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1.
J Nurses Prof Dev ; 37(6): 344-346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599258

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of a global coronavirus pandemic, traditional timelines and methods for staff education were met with significant challenges. Nurse educators, in collaboration with subject matter experts and leadership, needed to overcome obstacles and utilized a variety of resources to quickly create training tailored to nurses' experience and possible new roles during the pandemic, which led the hospital to be prepared for an unprecedented number of inpatient admissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Malar J ; 21(1): 10, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of data in targeting malaria control efforts is essential for optimal use of resources. This work provides a practical mechanism for prioritizing geographic areas for insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution campaigns in settings with limited resources. METHODS: A GIS-based weighted approach was adopted to categorize and rank administrative units based on data that can be applied in various country contexts where Plasmodium falciparum transmission is reported. Malaria intervention and risk factors were used to rank local government areas (LGAs) in Nigeria for prioritization during mass ITN distribution campaigns. Each factor was assigned a unique weight that was obtained through application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight was then multiplied by a value based on natural groupings inherent in the data, or the presence or absence of a given intervention. Risk scores for each factor were then summated to generate a composite unique risk score for each LGA. This risk score was translated into a prioritization map which ranks each LGA from low to high priority in terms of timing of ITN distributions. RESULTS: A case study using data from Nigeria showed that a major component that influenced the prioritization scheme was ITN access. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that changes to the methodology used to quantify ITN access did not modify outputs substantially. Some 120 LGAs were categorized as 'extremely high' or 'high' priority when a spatially interpolated ITN access layer was used. When prioritization scores were calculated using DHS-reported state level ITN access, 108 (90.0%) of the 120 LGAs were also categorized as being extremely high or high priority. The geospatial heterogeneity found among input risk factors suggests that a range of variables and covariates should be considered when using data to inform ITN distributions. CONCLUSION: The authors provide a tool for prioritizing regions in terms of timing of ITN distributions. It serves as a base upon which a wider range of vector control interventions could be targeted. Its value added can be found in its potential for application in multiple country contexts, expediated timeframe for producing outputs, and its use of systematically collected malaria indicators in informing prioritization.


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Control/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Spatial Analysis , Child, Preschool , Emergencies , Humans , Infant , Nigeria
4.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 15(2): 148-163, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Face COVID-19 pandemic, a need for accurate information on SARS-CoV-2 virus is urgent and scientific reports have been published on a daily basis to enable effective technologies to fight the disease progression. However, at the initial occurrence of Pandemic, no information on the matter was known and technologies to fight the Pandemic were not readily available. However, searches in patent databases, if strategically designed, can offer quick responses to new pandemics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is aiming to provide existing information in patent documents useful for the developmentof technologies addressing COVID-19. Considering the emergency situation the world was facing and the knowledge of COVID-19 available until April, 2020, this work presents an analysis of the main characteristics of the technological information in patent documents worldwide, related to coronaviruses and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Regions of concentration of such technologies, the number of available documents and their technological fields are disclosed in three approaches: 1) a wide search, retrieving technologies on SARS or coronaviruses; 2) a targeted search, retrieving documents additionally referring to Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2), which is used by SARS- CoV-2 to enter a cell and 3) a punctual search, which retrieved patents disclosing aspects related to SARS- CoV-2 available at that time. RESULTS: Results show the high-level technology involved in these developments and a monopoly tendency of such technologies, also evidencing that it is possible to find answers to new problems in patent documents. CONCLUSION: This work, then, aims to contribute to scientific and technological development by raising the awareness of what should be considered when searching for technologies developed for other matters that could provide solutions for a new problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disclosure/statistics & numerical data , Patents as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554820

ABSTRACT

In order to deepen the understanding of the impact of major public health emergencies on the oil market and to enhance the risk response capability, this study analyzed the logical relationship between major public health emergencies and international oil price changes, identified the change points, and calculated the probability of abrupt changes to international oil prices. Based on monthly data during six major public health emergencies from 2009 to 2020, this study built a product partition model. The results show that only the influenza A (H1N1) and COVID-19 pandemics were significant reasons for abrupt changes in international oil prices. Furthermore, the wild poliovirus epidemic, the Ebola epidemic, the Zika epidemic, and the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo had limited effects. Overall, the outbreak of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in major global economies has a more pronounced impact on international oil prices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Disease Outbreaks , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
6.
Soins Psychiatr ; 42(337): 35-41, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550083

ABSTRACT

In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, teleconsultation is an obvious solution in psychiatry to ensure continuity of care and facilitate access. However, the digitisation of ambulatory practices raises a certain number of reservations, in particular concerning the remote management of psychiatric emergencies. These situations, because of the specific aspects they cover, are in fact upsetting texts and recommendations of good practice in terms of teleconsultation. Thus, the questions of eligibility of people suffering from psychiatric disorders, the identification of an immediate self- or hetero-aggressive risk during teleconsultation and the establishment of a measure of psychiatric care without consent at the end of a teleconsultation require specific reflection in order to allow the practitioner to anticipate and manage the situation in the best possible way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 408, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538064

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate ophthalmological emergencies (OE) during the COVID-19 pandemic comparing them with the same period of the previous year. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all OE visits in four tertiary hospitals in Spain comparing data from March 16th to April 30th, 2020 (COVID-19 period) and the same period of 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period). Severity of the conditions was assessed following Channa et al. publication. Data on demographics, diagnosis and treatments were collected from Electronic Medical Records. RESULTS: During lockdown, OE significantly declined by 75.18%, from 7,730 registered in the pre-COVID-19 period to 1,928 attended during the COVID-19 period (p < 0.001). In 2019, 23.86% of visits were classified as emergent, 59.50% as non-emergent, and 16.65% could not be determined. In 2020, the percentage of emergent visits increased up to 29.77%, non-emergent visits significantly decreased to 52.92% (p < 0.001), and 17.31% of the visits were classified as "could not determine". During the pandemic, people aged between 45 and 65 years old represented the largest attending group (37.89%), compared to 2019, where patients over 65 years were the majority (39.80%). In 2019, most frequent diagnosis was unspecified acute conjunctivitis (11.59%), followed by vitreous degeneration (6.47%), and punctate keratitis (5.86%). During the COVID-19 period, vitreous degeneration was the first cause for consultation (9.28%), followed by unspecified acute conjunctivitis (5.63%) and punctate keratitis (5.85%). CONCLUSIONS: OE visits dropped significantly during the pandemic in Spain (75.18%), although more than half were classified as non-urgent conditions, indicating a lack of understanding of the really emergent ocular pathologies among population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1472-1473, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526998
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 681255, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518564

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 virus has devastated lives and economies worldwide. The responses of nursing teams to large-scale COVID-19 screening have rarely been addressed or described. The aim of this study is to introduce an efficient response strategy for nurses in large-scale COVID-19 screening. A new COVID-19 case was confirmed on Jan 14, 2021 in Nanning, China. Immediately, a large-scale COVID-19 screening was launched and ran from Jan 14 to Jan 17, 2021. Our nurse team responding to the screening included three major components: (1) establishing a leadership group and a nucleic acid sampling emergency team; (2) defining, conducting, and evaluating nurse training; (3) implementing efficient sampling schemes (10 in 1 mixed sample technique). A total of 500 nurse volunteers were recruited and divided into three echelons. A total of 353 trained nurses were sent to 65 sampling stand stations. In cooperation with nurses from other health institutions, samples were collected from a total of 854,215 people in only 4 days for 2019-nCOV nucleic acid screening. The preparation and efficient response strategies used to conduct this screening may provide a baseline reference for future large-scale COVID-19 screening worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Humans , Leadership , Nursing, Team , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Chest ; 159(6): 2503-2504, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517090
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512291

ABSTRACT

There is a need for trained health professionals who can swiftly respond to disasters occurring worldwide. Little is known about whether the currently available programmes in disaster management are in line with the recommendations of expert researchers. Our objective was to qualitatively review the characteristics of European educational programmes in health emergency and disaster management and to provide guidance to help improve their curricula. We carried out an integrative review to extract the main characteristics of the 2020/21 programmes available. We identified 34 programmes, the majority located in Spain, the UK or France. The primary qualification types awarded were master's degrees, half of them lasting one year, and the most common teaching method was in person. Almost all of the programmes used a virtual university classroom, a third offered multidisciplinary disaster management content and teachers, and half of them employed situational simulations. The quality of European educational programmes in health emergency and disaster management has improved, especially in terms of using more practical and interactive teaching methodologies and in the inclusion of relevant topics such as communication, psychological approaches and evaluation of the interventions. However, generally, the educational programmes in disaster management have not yet incorporated the skills related to the intercultural and interprofessional awareness aspects.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Curriculum , Educational Status , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Humans
13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 217, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the volume and the characteristics of pediatric eye emergency department (PEED) consultations performed at our tertiary eye center during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic and we compared them to those carried out in the same time interval of the previous three years. METHODS: Ophthalmic emergency examinations of patients aged ≤18 years old and done during the national COVID-19 lockdown (March 9th, 2020 - May 3rd, 2020) and in the corresponding date range of the previous three years (2017, 2018, and 2019) have been considered and reviewed. The following features were retrieved and analyzed: age, gender, duration and type of accused symptoms, traumatic etiology, and the discharge diagnosis. RESULTS: 136, 133, and 154 PEED visits have been performed respectively in 2017, 2018, and 2019, while 29 patients presented in 2020. Therefore, the volume of PEED activity decreased by 79.4% (p < 0.0001). Demographical and clinical characteristics were comparable to those of the pre-COVID period. Despite the absolute reduction in the number of traumas, urgent conditions increased significantly from 30.7 to 50.7% (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: PEED activity decreased consistently after the onset of the pandemic and it was mainly attended by those children whose conditions required prompt assistance, reducing the number of patients diagnosed with milder pathologies. At the end of the emergency, better use of PEED could avoid overcrowding and minimize waste, allowing resource optimization for the management of urgent cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/therapy , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
14.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021427, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503713

ABSTRACT

Background and aim This study analyses the impact of the first two pandemic waves on surgical urgencies/emergencies and their consequences on an entire provincial hospital network's surgical activities. Methods  Clinical and epidemiological data of urgent/emergent surgical admissions and interventions in the Autonomous Province of Trento's hospital network were collected from the internal common electronic database. The investigation periods were March-May 2019 (reference period), March-May 2020 (phase-I), June - August 2020 (phase-II), and October - December 2020 (phase-III). The same data were divided and grouped for the six most represented diagnoses. Results: The number of admissions for surgical emergencies in the studied periods showed a sinusoidal trend. In the reference period of 2019, 957 patients were admitted in urgency, while in the three pandemic phases, urgent admissions were 511, 888 and 633 respectively (-47% in phase I, - 8% in phase II, -34% in phase III). This trend was also observed by stratifying admissions for single disease, except for gastrointestinal perforations and pancreatitis, which showed a slight increasing trend in phase-I. Among the studied population, the surgical rate was 35.2% in phase-I and 34.3% in phase-III; these data were significantly higher than in 2019 (25.6%).  Conclusions The effect of the COVID pandemic on surgical emergencies and urgencies (SUEs) was mainly indirect, manifesting itself with a significant reduction in the number of surgical admissions, particularly in phases-I and-III. Conversely, in the same phases, the surgical rate showed a significant increase compared to 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Emergencies , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 218, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has stretched healthcare system capacities worldwide and deterred people from seeking medical support at Emergency Departments (ED). Nevertheless, population-based studies examining the consequences on children are lacking. METHODS: All ED visits from 2019 to 2020 in Veneto, Italy (4.9 million residents) were collected. Anonymized records of pediatric (≤14 years) ED visits included patient characteristics, arrival mode, triage code, clinical presentation, and discharge mode. Year-on-year variation of the main ED visit characteristics, and descriptive trends throughout the study period have been examined. RESULTS: Overall, 425,875 ED presentations were collected, 279,481 in 2019, and 146,394 in 2020 (- 48%), with a peak (- 79%) in March-April (first pandemic wave), and a second peak (below - 60%) in November-December (second pandemic wave). Burn or trauma, and fever were the two most common clinical presentations. Visits for nonurgent conditions underwent the strongest reduction during both pandemic waves, while urgent conditions reduced less sharply. ED arrival by ambulance was more common in 2020 (4.5%) than 2019 (3.5%), with a higher proportion of red triage codes (0.5%, and 0.4% respectively), and hospitalizations following ED discharge (9.1%, and 5.9% respectively). CONCLUSION: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, pediatric ED presentations underwent a steeper reduction than that observed for adults. Lockdown and fear of contagion in hospital-based services likely deterred parents from seeking medical support for their children. Given COVID-19 could become endemic, it is imperative that public health experts guarantee unhindered access to medical support for urgent, and less urgent health conditions, while minimizing infectious disease risks, to prevent children from suffering direct and indirect consequences of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Male , Retrospective Studies
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502420

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great risk to older people with hearing impairment, who face a higher threshold of external communication after the implementation of the emergency isolation policy. As part of a study on the optimization of external communication among the deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) population in central China, this study employed a qualitative research method based on in-depth interviews to explore the needs and difficulties faced by the older DHH group in external communication during public health emergencies in Wuhan, China, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed that older DHH people had weak reception of critical information about the epidemic, and had suboptimal access to medical care during emergency quarantine, which increased interpersonal communication barriers to this group. The current findings highlight the urgent need for targeted strengthening of the original emergency communication and coordination mechanisms in public health emergencies, and for improving policy inclusiveness for older DHH individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic and emergencies alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Persons With Hearing Impairments , Aged , China/epidemiology , Communication Barriers , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502071

ABSTRACT

Latin American governments swiftly implemented income assistance programs to sustain families' livelihoods during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. This paper analyzes the potential coverage and generosity of these measures and assesses the suitability of current safety nets to deal with unexpected negative income shocks in 10 Latin American countries. The expansion of pre-existing programs (most notably conditional cash transfers and non-contributory pensions) during the COVID-19 crisis was generally insufficient to compensate for the inability to work among the poorest segments of the population. When COVID-19 ad hoc programs are analyzed, the coverage and replacement rates of regular labor income among households in the first quintile of the country's labor income distribution increase substantially. Yet, these programs present substantial coverage challenges among families composed of fundamentally informal workers who are non-poor, but are at a high risk of poverty. These results highlight the limitations of the fragmented nature of social protection systems in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors , Developing Countries , Emergencies , Family Characteristics , Humans , Income , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pensions , Physical Distancing , Public Policy
18.
Prim Dent J ; 10(3): 63-68, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501960

ABSTRACT

The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has and continues to stretch the healthcare systems and the workforce alike, both nationally and internationally. This is equally true of the dental care systems and the dental workforce which had to respond and act promptly.This paper examines the perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of dental teams in the UK and provides insight into not only this impact, but the early signs of mental ill health commonly triggered by life events, anxiety and fear, and often exacerbated by stresses. A sample of an established body of literature and recognised sources are considered. Finally, extracts of common threads from meaningful conversations will be alluded to, shining a light on the current state of the mental health and wellbeing of many in dentistry and the need for intervention and longer-term plans. We are often reminded that this period in time is a marathon not a sprint, the same could perhaps be said about a national response to mental health and wellbeing, as it will take time, but the time to begin is now.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Emergencies , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 19-37, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497654

ABSTRACT

The following article addresses the complexities of responding to the Magna, Utah earthquake under conditions of the global corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The article begins with a brief mention of the literature on complex disasters along with the research methods employed for the study. Contextual information about COVID-19 and the Magna earthquake are then provided along with general issues that had to be addressed in the public health emergency and after the seismic hazard occurred. The following two sections identify how COVID-19 benefited the response to the earthquake as well as how the virus complicated operations after the tremor. The article then discusses major lessons of this research and provides recommendations for future study and practice. Overall, this research reveals that the responses to these two simultaneous events witnessed successes as well as significant challenges. The appearance of COVID-19 may have limited injuries or the loss of life during the Magna earthquake, and it also enabled an early activation of the emergency operations center (EOC). However, COVID-19 presented unique challenges for evacuation, sheltering, and damage assessment functions. The pandemic also altered the nature of EOC operations, created the need for a virtual response, and had distinct implications for financial accounting and personnel workload.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Earthquakes , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah
20.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 72S-79S, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Traditional public health surveillance of nonfatal opioid overdose relies on emergency department (ED) billing data, which can be delayed substantially. We compared the timeliness of 2 new data sources for rapid drug overdose surveillance-emergency medical services (EMS) and syndromic surveillance-with ED billing data. METHODS: We used data on nonfatal opioid overdoses in Kentucky captured in EMS, syndromic surveillance, and ED billing systems during 2018-2019. We evaluated the time-series relationships between EMS and ED billing data and syndromic surveillance and ED billing data by calculating cross-correlation functions, controlling for influences of autocorrelations. A case example demonstrates the usefulness of EMS and syndromic surveillance data to monitor rapid changes in opioid overdose encounters in Kentucky during the COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: EMS and syndromic surveillance data showed moderate-to-strong correlation with ED billing data on a lag of 0 (r = 0.694; 95% CI, 0.579-0.782; t = 9.73; df = 101; P < .001; and r = 0.656; 95% CI, 0.530-0.754; t = 8.73; df = 101; P < .001; respectively) at the week-aggregated level. After the COVID-19 emergency declaration, EMS and syndromic surveillance time series had steep increases in April and May 2020, followed by declines from June through September 2020. The ED billing data were available for analysis 3 months after the end of a calendar quarter but closely followed the trends identified by the EMS and syndromic surveillance data. CONCLUSION: Data from EMS and syndromic surveillance systems can be reliably used to monitor nonfatal opioid overdose trends in Kentucky in near-real time to inform timely public health response.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/poisoning , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Sentinel Surveillance , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Humans , Kentucky/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
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