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1.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 109-119, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836021

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with various symptoms and changes in hematological and biochemical variables. However, clinical features, which can differentiate COVID-19 from non-COVID-19, are not clear. We therefore examined the key clinical features of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. This study included 60 COVID-19 patients and 100 non-COVID-19 patients, diagnosed by PCR, and no significant differences in the age and sex were seen between the two groups. The frequencies of fatigue, loose stool, diarrhea, nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, taste dysfunction, underlying hyperlipidemia, and the prescription of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than those in non-COVID-19 patients. The counts of leucocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, and basophils and the levels of chloride and calcium in blood of COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than those of non-COVID-19 patients. The frequencies of atypical lymphocytes and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and potassium were significantly higher in COVID-19 than those in non-COVID-19. The C-reactive protein (CRP) level in COVID-19 patients was significantly lower than that in non-COVID-19 patients, when we compared CRP levels among patients with elevated CRP. This study is the first to indicate that electrolyte levels and the frequency of atypical lymphocytes in COVID-19 are significantly different from those in non-COVID-19. Fatigue, loose stool, diarrhea, nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, and taste dysfunction were the key symptoms of COVID-19. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia and ARB may be risk factors of COVID-19. In conclusion, leucocytes, leucocyte fractions, CRP, LDH, and electrolytes are useful indicators for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Electrolytes/blood , Lymphocytes/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Taste Disorders/virology , Young Adult
2.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 57(3): 262-265, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early studies have reported various electrolyte abnormalities at admission in patients who progress to the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As electrolyte imbalance may not only impact patient care, but provide insight into the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we aimed to analyse all early data reported on electrolytes in COVID-19 patients with and without severe form. METHODS: An electronic search of Medline (PubMed interface), Scopus and Web of Science was performed for articles comparing electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium) between COVID-19 patients with and without severe disease. A pooled analysis was performed to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Five studies with a total sample size of 1415 COVID-19 patients. Sodium was significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.91 mmol/L [95% CI: -1.33 to -0.50 mmol/L]). Similarly, potassium was also significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with severe disease (WMD: -0.12 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07 mmol/L], I2=33%). For chloride, no statistical differences were observed between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (WMD: 0.30 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.41 to 1.01 mmol/L]). For calcium, a statistically significant lower concentration was noted in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.20 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.25 to -0.20 mmol/L]). CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis confirms that COVID-19 severity is associated with lower serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium. We recommend electrolytes be measured at initial presentation and serially monitored during hospitalization in order to establish timely and appropriate corrective actions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Electrolytes/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Calcium/blood , Chlorides/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Potassium/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium/blood , Water-Electrolyte Balance
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