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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512562

ABSTRACT

Monitoring physical activity in medical and clinical rehabilitation, in sports environments or as a wellness indicator is helpful to measure, analyze and evaluate physiological parameters involving the correct subject's movements. Thanks to integrated circuit (IC) technologies, wearable sensors and portable devices have expanded rapidly in monitoring physical activities in sports and tele-rehabilitation. Therefore, sensors and signal acquisition devices became essential in the tele-rehabilitation path to obtain accurate and reliable information by analyzing the acquired physiological signals. In this context, this paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the recent advances in electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG) signal monitoring systems and sensors that are relevant to the field of tele-rehabilitation and health monitoring. Mostly, we focused our contribution in EMG signals to highlight its importance in rehabilitation context applications. This review focuses on analyzing the implementation of sensors and biomedical applications both in literature than in commerce. Moreover, a final review discussion about the analyzed solutions is also reported at the end of this paper to highlight the advantages of physiological monitoring systems in rehabilitation and individuate future advancements in this direction. The main contributions of this paper are (i) the presentation of interesting works in the biomedical area, mainly focusing on sensors and systems for physical rehabilitation and health monitoring between 2016 and up-to-date, and (ii) the indication of the main types of commercial sensors currently being used for biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Sports , Electroencephalography , Electromyography , Monitoring, Physiologic
2.
J Trauma Nurs ; 28(5): 298-303, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The high mortality rate of comatose patients with traumatic brain injury is a prominent public health issue that negatively impacts patients and their families. Objective, reliable tools are needed to guide treatment decisions and prioritize resources. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the bispectral index (BIS) in comatose patients with severe brain injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 84 patients with severe brain injury and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 8 and less treated from January 2015 to June 2017. Sedatives were withheld at least 24 hr before BIS scoring. The BIS value, GCS scores, and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) were monitored hourly for 48 hr. Based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score, the patients were divided into poor (GOS score: 1-2) and good prognosis groups (GOS score: 3-5). The correlation between BIS and prognosis was analyzed by logistic regression, and the receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted. RESULTS: The mean (SD) of the BIS value: 54.63 (11.76), p = .000; and GCS score: 5.76 (1.87), p = .000, were higher in the good prognosis group than in the poor prognosis group. Lower BIS values and GCS scores were correlated with poorer prognosis. Based on the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal diagnostic cutoff value of the BIS was 43.6, and the associated sensitivity and specificity were 85.4% and 74.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study indicates that BIS had good predictive value on prognosis. These findings suggested that BIS could be used to evaluate the severity and prognosis of severe brain injury.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Coma , Coma/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430953

ABSTRACT

The pandemic emergency of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shed light on the need for innovative aids, devices, and assistive technologies to enable people with severe disabilities to live their daily lives. EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) can lead individuals with significant health challenges to improve their independence, facilitate participation in activities, thus enhancing overall well-being and preventing impairments. This systematic review provides state-of-the-art applications of EEG-based BCIs, particularly those using motor-imagery (MI) data, to wheelchair control and movement. It presents a thorough examination of the different studies conducted since 2010, focusing on the algorithm analysis, features extraction, features selection, and classification techniques used as well as on wheelchair components and performance evaluation. The results provided in this paper could highlight the limitations of current biomedical instrumentations applied to people with severe disabilities and bring focus to innovative research topics.


Subject(s)
Brain-Computer Interfaces , COVID-19 , Wheelchairs , Electroencephalography , Humans , Movement , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406639

ABSTRACT

A 13-year-old girl with perinatally acquired HIV infection was admitted to us with acute onset, right-sided hemiparesis of 30 days duration and right-sided myoclonic jerks of 2 days duration affecting the face, upper and lower limbs. On examination, she exhibited increased tone and a pyramidal pattern of weakness in her right upper and lower limbs, along with spontaneous multifocal myoclonic jerks in the affected area. IgG levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid for measles were significantly elevated. Brain MRI depicted T2-weighted-hyperintensities in the subcortical white matter. The electroencephalogram demonstrated evidence of lateralised long interval periodic discharges. This patient had no past behavioural problems or poor academic performance. This case underlines the fact that, though subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic disease, a rare fulminant form of SSPE might develop acutely and atypically, with an increased proclivity for HIV-infected patients.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adolescent , Electroencephalography , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Neuroimaging , Paresis/etiology , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/complications , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/diagnosis
5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(10): 104268, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401450

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic variants in phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class B (PIGB) gene have been first described as the cause of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 80 (EIEE-80) in 2019. This disorder, an inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency, is associated with a complex neurologic phenotype, including developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy. We report on a 5 year-old girl born from consanguineous parents, manifesting severe global developmental delay with absent speech, mixed peripheral polyneuropathy, hypotonia, bilateral equino-varo-supinated-cavus foot, early-onset scoliosis, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and a single episode of febrile status epilepticus. Hypomyelination was documented on brain MRI. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) disclosed the likely pathogenic biallelic PIGB NM_004855.4: c.463G > C, p.(Asp155His) missense variant. In our patient, while other characteristic clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings (as described in the first research paper) were present, seizures were not a major clinical issue, thus contributing to our knowledge on this ultra-rare disorder.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiopathology , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Mannosyltransferases/genetics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Child , Developmental Disabilities/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mannosyltransferases/deficiency , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Whole Exome Sequencing
10.
J Neurophysiol ; 126(4): 1221-1233, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381185

ABSTRACT

Frontal-midline theta (FMT) oscillations are increased in amplitude during cognitive control tasks. Since these tasks often conflate cognitive control and cognitive effort, it remains unknown if FMT amplitude maps onto cognitive control or effort. To address this gap, we utilized the glucose facilitation effect to manipulate cognitive effort without changing cognitive control demands. We performed a single-blind, crossover human study in which we provided participants with a glucose drink (control session: volume-matched water) to reduce cognitive effort and improve performance on a visuospatial working memory task. Following glucose consumption, participants performed the working memory task at multiple time points of a 3-h window to sample across the rise and fall of blood glucose. Using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), we calculated FMT amplitude during the delay period of the working memory task. Source localization analysis revealed that FMT oscillations originated from bilateral prefrontal cortex. We found that glucose increased working memory accuracy during the high working memory load condition but decreased FMT amplitude. The decrease in FMT amplitude coincided with both peak blood glucose elevation and peak performance enhancement for glucose relative to water. Therefore, the positive association between glucose consumption and task performance provided causal evidence that the amplitude of FMT oscillations may correspond to cognitive effort, rather than cognitive control. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, data collection was terminated prematurely; the preliminary nature of these findings due to small sample size should be contextualized by rigorous experimental design and use of a novel causal perturbation to dissociate cognitive effort and cognitive control.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated whether frontal-midline theta (FMT) oscillations tracked with cognitive control or cognitive effort by simultaneous manipulation of cognitive control demands in a working memory task and causal perturbation of cognitive effort using glucose consumption. Facilitation of performance from glucose consumption corresponded with decreased FMT amplitude, which provided preliminary causal evidence for a relationship between FMT amplitude with cognitive effort.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Theta Rhythm , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Over Studies , Electroencephalography , Female , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Spatial Processing/physiology , Young Adult
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17452, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380911

ABSTRACT

Here we attempted to define the relationship between: EEG activity, personality and coping during lockdown. We were in a unique situation since the COVID-19 outbreak interrupted our independent longitudinal study. We already collected a significant amount of data before lockdown. During lockdown, a subgroup of participants willingly continued their engagement in the study. These circumstances provided us with an opportunity to examine the relationship between personality/cognition and brain rhythms in individuals who continued their engagement during lockdown compared to control data collected well before pandemic. The testing consisted of a one-time assessment of personality dimensions and two sessions of EEG recording and deductive reasoning task. Participants were divided into groups based on the time they completed the second session: before or during the COVID-19 outbreak 'Pre-pandemic Controls' and 'Pandemics', respectively. The Pandemics were characterized by a higher extraversion and stronger connectivity, compared to Pre-pandemic Controls. Furthermore, the Pandemics improved their cognitive performance under long-term stress as compared to the Pre-Pandemic Controls matched for personality traits to the Pandemics. The Pandemics were also characterized by increased EEG connectivity during lockdown. We posit that stronger EEG connectivity and higher extraversion could act as a defense mechanism against stress-related deterioration of cognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Extraversion, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Electroencephalography , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroticism , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(9): 2248-2250, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366484

ABSTRACT

Restructuring of healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to lockdown of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMUs) in many hospitals. The ad-hoc taskforce of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) highlights the detrimental effect of postponing video-EEG monitoring of patients with epilepsy and other paroxysmal events. The taskforce calls for action to continue functioning of Epilepsy Monitoring Units during emergency situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Long-term video-EEG monitoring is an essential diagnostic service. Access to video-EEG monitoring of the patients in the EMUs must be given high priority. Patients should be screened for COVID-19, before admission, according to the local regulations. Local policies for COVID-19 infection control should be adhered to during the video-EEG monitoring. In cases of differential diagnosis where reduction of antiseizure medication is not required, consider home video-EEG monitoring as an alternative in selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Electroencephalography/standards , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Neurophysiology/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Consensus , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Internationality , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Monitoring, Physiologic/standards , Neurophysiology/methods
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 123: 108255, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364517

ABSTRACT

Although psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a common neurologic condition, there remains a paucity of literature on the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on these patients. Using a cross-sectional questionnaire study, our group examined the experience of patients with PNES at a single Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in New York City, the epicenter of the initial COVID-19 outbreak in the United States. Among our cohort of 18 subjects with PNES, 22.2% reported an improvement in seizure control during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Compared to the cohort of subjects with epilepsy without PNES, subjects with PNES were significantly more likely to report an improvement (p = 0.033). Our findings signal that sleep and stress may be relevant variables in both conditions that should be further investigated and potentially intervened upon. Larger dedicated studies of patients with PNES are needed to understand the impact of the pandemic's widespread societal effects on these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e445-e450, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the predominant clinical presentation is a respiratory disease, neurologic manifestations are being recognized increasingly. CASE REPORT: We report 2 children 9 years of age who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease associated with SARS-CoV-2. Seizures and encephalopathy were the main central nervous system symptoms. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed within the first week of disease onset showed elevated protein in both children with normal cell count and no evidence of infection including negative SARS-CoV-2 by antibody and polymerase chain reaction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed T2A, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery cortical and subcortical hyperintensity without restricted diffusion consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease. They received methylprednisolone followed by therapeutic plasma exchange. One of them showed complete clinical improvement and resolution in magnetic resonance imaging findings. The other developed laminar necrosis in brain magnetic resonance imaging and showed significant clinical improvement after therapeutic plasma exchange. He was positive for positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody in cerebrospinal fluid on day 55 of admission. They were both positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum after 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our two cases highlight the occurrence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease as a postinfectious/immune-mediated complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Electroencephalography , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/blood , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Epilepsy Res ; 176: 106741, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, wearing face masks was recommended, including patients with epilepsy doing the hyperventilation (HV) test during electroencephalogram (EEG) examination somewhere. However, evidence was still limited about the effect of HV with face mask on cortical excitability of patients with epilepsy. The motivation of this work is to make use of the graph theory of EEG to characterize the cortical excitability of patients with epilepsy when they did HV under the condition wearing a surgical face mask. METHODS: We recruited 19 patients with epilepsy and 17 normal controls. All of participants completed two HV experiments, including HV with face mask (HV+) and HV without a mask (HV). The interval was 30 min and the sequence was random. Each experiment consisted of three segments: resting EEG, EEG of HV, and EEG of post-HV. EEG were recorded successively during each experiment. Participants were asked to evaluate the discomfort degree using a questionnaire when every HV is completed. RESULTS: All of the participants felt more uncomfortable after HV + . Moreover, not only HV decreased small-worldness index in patients with epilepsy, but also HV + significantly increased the clustering coefficient in patients with epilepsy. Importantly, the three-way of Mask*HV*Epilepsy showed interaction in the clustering coefficient in the delta band, as well as in the path length and the small-worldness index in the theta band. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that patients with epilepsy showed the increased excitability of brain network during HV + . We should pay more attention to the adverse effect on brain network excitability caused by HV + in patients with epilepsy. In the clinical practice under the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important that the wearing face mask remain cautious for the individuals with epilepsy when they carried out HV behavior such as exercise (e.g., running, etc.).


Subject(s)
Epilepsy/complications , Hyperventilation/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Nerve Net/physiopathology , Adult , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hyperventilation/physiopathology , Male
16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108229, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345499

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted admission to epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) for classification and presurgical evaluation of patients with refractory epilepsy. We modified the EMU admission protocol via anti-seizure medications (ASM) withdrawal implemented one day before admission; thus, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this modified protocol. METHODS: In January 2021, we initiated ASM tapering 24 h before-rather than on the first day after-EMU admission, contrasting with the previous protocol. We retrospectively reviewed EMU admissions between January and April of 2018, 2019, and 2021, and identified the time required to record the first seizure, and EMU yield to confirm or change the epilepsy classification. We also evaluated the safety of the modified protocol, by monitoring the seizure frequency for up to 5 months after the discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: One hundred four patients were included (mean age: 30 years, men: 43%); excluding a longer disease duration and abundance of normal routine electro-encephalogram (EEG) in patients admitted before the pandemic, no differences were observed in patients' characteristics. On average, it took 41 h and 21 h to record the first seizure using the standard and modified protocols, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 10-30). Other characteristics were investigated both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, and epilepsy classifications were confirmed twice using the modified protocol (OR = 2.4, p = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.1-5.5). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed the shorter time to record the first seizure using the modified admission protocol (23 h less, p < 0.001; 95% CI: 12-34). Finally, 36 (86%) patients admitted during the pandemic exhibited no increase in seizure frequency after the discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Initiating ASM withdrawal one day before EMU admission was deemed to be an efficient and safe way to confirm epilepsy classification and significantly decrease the length of hospital stay. Ultimately, this will shorten the long waiting list for EMU admission created by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Adult , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295522

ABSTRACT

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) can influence emotional predictions, constructed by the brain (generation stage) to prearrange action (implementation stage), and update internal models according to incoming stimuli (updating stage). However, neurocomputational mechanisms by which IU affects emotional predictions are unclear. This high-density EEG study investigated if IU predicted event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain sources activity developing along the stages of emotional predictions, as a function of contextual uncertainty. Thirty-six undergraduates underwent a S1-S2 paradigm, with emotional faces and pictures as S1s and S2s, respectively. Contextual uncertainty was manipulated across three blocks, each with 100%, 75%, or 50% S1-S2 emotional congruency. ERPs, brain sources and their relationship with IU scores were analyzed for each stage. IU did not affect prediction generation. During prediction implementation, higher IU predicted larger Contingent Negative Variation in the 75% block, and lower left anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area activations. During prediction updating, as IU increased P2 to positive S2s decreased, along with P2 and Late Positive Potential in the 75% block, and right orbito-frontal cortex activity to emotional S2s. IU was therefore associated with altered uncertainty assessment and heightened attention deployment during implementation, and to uncertainty avoidance, reduced attention to safety cues and disrupted access to emotion regulation strategies during prediction updating.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Emotions/physiology , Fear/physiology , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Behavior/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiology , Brain Mapping , Contingent Negative Variation/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Face/physiology , Fear/psychology , Female , Forecasting , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Humans , Male , Uncertainty , Young Adult
18.
Neurol Sci ; 42(9): 3527-3530, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274855

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognised and can arise as a result of direct viral invasion, para-infectious or postinfectious immune mechanisms. We report a delayed presentation of COVID-19 postinfectious immune-mediated encephalitis and status epilepticus occurring in a 47-year-old woman 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in her cerebrospinal fluid with features of encephalitis evident in both magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram. She made a complete recovery following treatment with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Diagnosis of COVID-19 postinfectious encephalitis may prove challenging in patients presenting many weeks following the initial infection. A high index of clinical suspicion and testing intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are key to its diagnosis. Early immunotherapy is likely to result in a good outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(5)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with a large variety of neurologic disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying these neurologic complications remain elusive. In this study, we aimed at determining whether neurologic symptoms were caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) direct infection or by either systemic or local proinflammatory mediators. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we checked for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, and 49 cytokines/chemokines/growth factors (by Luminex) in the CSF +/- sera of a cohort of 22 COVID-19 patients with neurologic presentation and 55 neurologic control patients (inflammatory neurologic disorder [IND], noninflammatory neurologic disorder, and MS). RESULTS: We detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G in patients with severe COVID-19 with signs of intrathecal synthesis for some of them. Of the 4 categories of tested patients, the CSF of IND exhibited the highest level of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. By contrast, patients with COVID-19 did not present overall upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the CSF. However, patients with severe COVID-19 (intensive care unit patients) exhibited higher concentrations of CCL2, CXCL8, and vascular endothelium growth factor A (VEGF-A) in the CSF than patients with a milder form of COVID-19. In addition, we could show that intrathecal CXCL8 synthesis was linked to an elevated albumin ratio and correlated with the increase of peripheral inflammation (serum hepatocyte growth factor [HGF] and CXCL10). CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate active replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF or signs of massive inflammation in the CSF compartment but highlight a specific impairment of the neurovascular unit linked to intrathecal production of CXCL8.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/cerebrospinal fluid , Inflammation/etiology , Neurovascular Coupling , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/blood , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/cerebrospinal fluid , Inflammation/cerebrospinal fluid , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Male , Middle Aged , Neurovascular Coupling/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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