustainable materials, for example, the bio-based poly (ethylene terephthalate) (Bio-PET) can be an alternative to current standard diagnostics. In this work, we present a flexible disposable printed electrode based on a platinum thin film on Bio-PET as a substrate for the development of a sensor and immunosensor for the monitoring of COVID-19 biomarkers, by the detection of L-cysteine and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, respectively. The electrode was applied in conjunction with 3D printing technology to generate a portable and easy-to-analyze device with a low sample volume. For the L-cysteine determination, chronoamperometry was used, which achieved two linear dynamic ranges (LDR) of 3.98-39.0 µmol L-1 and 39.0-145 µmol L-1, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.70 µmol L-1. The detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was achieved by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by a label-free immunosensor, using potassium ferro-ferricyanide solution as the electrochemical probe. An LDR of 0.70-7.0 and 1.0-30 pmol L-1, with an LOD of 0.70 and 1.0 pmol L-1 were obtained by SWV and EIS, respectively. As a proof of concept, the immunosensor was successfully applied for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in enriched synthetic saliva samples, which demonstrates the potential of using the proposed sensor as an alternative platform for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Platinum , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Cysteine , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Immunoassay/methods
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2630: 117-133, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209242

ABSTRACT

Quantification of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) or viral RNAs is of great significance because of their broad relevance to human health. Currently, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), as well as microarray and gene sequencing, are considered mainstream techniques for miRNA identification and quantitation and the gold standard for SARS-CoV2 detection in the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these laboratory techniques are challenged by the low levels and wide dynamic range (from aM to nM) of miRNAs in a physiological sample, as well as the difficulty in the implementation in point-of-care settings. Here, we describe a one-step label-free electrochemical sensing technique by assembling self-folded multi-stem DNA-redox probe structure on gold microelectrodes and introducing a reductant, tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), in the detection buffer solution to achieve ultrasensitive detection with a detection limit of 0.1 fM that can be further improved if needed.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , MicroRNAs , Humans , MicroRNAs/analysis , Microelectrodes , RNA, Viral , Pandemics , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2 , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , DNA Probes , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry
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