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1.
Indian Heart J ; 74(2): 131-134, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664977

ABSTRACT

Thrombo-embolic complications after Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination have been previously reported. We aimed to study the coronary thrombo-embolic complications (CTE) after COVID-19 vaccination in a single centre during the initial 3 months of vaccination drive in India. All patients admitted to our hospital between 1st March 2021 and 31st May 2021 with Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Of the 89 patients [Age 55 (47-64)y, 13f] with ACS and angiographic evidence of coronary thrombus, 37 (42%) had prior vaccination history. The timing from last vaccination dose to index event was <1, 1-2, 2-4 and >4 weeks in 9(24%), 4(11%), 15(41%) and 9 (24%) respectively. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 (Covishield) was the most used vaccine- 28 (76%), while 9 (24%) had BBV152 (Covaxin). Baseline characteristics were similar in both vaccinated (VG) and non-vaccinated group (NVG), except for symptom to door time [8.5 (5.75-14) vs 14.5 (7.25-24) hrs, p = 0.003]. Thrombocytopenia was not noted in any of the VG patients, while 2 (3.8%) of NVG patient had thrombocytopenia (p = 0.51). The pre- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow was significantly lower [1 (0-3) vs2 (1-3), p = 0.03) and thrombus grade were significantly higher [4 (2.5-5) vs 2 (1-3), p = 0.0005] in VG. The in-hospital (2.7% vs 1.9%, p = 1.0) and 30-day mortality were also similar (5.4% vs 5.8%, p = 1.0). This is the first report of CTE after COVID-19 vaccination during the first 3 months of vaccination drive in India. We need further reports to identify the incidence of this rare but serious adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Embolism , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Embolism/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 278-283, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628922

ABSTRACT

A case of multiple arterial thrombosis/embolisms in a 74-year-old Caucasian man with no other cardiovascular risk factors who received Ad26.COV2-S vaccine 16 days before is reported. The unusual presentation required a longer diagnostic workup. The clinical manifestations and the therapy-specific response suggest an unusual presentation of Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Embolism , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male
4.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2021(1): 76-84, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566496

ABSTRACT

Arterial thrombotic events in younger patients without a readily apparent etiology present significant diagnostic and management challenges. We present a structured approach to diagnosis with consideration of common causes, including atherosclerosis and embolism, as well as uncommon causes, including medications and substances, vascular and anatomic abnormalities, systemic disorders, and thrombophilias. We highlight areas of management that have evolved within the past 5 years, including the use of dual-pathway inhibition in atherosclerotic disease, antithrombotic therapy selection in embolic stroke of undetermined source and left ventricular thrombus, the role of closure of patent foramen ovale for secondary stroke prevention, and the thrombotic potential of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and vaccination. We conclude with a representative case to illustrate the application of the diagnostic framework and discuss the importance of consideration of bleeding risk and patient preference in determining the appropriate management plan.


Subject(s)
Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/therapy , Adult , Atherosclerosis/complications , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Embolism/complications , Embolism/diagnosis , Embolism/therapy , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/therapy , Humans , Secondary Prevention , Stroke/prevention & control , Thrombosis/etiology
5.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458477

ABSTRACT

The enlightenment of the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a part of the innate immune system shed new insights into the pathologies of various diseases. The initial idea that NETs are a pivotal defense structure was gradually amended due to several deleterious effects in consecutive investigations. NETs formation is now considered a double-edged sword. The harmful effects are not limited to the induction of inflammation by NETs remnants but also include occlusions caused by aggregated NETs (aggNETs). The latter carries the risk of occluding tubular structures like vessels or ducts and appear to be associated with the pathologies of various diseases. In addition to life-threatening vascular clogging, other occlusions include painful stone formation in the biliary system, the kidneys, the prostate, and the appendix. AggNETs are also prone to occlude the ductal system of exocrine glands, as seen in ocular glands, salivary glands, and others. Last, but not least, they also clog the pancreatic ducts in a murine model of neutrophilia. In this regard, elucidating the mechanism of NETs-dependent occlusions is of crucial importance for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to address the putative mechanisms of NETs-associated occlusions in the pathogenesis of disease, as well as prospective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
Embolism/immunology , Extracellular Traps/physiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Animals , Body Fluids/immunology , Body Fluids/physiology , Embolism/physiopathology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Prospective Studies , Thrombosis/physiopathology
6.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(6): 855-861, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest blood biomarkers could inform stroke etiology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of multiple blood biomarkers in elucidating stroke etiology with a focus on new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardioembolism. METHODS: Between January and December 2017, information on clinical and laboratory parameters and stroke characteristics was prospectively collected from ischemic stroke patients recruited from the National University Hospital, Singapore. Multiple blood biomarkers (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], d-dimer, S100ß, neuron-specific enolase, vitamin D, cortisol, interleukin-6, insulin, uric acid, and albumin) were measured in plasma. These variables were compared with stroke etiology and the risk of new-onset AF and cardioembolism using multivariable regression methods. RESULTS: Of the 515 ischemic stroke patients (mean age 61 years; 71% men), 44 (8.5%) were diagnosed with new-onset AF, and 75 (14.5%) had cardioembolism. The combination of 2 laboratory parameters (total cholesterol ≤169 mg/dL; triglycerides ≤44.5 mg/dL) and 3 biomarkers (NT-proBNP ≥294 pg/mL; S100ß ≥64 pg/mL; cortisol ≥471 nmol/l) identified patients with new-onset AF (negative predictive value [NPV] 90%; positive predictive value [PPV] 73%; area under curve [AUC] 85%). The combination of 2 laboratory parameters (total cholesterol ≤169 mg/dL; triglycerides ≤44.5 mg/dL) and 2 biomarkers (NT-proBNP ≥507 pg/mL; S100ß ≥65 pg/mL) identified those with cardioembolism (NPV 86%; PPV 78%; AUC 87%). Adding clinical predictors did not improve the performance of these models. CONCLUSION: Blood biomarkers could identify patients with increased likelihood of cardioembolism and direct the search for occult AF.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Embolism/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/blood , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Embolism/blood , Embolism/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
10.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 61(4): 635, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013830
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105731, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the potential usefulness of delayed-phase, low-dose, non-gated, chest spectral CT scans (DSCT) for the early triage of cardioembolic (CE) sources in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and for the simultaneous detection of myocardial disease and thrombotic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since July 2020 and promoted by the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented the use of DSCT after cerebrovascular CT angiography (CTA) among patients with AIS using a dual-layer spectral CT. We explored the presence of CE sources, as well as late myocardium iodine enhancement (LIE) and pulmonary thromboembolism. Among patients further undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) or cardiac CTA, we explored the diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Fifty consecutive patients with AIS who underwent DSCT after cerebrovascular CTA comprised the patient population. The confidence degree for excluding cardiac thrombi was significantly higher than for LIE (4.4±0.8 vs. 3.4±1.3, p<0.0001). DSCT identified a CE source in 4 (8%) and LIE in 24 (48%) patients. The iodine ratio of CE sources was significantly lower compared to the left atrial appendage of patients with no CE sources (0.25±0.1 mg/mL vs. 0.91±0.2 mg/mL, p<0.0001). TEE/cardiac CT, performed in 20 (40%) patients, identified a CE source in 5 (25%) cases, whereas DSCT identified 4 (20%), leading to a sensitivity and specificity of 80% (95% CI 28-99%) and 100% (95% CI 78-100%) respectively (kappa 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we identified DSCT as a potential unsophisticated approach for the early triage of CE sources among patients with AIS undergoing CTA upon admission.


Subject(s)
Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Embolism/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thorax
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24544, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082613

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To clarify the effect of aspirin on mortality and viral duration in adults infected with respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2).After propensity score-matched (PSM) case-control analyses 24 pairs of patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 months. Both 30-day and 60-day mortality in the aspirin group were significantly lower than that in the non-aspirin group (P = .021 and P = .030, respectively). The viral duration time between the 2 groups was not significantly different (P = .942).Among adults (with hypertension, cardiovascular diseases) infected with SARS-Cov-2, low-dose aspirin medication (100 mg/day) was associated with lower risk of mortality compared with non-aspirin users.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Embolism/prevention & control , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Embolism/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 43-47, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965899

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 [SARS-CoV-2]), also known as COVID-19, is a single-stranded enveloped RNA virus that created a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020, with a global case burden of over 15 million in just 7 months. Infected patients develop a wide range of clinical manifestations-typically presenting with fever, cough, myalgia, and fatigue. Severely ill patients may fall victim to acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute heart injuries, neurological manifestations, or complications due to secondary infections. These critically ill patients are also found to have disrupted coagulation function, predisposing them to consumptive coagulopathies, and both venous and thromboembolic complications. Common laboratory findings include thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, fibrin degradation products, and fibrinogen, all of which have been associated with greater disease severity. Many cases of pulmonary embolism have been noted, along with deep vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and systemic arterial embolism. The pathogenesis of coronavirus has not been completely elucidated, but the virus is known to cause excessive inflammation, endothelial injury, hypoxia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all of which contribute to thrombosis formation. These patients are also faced with prolonged immobilization while staying in the hospital or intensive care unit. It is important to have a high degree of suspicion for thrombotic complications as patients may rapidly deteriorate in severe cases. Evidence suggests that prophylaxis with anticoagulation may lead to a lower risk of mortality, although it does not eliminate the possibility. The risks and benefits of anticoagulation treatment should be considered in each case. Patients should be regularly evaluated for bleeding risks and thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , COVID-19/blood , Embolism/blood , Thrombosis/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Embolism/etiology , Embolism/metabolism , Embolism/prevention & control , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Immobilization , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239443, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781671

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the setting of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a potential association of this disease with stroke has been suggested. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients who were admitted with COVID-19 and had an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: This is a case series of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients with ischemic stroke admitted to an academic health system in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia (USA) between March 24th, 2020 and July 17th, 2020. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics were described. RESULTS: Of 396 ischemic stroke patients admitted during this study period, 13 (2.5%) were also diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean age of patients was 61.6 ± 10.8 years, 10 (76.9%) male, 8 (61.5%) were Black Americans, mean time from last normal was 4.97 ± 5.1 days, and only one received acute reperfusion therapy. All 13 patients had at least one stroke-associated co-morbidity. The predominant pattern of ischemic stroke was embolic with 4 explained by atrial fibrillation. COVID-19 patients had a significantly higher rate of cryptogenic stroke than non-COVID-19 patients during the study period (69% vs 17%, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In our case series, ischemic stroke affected COVID-19 patients with traditional stroke risk factors at an age typically seen in non-COVID populations, and mainly affecting males and Black Americans. We observed a predominantly embolic pattern of stroke with a higher than expected rate of cryptogenic strokes, a prolonged median time to presentation and symptom recognition limiting the use of acute reperfusion treatments. These results highlight the need for increased community awareness, early identification, and management of AIS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , African Americans , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Brain Ischemia/ethnology , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Disease Management , Early Diagnosis , Embolism/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/ethnology , Stroke/virology
16.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(15): 1044-1050, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691147

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-COV-2 leads to a number of pathologies in the hematopoetic system that have significant impact on clinical symptoms and mortality. There are 3 stages of infection: (1) early upper respiratory tract infection with fever and lymphopenia (2) pulmonary phase and (3) hyperinflammatory phase with the clinical signs of organ failure such as ARDS/shock. Hyperinflammation, which is triggered by activation of T cells and monocytes/macrophages, is essential for organ pathologies. Interferon IFN-É£, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play important roles as mediators of inflammation. In analogy to the cytokine release syndrome (CRS) after CAR-T cell therapy, the therapeutic activity of the IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab is investigated in clinical studies.The coagulation system is activated during the inflammatory phase of COVID infection, most likely on the pathophysiological basis of immune thrombosis. Clinically, there is a significantly increased incidence of venous (especially pulmonary artery embolism), but also arterial thromboembolism (TE). In laboratory chemistry, the D-dimer, fibrinogen but also vWF and FVIII are significantly increased. Guidelines for the prophylaxis and therapy of COVID-associated coagulopathy have been developed. Analogous to other viral infections, there are approaches to passive immunization using convalescent plasma. Its administration has shown promising activity in first uncontrolled case series and is currently being examined in clinical studies worldwide for its therapeutic activity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hematologic Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Embolism/prevention & control , Embolism/therapy , Embolism/virology , Hematologic Diseases/prevention & control , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Hematologic Diseases/virology , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Thromb Res ; 191: 148-150, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154635

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We recently reported a high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of three Dutch hospitals. In answering questions raised regarding our study, we updated our database and repeated all analyses. METHODS: We re-evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and/or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital from ICU admission to death, ICU discharge or April 22nd 2020, whichever came first. RESULTS: We studied the same 184 ICU patients as reported on previously, of whom a total of 41 died (22%) and 78 were discharged alive (43%). The median follow-up duration increased from 7 to 14 days. All patients received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of the composite outcome, adjusted for competing risk of death, was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41-57%). The majority of thrombotic events were PE (65/75; 87%). In the competing risk model, chronic anticoagulation therapy at admission was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.29, 95%CI 0.091-0.92). Patients diagnosed with thrombotic complications were at higher risk of all-cause death (HR 5.4; 95%CI 2.4-12). Use of therapeutic anticoagulation was not associated with all-cause death (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.35-1.8). CONCLUSION: In this updated analysis, we confirm the very high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thrombophilia/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Embolism/epidemiology , Embolism/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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