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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4068, 2022 11.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241858
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 44(5): 689-693, 2023 May 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234043

ABSTRACT

A crucial lesson gained through the pandemic preparedness and response to COVID-19 is that all measures for epidemic control must be law-based. The legal system is related not only to public health emergency management per se but also to all aspects of the institutional supporting system throughout the lifecycle. Based on the lifecycle emergency management model, this article analyses the problems of the current legal system and the potential solutions. It is suggested that the lifecycle emergency management model shall be followed to establish a more comprehensive public health legal system and to gather the intelligence and consensus of experts with different expertise, including epidemiologists, sociologists, economists, jurist and others, which will collaboratively promote the science-based legislation in the field of epidemic preparedness and response for the establishment of a comprehensive legal system for public health emergency management and with Chinese characteristics.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Public Health , Humans , China , Pandemics/prevention & control , Emergencies
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 21(2): 165-171, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232804

ABSTRACT

This study examined the results of an electronic survey of residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) in California in 2021 to provide insight on key elements of emergency plans and facility preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic and future emergencies. Surveys were distributed to RCFE administrators using publicly available emails found on the California Health and Human Services Open Data Portal. Responses from 150 facility administrators included data on their perception of current and future facility preparedness for COVID-19 and other emergency scenarios, items included in facility evacuation/shelter-in-place plans, and hazard vulnerability analyses and training practices of facility staff. Descriptive analyses were performed on collected data. The majority of results were from small facilities serving less than seven residents (70.7 percent). Prior to COVID-19, more than 90 percent of respondents included disaster drills, evacuation plans, and emergency transportation in their emergency preparedness plan. The majority of facilities added pandemic planning, vaccine distribution, and quarantine guidelines elements into their plans during COVID-19. Approximately half of facilities reported conducting proactive hazard vulnerability analyses. Around 75 percent of RCFEs felt well prepared for fires and infectious disease outbreaks, had mixed preparedness levels for earthquakes and floods, and felt least prepared for landslides and active shooter emergencies. During the pandemic, perceptions of preparedness rose, with 92 percent stating they felt very prepared currently and almost 70 percent felt very prepared for future pandemics. Preparedness of these essential facilities and their residents can continue to improve by conducting regular proactive hazard vulnerability analyses, improving communication lines and mutual aid agreements with local and state organizations, and preparing for critical emergencies such as landslides and active shooter scenarios. This can help to ensure adequate resources and investments are provided to care for older adults during emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Disaster Planning , Humans , Aged , Emergencies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , California
6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e407, 2023 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the role of public health emergency operations centers in recent public health emergencies and to identify the barriers and enablers influencing the effective use of a public health emergency operations center (PHEOC) in public health emergency management. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in 5 databases and selected grey literature websites. RESULTS: Forty-two articles, consisting of 28 peer-reviewed studies and 14 grey literature sources matched the inclusion criteria. Results suggest that PHEOCs are used to prepare and respond to a range of public health emergencies, including coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Factors found to influence the use of a PHEOC include the adoption of an incident management system, internal and external communications, data management, workforce capacity, and physical infrastructure. CONCLUSIONS: PHEOCs play an important role in public health emergency management. This review identified several barriers and enablers to using a PHEOC in public health emergency management. Future research should focus on addressing the barriers to using a PHEOC and looking at ways to evaluate the impact of using a PHEOC on public health emergency outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Emergencies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Administration/methods , Workforce
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 364, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of emergencies and the requirement for emergency treatment after the suspension of orthodontic appointments. The attitude towards orthodontic treatment preference was evaluated as well, including receiving orthodontic treatment and the preference for orthodontic appliances. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to the patients, including 4 sections: Section 1 - demographic and basic information; Section 2 - the characteristics of emergencies and emergency treatment requirements; Section 3 - the NRS-11 for pain and Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale used to evaluate the intensity of orofacial pain and disability; and Section 4 - attitudes towards receiving orthodontic treatment and appliance preference. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's rank-sum test and stepwise generalized linear model (GLM) were performed with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULT: Most participants' (91.61%) follow-up appointments were suspended. The emergency rate and emergency treatment requirements were not different between the fixed appliance (FA) and clear aligner (CA) groups. Patients who reported emergencies (P < 0.01) in the FA group (P < 0.05) and some emergencies in the FA (P < 0.05) suffered worse pain and disability. More FA participants preferred alternative appliances (P < 0.05) due to pain and disability (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: FA patients' emergencies caused worse pain and disability when orthodontic appointments were suspended. Pain and disability were not the causes of emergency treatment requirements. The CA group seemed to show a tendency towards orthodontic appliance preference, which was an ideal modality to weather the epidemic, combined with telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Emergencies , Orthodontic Appliances , Facial Pain/etiology , Facial Pain/therapy
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(33): 81019-81037, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238648

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 has swept across the world, the escalating number of confirmed and suspected cases overwhelmed the admission capacity of the designated hospitals. Faced with such a grim situation, governments made a quick decision to build emergency medical facilities to address the outbreak. However, the emergency medical facilities faced a huge risk of epidemic spread and improper site could lead to serious secondary transmission. Using the disaster prevention and risk avoidance function of urban green space can solve the problem of selecting the location of emergency medical facilities to a certain extent, with country parks having a high degree of compatibility with the latter. Based on the location requirements of emergency medical facilities, using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Delphi method, through analyzing the type of country parks, effective risk avoidance area, spatial fragmentation, distance from water sources, wind direction, and distance from the city, quantification of 8 impact factors such as hydrogeology and traffic duration was conducted to comprehensively compare 30 country parks in Guangzhou. The results showed that the overall quality of country parks approximated a normal distribution, with Lianma Forest Country Park having the highest comprehensive score and the most balanced distribution of scores for various impact factors. Considering safety, expandability, rehabilitation, convenience, pollution prevention, and fecal isolation, it is a preferred destination for emergency medical facility construction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Parks, Recreational , Emergencies , Cities , China , Public Facilities
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 567, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237992

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The availability of low-cost computing and digital telecommunication in the 1980s made telehealth practicable. Telehealth has the capacity to improve healthcare access and outcomes for patients while reducing healthcare costs across a wide range of health conditions and situations. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the adoption, advantages, and challenges of telehealth services between high-income (HICs) and low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The key search terms were: "Telehealth", "Telehealth in HICs", "Telehealth in LMICs", "Telehealth before COVID-19", "Telehealth during COVID-19". We searched exhaustively ProQuest, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases from 2012. Booleans OR/AND were combined with key search terms to increase relevant search results. The literature search and selection process followed the Sample, Phenomena of Interest, Design, Evaluation, and Research (SPIDER) question format. RESULTS: The adoption of telehealth before COVID-19 was generally low in both HICs and LMICs. The impact of COVID-19 accelerated the adoption of telehealth at the facility level but not nationwide in both high-income countries and LMICs. The rapid adoption of telehealth at the facility level in both high-income and LMICs introduced several challenges that are unique to each country and need to be addressed. CONCLUSION: The lack of national policies and regulations is making the adoption of telehealth at the national level challenging in both high and low-middle-income countries. Governments and Stakeholders of healthcare must consider telehealth as a healthcare procedure that should be deployed in clinical working procedures. Primary quantitative and qualitative studies must be conducted to address challenges encountered during the pilot implementation of telehealth services in both high-income countries and LMICs before and during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Emergencies , Developing Countries , Health Services Accessibility
11.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1104669, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236694

ABSTRACT

This article is part of the Research Topic 'Health Systems Recovery in the Context of COVID-19 and Protracted Conflict'. As the world faces global health crises such as pandemics, epidemics, climate change and evolving disease burdens and population demographics, building strong and resilient public health systems is of critical importance. The need for an integrated approach to building health system resilience; the widening of inequalities; and fears of vulnerable populations being left behind are critical issues that require Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) enquiry as independent public oversight bodies. Each country has a Supreme Audit Institution with a remit to audit public funds as an effective, accountable, and inclusive institution. Government audits are key components of effective public financial management and Good Governance. SAIs contribute to the quality of government engagement and better state-society relations through their work. As SAIs provide independent external oversight and contribute to follow up and review of national targets linked to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their respective countries, they can play an important role in national recovery efforts. WHO and INTOSAI Development Initiative (IDI) have been collaborating in facilitating SAIs' audits of strong and resilient national public health systems linked to the national target of SDG 3.d in 40 countries across Africa, Americas, Asia and Oceania between 2021 and 2022. This paper aims to convey key lessons learned from the joint multisectoral collaboration for facilitating the 3.d audits that can contribute to building health systems resilience in ongoing recovery efforts. The collaboration included facilitation of the audits through professional education and audit support using a health systems resilience framework. The 3.d audits are performance audits and follow IDI's SDG Audit Model (ISAM). Following the ISAM implies that the SAI should focus on a whole-of-government approach, policy coherence and integration, and assess both government efforts at 'leaving no one behind' and multi-stakeholder engagement in implementing the chosen national SDG target linked to 3.d. WHO's Health Systems Resilience team has supported IDI and SAIs by delivering training sessions and reviewing working papers and draft reports of the SAIs from a health systems resilience perspective. IDI has provided the technical expertise on performance audits through its technical team and through in-kind contributions from mentors from many SAIs in the regions participating in the audit. In the 3.d audit, SAIs can ask how governments are acting to enhance capacity in some or all of the following, depending on their own national context and risk: forecasting, preventing and preparing for public health emergencies (PHEs) and threatsadapting, absorbing and responding to PHEs and threatsmaintaining essential health services in all contexts (including during emergencies/crises). The audits are expected to highlight current capacities of health systems resilience; the extent to which a whole-of-government approach and policy coherence have been utilised; and government efforts related to multistakeholder engagement and leaving no one behind in building health systems resilience related to progressing towards achieving the national target linked to 3.d by 2030. An overall positive achievement noted was that undertaking a complex health audit in the middle of a pandemic is possible and can contribute to building health systems resilience and recovery efforts. In their review of audit plans, draft summaries, and other work by the SAIs, both WHO and IDI have observed that SAIs have used the training and supplementary materials and applied various parts of it in their audits. This collaboration also demonstrates key considerations needed for successful partnership across multisectoral partners at global, regional and national levels. Such considerations can be applied in different contexts, including socioeconomic and health system recovery, to ensure whole-of-society and whole-of-government action in building health systems resilience and monitoring and evaluation to maintain and accelerate progress towards the national target linked to SDG3.d, health security and universal health coverage (UHC), as well as broader socioeconomic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies , World Health Organization , Global Health
12.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 48S-55S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235754

ABSTRACT

Public health emergencies impact the well-being of people and communities. Long-term emotional distress is a pervasive and serious consequence of high levels of crisis exposure and low levels of access to mental health care. At highest risk for mental health trauma are historically medically underserved and socially marginalized populations and frontline health care workers (HCWs). Current public health emergency response efforts provide insufficient mental health services for these groups. The ongoing mental health crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic has implications for the resource-strained health care workforce. Public health has an important role in delivering psychosocial care and physical support in tandem with communities. Assessment of US and international public health strategies deployed during past public health emergencies can guide development of population-specific mental health care. The objectives of this topical review were (1) to examine scholarly and other literature on the mental health needs of HCWs and selected US and international policies to address them during the first 2 years of the pandemic and (2) to propose strategies for future responses. We reviewed 316 publications in 10 topic areas. Two-hundred fifty publications were excluded, leaving 66 for this topical review. Findings from our review indicate a need for flexible, tailored mental health outreach for HCWs after disasters. US and global research emphasizes the dearth of institutional mental health support for HCWs and of mental health providers who specialize in helping the health care workforce. Future public health disaster responses must address the mental health needs of HCWs to prevent lasting trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Health Workforce , Pandemics , Mental Health , Emergencies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9571, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245143

ABSTRACT

Ensuring the rational and orderly circulation of medical supplies during a public health emergency is crucial to quickly containing the further spread of the epidemic and restoring the order of rescue and treatment. However, due to the shortage of medical supplies, there are challenges to rationalizing the allocation of critical medical supplies among multiple parties with conflicting interests. In this paper, a tripartite evolutionary game model is constructed to study the allocation of medical supplies in the rescue environment of public health emergencies under conditions of incomplete information. The game's players include Government-owned Nonprofit Organizations (GNPOs), hospitals, and the government. By analyzing the equilibrium of the tripartite evolutionary game, this paper makes an in-depth study on the optimal allocation strategy of medical supplies. The findings indicate that: (1) the hospital should reasonably increase its willingness to accept the allocation plan of medical supplies, which can help medical supplies allocate more scientifically. (2) The government should design a reasonable reward and punishment mechanism to ensure the rational and orderly circulation of medical supplies, which can reduce the interference of GNPOs and hospitals in the allocation process of medical supplies. (3) Higher authorities should strengthen the supervision of the government and the accountability for loose supervision. The findings of this research can guide the government in promoting better circulation of medical supplies during public health emergencies by formulating more reasonable allocation schemes of emergency medical supplies, as well as incentives and penalties. At the same time, for GNPOs with limited emergency medical supplies, the equal allocation of emergency supplies is not the optimal solution to improve the efficiency of emergency relief, and it is simpler to achieve the goal of maximizing social benefits by allocating limited emergency resources to the demand points that match the degree of urgency. For example, in Corona Virus Disease 2019, emergency medical supplies should be prioritized for allocation to government-designated fever hospitals that are have a greater need for medical supplies and greater treatment capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Emergencies , Public Health , Biological Evolution , Hospitals, Public
14.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 31(1): 16, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of an unprecedented novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-C0V-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has created new scenarios in basic life support (BLS) management. According to current evidence, SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted airborne in aerosol particles during resuscitation. Research evidence found an alarming global increase in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests during the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare providers are legally obliged to respond to cardiac arrest as soon as possible. Chiropractors will likely encounter potential exercise-related and non-exercise-related cardiac emergencies at some point in their professional lives. They have a duty of care to respond to emergencies such as cardiac arrest. Chiropractors are increasingly involved in providing care, including emergency care, for athletes and spectators at sporting events. Also, exercise-related cardiac arrest in adult patients may occur during exercise testing or rehabilitation with exercise prescriptions in chiropractic and other healthcare settings. Little is known about the COVID-19 BLS guidelines for chiropractors. Knowledge of the current COVID-19-specific adult BLS guidelines is essential to developing an emergency response plan for the on-field and sideline management of exercise-related cardiac arrest and non-athletic, non-exercise-related cardiac arrest. MAIN TEXT: Seven peer-reviewed articles on the COVID-19-specific BLS guidelines, including two updates, were reviewed for this commentary. Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, the national and international resuscitation organizations recommended interim COVID-19-specific BLS guidelines with precaution, resuscitation, and education strategies. BLS safety is paramount. A precautionary approach with the bare minimum of appropriate personal protective equipment for resuscitation is recommended. There was disagreement among the COVID-19 BLS guidelines on the level of personal protective equipment. All healthcare professionals should also undergo self-directed BLS e-learning and virtual skill e-training. The summarized COVID-19-specific adult BLS guideline strategies and protocols are tabled, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This commentary provides a practical overview and highlights current evidence-based intervention strategies of the COVID-19-specific adult BLS guidelines that may help chiropractors and other healthcare providers reduce BLS-related exposures to SARS-CoV-2 and the risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and maximize the efficacy of resuscitation. This study is relevant to and impacts future COVID-19-related research in areas such as infection prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiropractic , Heart Arrest , Adult , Humans , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 3S-5S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242220
16.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 27(11): 1045-1051, 2021-11.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369362

ABSTRACT

Background:Research ethics committees (RECs) globally have adapted their responses to provide timely reviews of research proposals in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The REC of the National Bioethics Committee (NBC) of Pakistan has followed suit.Aims:To explore perceptions of NBC-REC reviewers who reviewed COVID-19 research proposals while describing the newly instituted Rapid Turnaround Review (RTR) system.Methods:This cross-sectional study used 3 methods of data collection: a demographic questionnaire filled in by permanent members and co-opted reviewers; qualitative in-depth interviews conducted with both groups; and document review related to COVID-19 research proposals.Results:Eight permanent members and 3 co-opted members participated. Under the RTR system, the time for review was established as 72 hours after receipt of the proposal. The Committee reviewed 55 projects over 10 months. Participants described numerous strengths of the new system, including introduction of online discussions via Zoom as well as presence of co-opted members leading to learning opportunities, particularly for junior members. The RTR system also allowed NBC-REC to gain recognition it had not enjoyed previously. Challenges identified by respondents included initial difficulty in initiating the system and tighter deadlines that may have compromised review quality. Poor scientific quality of proposals, compounded by external pressures to provide rapid approval, added to reviewers’ frustrations. While fruitful, the RTR system was considered unsustainable beyond a public health emergency.Conclusion:Adaptation of ethical review processes is essential in emergencies; however, existing guidelines have to be modified to suit contextual needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Research Design , Emergencies , Public Health , Bioethics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Demography
17.
Public Health ; 214: 50-60, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Public health emergencies (PHE) can disrupt personal medication practices and increase the risk of medication-related harm and other negative medication-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the extent and nature of published research on this topic to guide future research and practice. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: Standard electronic databases were searched. PRISMA-ScR guidelines were followed. Extracted data were organised in response to review questions and narrative accounts developed. RESULTS: A total of 129 studies were included, conducted across 32 countries, mostly in the USA (n = 42). Sixty-eight (53%) reported on infectious events, 49 (39%) climatological or ecological events and the remainder a mixture of terrorism, war or other disasters. The studies described several medication safety outcomes (medication-related harm, adherence, supply) and adaptive medication practices (self-altering prescribed medications, sharing medications and changing healthcare providers). Challenges to maintaining routine medication practices during a PHE included transport, finance, quarantine and knowledge-related issues. Twenty-eight studies (22%) examined health inequalities pertaining to adverse medication-related outcomes, with findings suggesting that gender, age, ethnicity, educational and socio-economic status may be related to inequalities. Research gaps identified included carers', children's and minority communities' experiences and intervention studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable evidence of disruptions to routine personal medication practices during PHEs and of medication-related harm and other negative outcomes. Maintaining medication supply for the management of chronic conditions is a universal problem across all emergency types. Research is needed to address these disruptions, particularly amongst people who experience health inequalities who may need additional support.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Public Health , Child , Humans , Chronic Disease , Medication Adherence
18.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2023. (WHO/EURO:2023-7636-47403-69639).
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369074
19.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2023. (WHO/EURO:2023-7651-47418-69673).
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369067

ABSTRACT

This report provides an overview of the operations and activities of the WHO Country Office in Ukraine during 2022. Despite the acute health impacts of the war in Ukraine, WHO’s Country Office continued its work according to its core mandate. WHO supported the Government of Ukraine to manage the health emergency according to the WHO Strategic Response Plan and pursued existing priorities set out in WHO’s Thirteenth General Programme of Work 2019–2023, the European Programme of Work 2020–2025 and the Biennial Collaborative Agreement 2022–2023 signed with the Government of Ukraine. This included containing the COVID-19 pandemic and continuing to support the health reform process that had been ongoing since 2015. The report presents the achievements of the WHO Country Office in Ukraine during 2022, in the context of the impacts of the war on the lives, health and well-being of Ukrainians.


Subject(s)
Ukraine , Europe , Health Equity , Emergencies , Health Care Reform , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19
20.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2023. (WHO/EURO:2023-7637-47404-69640).
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369063

ABSTRACT

The lifting of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status by WHO on 5 May 2023, signaled the start of a new phase of the global pandemic’s response and recovery – during which the WHO Regional Office for Europe will shift towards a longer-term programmatic approach to COVID-19. While the first steps towards recovery from the pandemic have been reported in the European Region multiple challenges remain. This regional transition plan outlines a comprehensive roadmap for transitioning from the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic towards a sustained response and recovery in order to strategically and sustainably invest in resilient health systems able to respond to emergencies and maintain essential services at all times. It is the moment to invest and sustain the gains made during the pandemic response and apply the lessons learned of this pandemic and other recent health emergencies, to increase the resilience of our health systems against future epidemics, pandemics and other shocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Emergencies , Europe , Emergency Medical Services
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