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1.
Appl Clin Inform ; 13(1): 10-18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop a virtual electronic health record (EHR) training and optimization program and evaluate the impact of the virtual model on provider and staff burnout and electronic health record (EHR) experience. METHODS: UCHealth created and supported a multidisciplinary EHR optimization and training program, known as the Epic Sprint Program. The Sprint Team conducted dozens of onsite Sprint events over the course of several years prior to the pandemic but transitioned to a fully virtual program and successfully "sprinted" 21 outpatient clinics from May to December 2020. Core program components of group and 1:1 training, workflow analysis, and new or adjusted EHR build were unchanged from the onsite model. Pre- and post-Sprint surveys provided detailed, objective data about EHR usability, EHR proficiency, job satisfaction, and burnout. RESULTS: The EHR Net Promoter Score (NPS), a likelihood to recommend metric, increased by 39 points (-3 pre and 36 post; p < 0.001) for providers and 29 points (8 pre and 37 post; p = 0.001) for staff post-Sprint. Positive provider (NPS = +53) and staff (NPS = +47) NPS scores indicated a high likelihood to recommend the Sprint Program. Post-Sprint surveys also reflect an increase in providers (10%; p = 0.04) and staff (9%; 0.13) who indicated "no burnout" or "did not feel burned out." DISCUSSION: The UCHealth Sprint Team transitioned this comprehensive, enterprise level initiative from an onsite model to a fully virtual EHR training and optimization program during the first few months of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite this change in program delivery, survey data clearly demonstrated improved EHR satisfaction, a high likelihood to recommend a sprint to a friend or colleague, and a trend toward burnout reduction in providers and staff. CONCLUSION: Changing an existing on-site EHR optimization program to a purely virtual format can be successful, and this study showed improved provider and staff EHR satisfaction with reduced burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 287: 73-77, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594908

ABSTRACT

Adopting international standards within health research communities can elevate data FAIRness and widen analysis possibilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mapping feasibility against HL7® Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources® (FHIR)® of a generic metadata schema (MDS) created for a central search hub gathering COVID-19 health research (studies, questionnaires, documents = MDS resource types). Mapping results were rated by calculating the percentage of FHIR coverage. Among 86 items to map, total mapping coverage was 94%: 50 (58%) of the items were available as standard resources in FHIR and 31 (36%) could be mapped using extensions. Five items (6%) could not be mapped to FHIR. Analyzing each MDS resource type, there was a total mapping coverage of 93% for studies and 95% for questionnaires and documents, with 61% of the MDS items available as standard resources in FHIR for studies, 57% for questionnaires and 52% for documents. Extensions in studies, questionnaires and documents were used in 32%, 38% and 43% of items, respectively. This work shows that FHIR can be used as a standardized format in registries for clinical, epidemiological and public health research. However, further adjustments to the initial MDS are recommended - and two additional items even needed when implementing FHIR. Developing a MDS based on the FHIR standard could be a future approach to reduce data ambiguity and foster interoperability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metadata , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Health Level Seven , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains problematic. Regular monitoring of its barriers is clinically recommended, however, patient-provider communication around adherence is often inadequate. Our team thus decided to develop a new electronically administered patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of barriers to ART adherence (the I-Score) to systematically capture this data for physician consideration in routine HIV care. To prepare for a controlled definitive trial to test the I-Score intervention, a pilot study was designed. Its primary objectives are to evaluate patient and physician perceptions of the I-Score intervention and its implementation strategy. METHODS: This one-arm, 6-month study will adopt a mixed method type 3 implementation-effectiveness hybrid design and be conducted at the Chronic Viral Illness Service of the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Canada). Four HIV physicians and 32 of their HIV patients with known or suspected adherence problems will participate. The intervention will involve having patients complete the I-Score through a smartphone application (Opal), before meeting with their physician. Both patients and physicians will have access to the I-Score results, for consideration during the clinic visits at Times 1, 2 (3 months), and 3 (6 months). The implementation strategy will focus on stakeholder involvement, education, and training; promoting the intervention's adaptability; and hiring an Application Manager to facilitate implementation. Implementation, patient, and service outcomes will be collected (Times 1-2-3). The primary outcome is the intervention's acceptability to patients and physicians. Qualitative data obtained, in part, through physician focus groups (Times 2-3) and patient interviews (Times 2-3) will help evaluate the implementation strategy and inform any methodological adaptations. DISCUSSION: This study will help plan a definitive trial to test the efficacy of the I-Score intervention. It will generate needed data on electronic PROM interventions in routine HIV care that will help improve understanding of conditions for their successful implementation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04702412; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Electronic Health Records , Health Services , Medication Adherence , Patient Portals , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Canada , Humans , Pilot Projects
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24767, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Online medical records are being used to organize processes in clinical and outpatient settings and to forge doctor-patient communication techniques that build mutual understanding and trust. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the reasons why patients tend to avoid using online medical records and to compare the perceptions that patients have of online medical records based on demographics and cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey Cycle 3, a nationally representative survey, and assessed outcomes using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. The patients (N=4328) included in the analysis had experienced an outpatient visit within the previous 12 months and had answered the online behavior question regarding their use of online medical records. RESULTS: Patients who were nonusers of online medical records consisted of 58.36% of the sample (2526/4328). The highest nonuser rates were for patients who were Hispanic (460/683, 67.35%), patients who were non-Hispanic Black (434/653, 66.46%), and patients who were older than 65 years (968/1520, 63.6%). Patients older than 65 years were less likely to use online medical records (odds ratio [OR] 1.51, 95% CI 1.24-1.84, P<.001). Patients who were White were more likely to use online medical records than patients who were Black (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.05, P<.001) or Hispanic (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.98, P<.001). Patients who were diagnosed with cancer were more likely to use online medical records compared to patients with no cancer (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55, 95% CI 1.11-1.55, P=.001). Among nonusers, older patients (≥65 years old) preferred speaking directly to their health care providers (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.35-2.31, P<.001), were more concerned about privacy issues caused by online medical records (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22-2.66, P<.001), and felt uncomfortable using the online medical record systems (OR 10.55, 95% CI 6.06-19.89, P<.001) compared to those aged 18-34 years. Patients who were Black or Hispanic were more concerned about privacy issues (OR 1.42, 1.09-1.84, P=.007). CONCLUSIONS: Studies should consider social factors such as gender, race/ethnicity, and age when monitoring trends in eHealth use to ensure that eHealth use does not induce greater health status and health care disparities between people with different backgrounds and demographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records/standards , Health Information Exchange/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Data Analysis , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Internet Use , Male , Middle Aged , Physician-Patient Relations , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e20545, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573803

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 cases are exponentially increasing worldwide; however, its clinical phenotype remains unclear. Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning approaches may yield key methods to rapidly identify individuals at a high risk of COVID-19 and to understand key symptoms upon clinical manifestation and presentation. Data on such symptoms may not be accurately synthesized into patient records owing to the pressing need to treat patients in overburdened health care settings. In this scenario, clinicians may focus on documenting widely reported symptoms that indicate a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, albeit at the expense of infrequently reported symptoms. While NLP solutions can play a key role in generating clinical phenotypes of COVID-19, they are limited by the resulting limitations in data from electronic health records (EHRs). A comprehensive record of clinic visits is required-audio recordings may be the answer. A recording of clinic visits represents a more comprehensive record of patient-reported symptoms. If done at scale, a combination of data from the EHR and recordings of clinic visits can be used to power NLP and machine learning models, thus rapidly generating a clinical phenotype of COVID-19. We propose the generation of a pipeline extending from audio or video recordings of clinic visits to establish a model that factors in clinical symptoms and predict COVID-19 incidence. With vast amounts of available data, we believe that a prediction model can be rapidly developed to promote the accurate screening of individuals at a high risk of COVID-19 and to identify patient characteristics that predict a greater risk of a more severe infection. If clinical encounters are recorded and our NLP model is adequately refined, benchtop virologic findings would be better informed. While clinic visit recordings are not the panacea for this pandemic, they are a low-cost option with many potential benefits, which have recently begun to be explored.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/standards , COVID-19/genetics , Communications Media/standards , Electronic Health Records/standards , Machine Learning/standards , Natural Language Processing , Humans , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e21615, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has shined a harsh light on a critical deficiency in our health care system: our inability to access important information about patients' values, goals, and preferences in the electronic health record (EHR). At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), we have integrated and systematized health-related values discussions led by oncology nurses for newly diagnosed cancer patients as part of routine comprehensive cancer care. Such conversations include not only the patient's wishes for care at the end of life but also more holistic personal values, including sources of strength, concerns, hopes, and their definition of an acceptable quality of life. In addition, health care providers use a structured template to document their discussions of patient goals of care. OBJECTIVE: To provide ready access to key information about the patient as a person with individual values, goals, and preferences, we undertook the creation of the Patient Values Tab in our center's EHR to display this information in a single, central location. Here, we describe the interprofessional, interdisciplinary, iterative process and user-centered design methodology that we applied to build this novel functionality as well as our initial implementation experience and plans for evaluation. METHODS: We first convened a working group of experts from multiple departments, including medical oncology, health informatics, information systems, nursing informatics, nursing education, and supportive care, and a user experience designer. We conducted in-depth, semistructured, audiorecorded interviews of over 100 key stakeholders. The working group sought consensus on the tab's main content, homing in on high-priority areas identified by the stakeholders. The core content was mapped to various EHR data sources. We established a set of high-level design principles to guide our process. Our user experience designer then created wireframes of the tab design. The designer conducted usability testing with physicians, nurses, and other health professionals. Data validation testing was conducted. RESULTS: We have already deployed the Patient Values Tab to a pilot sample of users in the MSK Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Service, including physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, and administrative staff. We have early evidence of the positive impact of this EHR innovation. Audit logs show increasing use. Many of the initial user comments have been enthusiastically positive, while others have provided constructive suggestions for additional tab refinements with respect to format and content. CONCLUSIONS: It is our challenge and obligation to enrich the EHR with information about the patient as a person. Realization of this capability is a pressing public health need requiring the collaboration of technological experts with a broad range of clinical leaders, users, patients, and families to achieve solutions that are both principled and practical. Our new Patient Values Tab represents a step forward in this important direction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records/organization & administration , Medical Informatics/methods , Palliative Care/methods , Quality of Life/psychology , User-Centered Design , Humans
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e26381, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The predominant implementation paradigm of electronic health record (EHR) systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) relies on standalone system installations at facilities. This implementation approach exacerbates the digital divide, with facilities in areas with inadequate electrical and network infrastructure often left behind. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have been implemented to extend the reach of digital health, but these systems largely add to the problem of siloed patient data, with few seamlessly interoperating with the EHR systems that are now scaled nationally in many LMICs. Robust mHealth applications that effectively extend EHR systems are needed to improve access, improve quality of care, and ameliorate the digital divide. OBJECTIVE: We report on the development and scaled implementation of mUzima, an mHealth extension of the most broadly deployed EHR system in LMICs (OpenMRS). METHODS: The "Guidelines for reporting of health interventions using mobile phones: mobile (mHealth) evidence reporting assessment (mERA)" checklist was employed to report on the mUzima application. The World Health Organization (WHO) Principles for Digital Development framework was used as a secondary reference framework. Details of mUzima's architecture, core features, functionalities, and its implementation status are provided to highlight elements that can be adapted in other systems. RESULTS: mUzima is an open-source, highly configurable Android application with robust features including offline management, deduplication, relationship management, security, cohort management, and error resolution, among many others. mUzima allows providers with lower-end Android smartphones (version 4.4 and above) who work remotely to access historical patient data, collect new data, view media, leverage decision support, conduct store-and-forward teleconsultation, and geolocate clients. The application is supported by an active community of developers and users, with feature priorities vetted by the community. mUzima has been implemented nationally in Kenya, is widely used in Rwanda, and is gaining scale in Uganda and Mozambique. It is disease-agnostic, with current use cases in HIV, cancer, chronic disease, and COVID-19 management, among other conditions. mUzima meets all WHO's Principles of Digital Development, and its scaled implementation success has led to its recognition as a digital global public good and its listing in the WHO Digital Health Atlas. CONCLUSIONS: Greater emphasis should be placed on mHealth applications that robustly extend reach of EHR systems within resource-limited settings, as opposed to siloed mHealth applications. This is particularly important given that health information exchange infrastructure is yet to mature in many LMICs. The mUzima application demonstrates how this can be done at scale, as evidenced by its adoption across multiple countries and for numerous care domains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0249980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms used by daycares and schools to screen children and adolescents for SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analyzed data from a primary care setting. METHODS: This cohort study included all patients ≤17 years old who were evaluated at Providence Community Health Centers (PCHC; Providence, U.S.), for COVID-19 symptoms and/or exposure, and received SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing between March-June 2020. Participants were identified from PCHC electronic medical records. For three age groups- 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years-we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of individual symptoms and three symptom combinations: a case definition published by the Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH), and two novel combinations generated by different statistical approaches to maximize sensitivity, specificity, and AUC. We evaluated symptom combinations both with and without consideration of COVID-19 exposure. Myalgia, headache, sore throat, abdominal pain, nausea, anosmia, and ageusia were not assessed in 0-4 year-olds due to the lower reliability of these symptoms in this group. RESULTS: Of 555 participants, 217 (39.1%) were SARS-CoV-2-infected. Fever was more common among 0-4 years-olds (p = 0.002); older children more frequently reported fatigue (p = 0.02). In children ≥5 years old, anosmia or ageusia had 94-98% specificity. In all ages, exposure history most accurately predicted infection. With respect to individual symptoms, cough most accurately predicted infection in <5 year-olds (AUC 0.69) and 12-17 year-olds (AUC 0.62), while headache was most accurate in 5-11 year-olds (AUC 0.62). In combination with exposure history, the novel symptom combinations generated statistically to maximize test characteristics had sensitivity >95% but specificity <30%. No symptom or symptom combination had AUC ≥0.70. CONCLUSIONS: Anosmia or ageusia in children ≥5 years old should raise providers' index of suspicion for COVID-19. However, our overall findings underscore the limited diagnostic value of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Myalgia/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Area Under Curve , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Community Health Centers , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Primary Health Care
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114329, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556981

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric illness confers significant risk for severe COVID-19 morbidity and mortality; identifying psychiatric risk factors for vaccine hesitancy is critical to mitigating risk in this population. This study examined the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among those with psychiatric illness and the associations between psychiatric morbidity and vaccine hesitancy. Data came from electronic health records and a patient survey obtained from 14,365 patients at a group medical practice between February and May 2021. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds for vaccine hesitancy adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and physical comorbidity. Of 14,365 participants 1,761 (12.3%) participants reported vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy was significantly more prevalent among participants with substance use (29.6%), attention deficit and hyperactivity (23.3%), posttraumatic stress (23.1%), bipolar (18.0%), generalized anxiety (16.5%), major depressive (16.1%), and other anxiety (15.5%) disorders, tobacco use (18.6%), and those previously infected with COVID-19 (19.8%) compared to participants without . After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and physical comorbidities, substance use disorders and tobacco use were significantly associated with increased odds for vaccine hesitancy and bipolar disorder was significantly inversely associated with vaccine hesitancy. Interventions to improve uptake in these populations may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e29951, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Secure patient portals are widely available, and patients use them to view their electronic health records, including their clinical notes. We conducted experiments asking them to cogenerate notes with their clinicians, an intervention called OurNotes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess patient and provider experiences and attitudes after 12 months of a pilot intervention. METHODS: Before scheduled primary care visits, patients were asked to submit a word-constrained, unstructured interval history and an agenda for what they would like to discuss at the visit. Using site-specific methods, their providers were invited to incorporate the submissions into notes documenting the visits. Sites served urban, suburban, and rural patients in primary care practices in 4 academic health centers in Boston (Massachusetts), Lebanon (New Hampshire), Denver (Colorado), and Seattle (Washington). Each practice offered electronic access to visit notes (open notes) to its patients for several years. A mixed methods evaluation used tracking data and electronic survey responses from patients and clinicians. Participants were 174 providers and 1962 patients who submitted at least 1 previsit form. We asked providers about the usefulness of the submissions, effects on workflow, and ideas for the future. We asked patients about difficulties and benefits of providing the requested information and ideas for future improvements. RESULTS: Forms were submitted before 9.15% (5365/58,652) eligible visits, and 43.7% (76/174) providers and 26.76% (525/1962) patients responded to the postintervention evaluation surveys; 74 providers and 321 patients remembered receiving and completing the forms and answered the survey questions. Most clinicians thought interim patient histories (69/74, 93%) and patient agendas (72/74, 97%) as good ideas, 70% (52/74) usually or always incorporated them into visit notes, 54% (40/74) reported no change in visit length, and 35% (26/74) thought they saved time. Their most common suggestions related to improving notifications when patient forms were received, making it easier to find the form and insert it into the note, and educating patients about how best to prepare their submissions. Patient respondents were generally well educated, most found the history (259/321, 80.7%) and agenda (286/321, 89.1%) questions not difficult to answer; more than 92.2% (296/321) thought sending answers before the visit a good idea; 68.8% (221/321) thought the questions helped them prepare for the visit. Common suggestions by patients included learning to write better answers and wanting to know that their submissions were read by their clinicians. At the end of the pilot, all participating providers chose to continue the OurNotes previsit form, and sites considered expanding the intervention to more clinicians and adapting it for telemedicine visits. CONCLUSIONS: OurNotes interests patients, and providers experience it as a positive intervention. Participation by patients, care partners, clinicians, and electronic health record experts will facilitate further development.


Subject(s)
Patient Portals , Telemedicine , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Primary Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 287: 63-67, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526753

ABSTRACT

Generating evidence based on real-world data is gaining importance in research not least since the COVID-19 pandemic. The Common Data Model of Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) is a research infrastructure that implements FAIR principles. Although the transfer of German claim data to OMOP is already implemented, drug data is an open issue. This paper provides a concept to prepare electronic health record (EHR) drug data for the transfer to OMOP based on requirements analysis and descriptive statistics for profiling EHR data developed by an interdisciplinary team and also covers data quality issues. The concept not only ensures FAIR principles for research, but provides the foundation for German drug data to OMOP transfer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Databases, Factual , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513873

ABSTRACT

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , Young Adult
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 286: 11-15, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508509

ABSTRACT

Law and regulation have not received much attention as part of the context shaping and being shaped by health informatics. Telemedicine, data, devices and software, and electronic health records (EHRs) are examples of how technologies are affected by privacy, intellectual property protections, and other law and regulation.


Subject(s)
Medical Informatics , Telemedicine , Electronic Health Records , Pandemics , Privacy
14.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104622, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data extraction from electronic health record (EHR) systems occurs through manual abstraction, automated extraction, or a combination of both. While each method has its strengths and weaknesses, both are necessary for retrospective observational research as well as sudden clinical events, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessing the strengths, weaknesses, and potentials of these methods is important to continue to understand optimal approaches to extracting clinical data. We set out to assess automated and manual techniques for collecting medication use data in patients with COVID-19 to inform future observational studies that extract data from the electronic health record (EHR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 4,123 COVID-positive patients hospitalized and/or seen in the emergency department at an academic medical center between 03/03/2020 and 05/15/2020, we compared medication use data of 25 medications or drug classes collected through manual abstraction and automated extraction from the EHR. Quantitatively, we assessed concordance using Cohen's kappa to measure interrater reliability, and qualitatively, we audited observed discrepancies to determine causes of inconsistencies. RESULTS: For the 16 inpatient medications, 11 (69%) demonstrated moderate or better agreement; 7 of those demonstrated strong or almost perfect agreement. For 9 outpatient medications, 3 (33%) demonstrated moderate agreement, but none achieved strong or almost perfect agreement. We audited 12% of all discrepancies (716/5,790) and, in those audited, observed three principal categories of error: human error in manual abstraction (26%), errors in the extract-transform-load (ETL) or mapping of the automated extraction (41%), and abstraction-query mismatch (33%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest many inpatient medications can be collected reliably through automated extraction, especially when abstraction instructions are designed with data architecture in mind. We discuss quality issues, concerns, and improvements for institutions to consider when crafting an approach. During crises, institutions must decide how to allocate limited resources. We show that automated extraction of medications is feasible and make recommendations on how to improve future iterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Data Collection , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497181

ABSTRACT

Digital health has massive potential in health care but has been slow to evolve in comparison to other information-intensive industries, which have more readily taken advantage of new technology. One of the key barriers has been the complex relationship between the perceived return on investment for the investor and the resulting value to patients and caregivers. Those actors who pay for technologies do not always see an appreciable return for themselves, while those actors who must apply the technology to generate value are not always incentivized to do so. This misalignment across health system payers and administrators, clinicians and patients must be better understood and addressed to help accelerate digital health. This paper will examine this challenge through the clinician experience, using empirical case examples from Canada to illustrate opportunities for change. While many factors may influence digital health adoption, this paper specifically aims to explore the shifts in the balance of the perceived value of implementing digital health tools, vs. the efforts required to adopt them. It will explore two contrasting case examples: clinical adoption of EMRs in Canada from 2009 to 2015, and clinical adoption of virtual care technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic from 2020 to 2021. In 2006, Canada lagged peer countries significantly in the adoption of electronic medical records (EMR) in community-based care. Financial support and cooperation of multiple levels of government and clinical stakeholders were required to address the misaligned incentives, which led to significant uptake by care providers. The rapid adoption of virtual care in Canada in response to the pandemic provides another relevant example of the importance of alignment among the factors of clinical workflows, clinical appropriateness, technology integration and payment models. Experts have highlighted the need for standardization, regulation, and clear policy to ensure sustainable, high quality virtual care that complements in-person care. In both cases, the costs and effort of adopting new technologies outweighed direct clinician value, requiring change initiatives to catalyze progress. This imbalance could be unique to these examples in Canada, and may not be globally generalizable to the adoption of all digital health tools. However, how change efforts can be tailored to adjust to a rapidly evolving health care workforce, spanning diverse jurisdictions and stakeholder groups will be critical to the sustainability of virtual care adoption. Furthermore, what key elements must be considered to guide change initiatives for successful implementation, designed to influence change while adding value for patients, clinicians and Canada's health care systems? Using insights from successful change initiatives past and present, this paper aims to answer these questions to enable a smoother transition to digital health innovations of the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(20): 2232-2246, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484813

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Variation in risk of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with cancer and COVID-19 has been reported from relatively small cohorts. The NCATS' National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) is a centralized data resource representing the largest multicenter cohort of COVID-19 cases and controls nationwide. We aimed to construct and characterize the cancer cohort within N3C and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality from COVID-19. METHODS: We used 4,382,085 patients from 50 US medical centers to construct a cohort of patients with cancer. We restricted analyses to adults ≥ 18 years old with a COVID-19-positive or COVID-19-negative diagnosis between January 1, 2020, and March 25, 2021. We followed N3C selection of an index encounter per patient for analyses. All analyses were performed in the N3C Data Enclave Palantir platform. RESULTS: A total of 398,579 adult patients with cancer were identified from the N3C cohort; 63,413 (15.9%) were COVID-19-positive. Most common represented cancers were skin (13.8%), breast (13.7%), prostate (10.6%), hematologic (10.5%), and GI cancers (10%). COVID-19 positivity was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24). Among COVID-19-positive patients, age ≥ 65 years, male gender, Southern or Western US residence, an adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥ 4, hematologic malignancy, multitumor sites, and recent cytotoxic therapy were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Patients who received recent immunotherapies or targeted therapies did not have higher risk of overall mortality. CONCLUSION: Using N3C, we assembled the largest nationally representative cohort of patients with cancer and COVID-19 to date. We identified demographic and clinical factors associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with cancer. Full characterization of the cohort will provide further insights into the effects of COVID-19 on cancer outcomes and the ability to continue specific cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Neoplasms/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
17.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211035037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oncotype Dx (ODx) is a genomic assay which estimates the risk of distant recurrence and predicts adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in early stage breast cancer patients. Most ODx data is derived from excisional specimens. AIM: We assess the utility of ODx on core needle biopsies (CNB) and measure its impact on neoadjuvant treatment decisions, particularly in patients with clinically complicated situations. METHODS: Consecutive ODx results on breast CNBs with invasive carcinoma from 2012-2020 at 3 tertiary care hospitals with dedicated Breast Health Centers were reviewed. Clinical indications to perform ODx on CNB were recorded through a review of patients' electronic medical records. Clinicopathologic features, surgical or oncologic modalities and follow-up data were recorded. RESULTS: Three distinct clinical indications for performing ODx on CNB in 85 ER+ invasive breast carcinomas were identified: 1) Excisions with insufficient tissue to perform ODx, 2) adjudicate neoadjuvant therapy versus primary surgical resection, and 3) select neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) versus neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET). Primary surgery was selected in patients with low score RS (<18), and NET was preferred in patients with intermediate or high RS (>18). NET was preferred over NAC in patients with low RS (<18). CONCLUSION: This study shows that CNB ODx RS helps guide treatment decisions in a neoadjuvant setting along with other contributing factors such as the presence of pathogenic mutations, node positivity, patient age, and comorbidities. The use of ODx on CNB is furthermore valuable in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic for early breast cancer patients to administer effective therapy in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms, Male/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/diagnosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms, Male/pathology , Carcinoma , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Electronic Health Records , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Genomics , Hormones/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21002, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483148

ABSTRACT

COVID19 infection was associated with possible psychiatric manifestations, including psychosis and mania. In addition, psychiatric disorders might be triggered by severe psychological reactions to the pandemic or the measures taken to contain it. This study aimed to assess the trends of new-onset psychosis/mania during the pandemic timeline. Psychiatric emergency department records during January-July 2019 and 2020 of two regional mental health centers were manually examined. Cases of new-onset psychosis or mania were found in 326 out of 5161 records examined. The ratio of these cases increased by 45.5% in 2020 compared to 2019 (189 out of 2367, 137 out of 2479, respectively, p = 0.001). The peak increase was in April 2020 (9.4% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.015). There was no association between the rise of new-onset psychotic or manic episodes and national incidence of COVID19 cases, as observed during Israel 2nd wave. PCR tests were negative, except a single case. In this study, an increase in new-onset psychosis/mania was identified during the initial phase of the pandemic. Though causality could not be directly inferred, lack of infection symptoms, negative PCR testing and temporal distribution incongruent with COVID19 caseload did not support a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2. Alternative explanations are discussed, such as psychological reaction to stress and preventive measures, as well as case-shifting between different mental health settings.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Electronic Health Records , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Hospitals, Psychiatric/trends , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258689, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data to better understand and manage the COVID-19 pandemic is urgently needed. However, there are gaps in information stored within even the best routinely-collected electronic health records (EHR) including test results, remote consultations for suspected COVID-19, shielding, physical activity, mental health, and undiagnosed or untested COVID-19 patients. Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute (OPRI) Singapore and Optimum Patient Care (OPC) UK established Platform C19, a research database combining EHR data and bespoke patient questionnaire. We describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, patient behavior, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic using data within Platform C19. METHODS: EHR data from Platform C19 were extracted from 14 practices across UK participating in the OPC COVID-19 Quality Improvement program on a continuous, monthly basis. Starting 7th August 2020, consenting patients aged 18-85 years were invited in waves to fill an online questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were summarized using all data available up to 22nd January 2021. FINDINGS: From 129,978 invitees, 31,033 responded. Respondents were predominantly female (59.6%), white (93.5%), and current or ex-smokers (52.6%). Testing for COVID-19 was received by 23.8% of respondents, of which 7.9% received positive results. COVID-19 symptoms lasted ≥4 weeks in 19.5% of COVID-19 positive respondents. Up to 39% respondents reported a negative impact on questions regarding their mental health. Most (67%-76%) respondents with asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), diabetes, heart, or kidney disease reported no change in the condition of their diseases. INTERPRETATION: Platform C19 will enable research on key questions relating to COVID-19 pandemic not possible using EHR data alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Electronic Health Records , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1974-1982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475880
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