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4.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 72S-79S, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Traditional public health surveillance of nonfatal opioid overdose relies on emergency department (ED) billing data, which can be delayed substantially. We compared the timeliness of 2 new data sources for rapid drug overdose surveillance-emergency medical services (EMS) and syndromic surveillance-with ED billing data. METHODS: We used data on nonfatal opioid overdoses in Kentucky captured in EMS, syndromic surveillance, and ED billing systems during 2018-2019. We evaluated the time-series relationships between EMS and ED billing data and syndromic surveillance and ED billing data by calculating cross-correlation functions, controlling for influences of autocorrelations. A case example demonstrates the usefulness of EMS and syndromic surveillance data to monitor rapid changes in opioid overdose encounters in Kentucky during the COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: EMS and syndromic surveillance data showed moderate-to-strong correlation with ED billing data on a lag of 0 (r = 0.694; 95% CI, 0.579-0.782; t = 9.73; df = 101; P < .001; and r = 0.656; 95% CI, 0.530-0.754; t = 8.73; df = 101; P < .001; respectively) at the week-aggregated level. After the COVID-19 emergency declaration, EMS and syndromic surveillance time series had steep increases in April and May 2020, followed by declines from June through September 2020. The ED billing data were available for analysis 3 months after the end of a calendar quarter but closely followed the trends identified by the EMS and syndromic surveillance data. CONCLUSION: Data from EMS and syndromic surveillance systems can be reliably used to monitor nonfatal opioid overdose trends in Kentucky in near-real time to inform timely public health response.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/poisoning , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Sentinel Surveillance , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Humans , Kentucky/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(1): 22-27, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430637

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak has been recently associated with lower hospitalization rates for acute coronary syndromes. Aim of the study was to investigate whether a similar behaviour is observed in admissions for urgent pacemaker implant. METHODS: This retrospective study included 1315 patients from 18 hospitals in Northern Italy with a high number of COVID-19 cases. Hospitalization rates for urgent pacemaker implant were compared between the following periods: 20 February to 20 April 2020 (case period); from 1 January to 19 February 2020 (intra-year control period); from 20 February to 20 April 2019 (inter-year control period). RESULTS: The incidence rate of urgent implants was 5.0/day in the case period, 6.0/day in the intra-year control period and 5.8/day in the inter-year control period. Incidence rate in the case period was significantly lower than both the intra-year [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.99, P = 0.040] and inter-year control periods (IRR: 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95, P = 0.012); this reduction was highest after the national lockdown (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.91, P = 0.009). The prevalence of residents in rural areas undergoing urgent pacemaker implant was lower in the case period (36%) than in both the intra-year (47%, P = 0.03) and inter-year control periods (51%, P = 0.002). Elective pacemaker implants also decreased in the case period, with the incidence rate here being 3.5/day vs. 6.4/day in the intra-year (-45%) and 6.9/day in the inter-year period (-49%). CONCLUSION: Despite severe clinical patterns, the COVID-19 outbreak has negatively affected the population presentation to Emergency Departments for bradyarrhythmias requiring urgent pacemaker implant in Northern Italy. This mainly occurred after the national lockdown and concerned patients living in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/epidemiology , Bradycardia/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies/epidemiology , Pacemaker, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with good health knowledge present a conceptual and objective appropriation of general and specific health topics, increasing their probability to express health protection and prevention measures. The main objective of this study was to conduct a rapid systematic review about the effects of health knowledge on the adoption of health behaviors and attitudes in populations under pandemic emergencies. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA checklist and the Cochrane method for rapid systematic reviews. Studies searches were performed in APA PsycNet, Embase, Cochrane Library and PubMed Central. Studies published between January 2009 and June 2020 and whose primary results reported a measure of interaction between health knowledge, health attitudes and behaviors in population groups during pandemics were included. A review protocol was recorded in PROSPERO (CRD42020183347). RESULTS: Out of a total of 5791 studies identified in the databases, 13 met the inclusion criteria. The included studies contain a population of 26099 adults, grouped into cohorts of health workers, university students, clinical patients, and the general population. Health knowledge has an important influence on the adoption of health behaviors and attitudes in pandemic contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The consolidation of these preventive measures favors the consolidation of public rapid responses to infection outbreaks. Findings of this review indicate that health knowledge notably favors adoption of health behaviors and practices. Therefore, health knowledge based on clear and objective information would help them understand and adopt rapid responses to face a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Health Behavior/physiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors
7.
Pharmaceut Med ; 35(4): 203-213, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375861

ABSTRACT

The Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) originated in 2004 because of the need for emergency medical countermeasures (MCMs) against potential bioterrorist attacks. The EUA also proved useful in dealing with subsequent pandemics and has emerged as a critical regulatory pathway for therapeutics and vaccines throughout the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. With the EUA process in the USA, we witnessed emergency authorizations, their expansions, as well as withdrawal of previously authorized products, which exemplifies the dynamic nature of scientific review of EUA products. EUAs proved vital for the first group of COVID-19 vaccines, including the temporary pause of one vaccine while emergency safety issues were evaluated. Although this review on the EUA is primarily focused on the USA, distinctions were made with other jurisdictions such as Europe and Canada with respect to the emergency authorizations of the vaccines. Finally, we discuss some important differences following EUA and formal new drug/vaccine application (NDA/BLA) approvals.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Emergencies/history , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bioterrorism/history , Bioterrorism/prevention & control , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Canada/epidemiology , Civil Defense/history , Drug Approval/history , Emergencies/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
8.
Ann Surg ; 274(6): 904-912, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The PREDICT study aimed to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected surgical services and surgical patients and to identify predictors of outcomes in this cohort. BACKGROUND: High mortality rates were reported for surgical patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic. However, the indirect impact of the pandemic on this cohort is not understood, and risk predictors are yet to be identified. METHODS: PREDICT is an international longitudinal cohort study comprising surgical patients presenting to hospital between March and August 2020, conducted alongside a survey of staff redeployment and departmental restructuring. A subgroup analysis of 3176 adult emergency patients, recruited by 55 teams across 18 countries is presented. RESULTS: Among adult emergency surgical patients, all-cause in-hospital mortality (IHM) was 3.6%, compared to 15.5% for those with COVID-19. However, only 14.1% received a COVID-19 test on admission in March, increasing to 76.5% by July.Higher Clinical Frailty Scale scores (CFS >7 aOR 18.87), ASA grade above 2 (aOR 4.29), and COVID-19 infection (aOR 5.12) were independently associated with significantly increased IHM.The peak months of the first wave were independently associated with significantly higher IHM (March aOR 4.34; April aOR 4.25; May aOR 3.97), compared to non-peak months.During the study, UK operating theatre capacity decreased by a mean of 63.6% with a concomitant 27.3% reduction in surgical staffing. CONCLUSION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted surgical patients, both directly through co-morbid infection and indirectly as shown by increasing mortality in peak months, irrespective of COVID-19 status.Higher CFS scores and ASA grades strongly predict outcomes in surgical patients and are an important risk assessment tool during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Global Health , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253978, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325434

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has brought great disasters to humanity, and its influence continues to intensify. In response to the public health emergencies, prompt relief supplies are key to reduce the damage. This paper presents a method of emergency medical logistics to quick response to emergency epidemics. The methodology includes two recursive mechanisms: (1) the time-varying forecasting of medical relief demand according to a modified susceptible-exposed-infected- Asymptomatic- recovered (SEIAR) epidemic diffusion model, (2) the relief supplies distribution based on a multi-objective dynamic stochastic programming model. Specially, the distribution model addresses a hypothetical network of emergency medical logistics with considering emergency medical reserve centers (EMRCs), epidemic areas and e-commerce warehousing centers as the rescue points. Numerical studies are conducted. The results show that with the cooperation of different epidemic areas and e-commerce warehousing centers, the total cost is 6% lower than without considering cooperation of different epidemic areas, and 9.7% lower than without considering cooperation of e-commerce warehousing centers. Particularly, the total cost is 20% lower than without considering any cooperation. This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation in epidemic prevention, and provides the government with a new idea of emergency relief supplies dispatching, that the rescue efficiency can be improved by mutual rescue between epidemic areas in public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Civil Defense/economics , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/economics , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 28(7): 1411-1419.e1, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322221

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on surgical volume and emergency department (ED) consults across obstetrics-gynecology (OB-GYN) services at a New York City hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center in New York City. PATIENTS: Women undergoing OB-GYN ED consults or surgeries between February 1, 2020 and April 15, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: March 16 institutional moratorium on elective surgeries. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The volume and types of surgeries and ED consults were compared before and after the COVID-19 moratorium. During the pandemic, the average weekly volume of ED consults and gynecology (GYN) surgeries decreased, whereas obstetric (OB) surgeries remained stable. The proportions of OB-GYN ED consults, GYN surgeries, and OB surgeries relative to all ED consults, all surgeries, and all labor and delivery patients were 1.87%, 13.8%, 54.6% in the pre-COVID-19 time frame (February 1-March 15) vs 1.53%, 21.3%, 79.7% in the COVID-19 time frame (March 16-April 15), representing no significant difference in proportions of OB-GYN ED consults (p = .464) and GYN surgeries (p = .310) before and during COVID-19, with a proportionate increase in OB surgeries (p <.002). The distribution of GYN surgical case types changed significantly during the pandemic with higher proportions of emergent surgeries for ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages, and concern for cancer (p <.001). Alternatively, the OB surgery distribution of case types remained relatively constant. CONCLUSION: This study highlights how the pandemic has affected the ways that patients in OB-GYN access and receive care. Institutional policies suspending elective surgeries during the pandemic decreased GYN surgical volume and affected the types of cases performed. This decrease was not appreciated for OB surgical volume, reflecting the nonelective and time-sensitive nature of obstetric care. A decrease in ED consults was noted during the pandemic begging the question "Where have all the emergencies gone?" Although the moratorium on elective procedures was necessary, "elective" GYN surgeries remain medically indicated to address symptoms such as pain and bleeding and to prevent serious medical sequelae such as severe anemia requiring transfusion. As we continue to battle COVID-19, we must not lose sight of those patients whose care has been deferred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Obstetric Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rev Neurol ; 73(3): 89-95, 2021 08 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320651

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) impacted emergency services worldwide. AIM: We aimed to evaluate COVID-19 effect on the number of stroke code activations and timings during the first two months of the pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the stroke code database of a single comprehensive stroke centre in Portugal for the number of activations through 2019-2020. We compared the pathway timings between March and April 2020 (COVID-19 period) and the homologous months of the previous four years (pre-COVID-19 period), whilst using February as a control. RESULTS: Monthly stroke code activation rates decreased up to 34.2% during COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, we observed an increase in the time from symptom onset to emergency call, with a significant number of patients waiting more than four hours (March 20.8% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.034; April 23.8% vs. 6%, p = 0.01); as well as an increase in the time from symptom onset to hospital arrival (March: median 136 minutes [IQR 106-410] vs. 100 [IQR 64-175], p = 0.001; April: median 188 [IQR 96-394] vs. 98 [IQR 66-168], p = 0.007). No difference between both periods was found concerning in-hospital times, patient characteristics, stroke/mimic diagnosis, stroke severity, and mortality. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 related factors probably reduced healthcare services utilization, and delayed emergency calls and hospital arrival after stroke onset. These highlight the importance of health education to improve the effectiveness of medical assistance. The preservation of in-hospital times validates the feasibility of the protected stroke code protocol.


TITLE: El impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la activación del Código Ictus y en el tiempo desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta la llegada al hospital en un centro de ictus portugués.Introducción. La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) provocó un considerable impacto mundial en los servicios de emergencia. Objetivo. Se pretende evaluar el efecto de la COVID-19 sobre el número y los tiempos de activaciones del Código Ictus en el comienzo de la pandemia. Material y métodos. Se revisó la base de datos del Código Ictus de un centro de ictus de Portugal entre 2016 y 2020. Se compararon los tiempos de activación entre marzo y abril de 2020 (período COVID-19) y los meses homólogos de los cuatro años anteriores, mientras que se utilizó febrero como control. Resultados. Las tasas mensuales de activación disminuyeron hasta el 34,2% durante la pandemia. En comparación con el período previo, se observó un aumento del tiempo desde los síntomas hasta la llamada de emergencia, con un aumento de pacientes que esperaron más de cuatro horas (marzo: 20,8 frente a 6,8%, p = 0,034; abril: 23,8 frente a 6%, p = 0,01) y del tiempo desde los síntomas hasta la llegada al hospital ­marzo: mediana de 136 minutos (rango intercuartílico [RIC]: 106-410) frente a 100 (RIC: 64-175), p = 0,001; abril: mediana de 188 (RIC: 96-394) frente a 98 (RIC: 66-168), p = 0,007­. No hubo diferencias en los tiempos de internamiento, las características de los pacientes, el diagnóstico de ictus/stroke mimics, la gravedad del ictus o la mortalidad. Conclusión. Los factores relacionados con la COVID-19 redujeron la utilización de los servicios sanitarios y retrasaron las llamadas de emergencia y el tiempo de llegada al hospital. Esto demuestra la importancia de la educación sanitaria para mejorar la eficacia de la asistencia médica.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 241-246, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, New York instituted a statewide stay-at-home mandate to lower viral transmission. While public health guidelines advised continued provision of timely care for patients, disruption of safety-net health care and public fear have been proposed to be related to indirect deaths because of delays in presentation. We hypothesized that admissions for emergency general surgery (EGS) diagnoses would decrease during the pandemic and that mortality for these patients would increase. METHODS: A multicenter observational study comparing EGS admissions from January to May 2020 to 2018 and 2019 across 11 NYC hospitals in the largest public health care system in the United States was performed. Emergency general surgery diagnoses were defined using International Classification Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and grouped into seven common diagnosis categories: appendicitis, cholecystitis, small/large bowel, peptic ulcer disease, groin hernia, ventral hernia, and necrotizing soft tissue infection. Baseline demographics were compared including age, race/ethnicity, and payor status. Outcomes included coronavirus disease (COVID) status and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,376 patients were admitted for EGS diagnoses from January to May 2020, a decrease compared with both 2018 (1,789) and 2019 (1,668) (p < 0.0001). This drop was most notable after the stay-at-home mandate (March 22, 2020; week 12). From March to May 2020, 3.3%, 19.2%, and 6.0% of EGS admissions were incidentally COVID positive, respectively. Mortality increased in March to May 2020 compared with 2019 (2.2% vs. 0.7%); this difference was statistically significant between April 2020 and April 2019 (4.1% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Supporting our hypothesis, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and subsequent stay-at-home mandate resulted in decreased EGS admissions between March and May 2020 compared with prior years. During this time, there was also a statistically significant increase in mortality, which peaked at the height of COVID infection rates in our population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Acute Disease/mortality , Acute Disease/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/mortality , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cholecystitis/diagnosis , Cholecystitis/mortality , Cholecystitis/surgery , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hernia, Inguinal/diagnosis , Hernia, Inguinal/mortality , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Hernia, Ventral/diagnosis , Hernia, Ventral/mortality , Hernia, Ventral/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Necrosis/diagnosis , Necrosis/mortality , Necrosis/surgery , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission/trends , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Peptic Ulcer/mortality , Peptic Ulcer/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Soft Tissue Infections/diagnosis , Soft Tissue Infections/mortality , Soft Tissue Infections/surgery , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Young Adult
13.
Risk Anal ; 42(1): 5-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220366

ABSTRACT

Whether emergent groups positively or negatively influence a disaster response remains inconclusive in the literature. We analyzed the effect of an emergent group on two interorganizational networks for information communication and resource coordination during a public health emergency response. Using the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus in Korea as a study case, we identified an ad hoc entity that appeared in both networks. This emergent group, which consists of government officials and public health specialists, directed and coordinated organizations at the center of the response networks. We found that the emergent group positively contributed to efficient information communication but had no effect on the resource network's efficiency. Our interpretation is that the ad hoc entity was filling relational gaps in the information network, but was redundant in the resource network.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Public Health , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
14.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(3)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: By forcing closure of schools, curtailing outpatient services, and imposing strict social distancing, the COVID-19 pandemic has abruptly affected the daily life of millions worldwide, with still unclear consequences for mental health. This study aimed to evaluate if and how child and adolescent psychiatric visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) changed during the pandemic lockdown, which started in Italy on February 24, 2020. METHODS: We examined all ED visits by patients under 18 years of age in the 7 weeks prior to February 24, 2020, and in the subsequent 8 weeks of COVID-19 lockdown at two urban university hospitals, in Turin and Rome, Italy. ED visits during the corresponding periods of 2019 served as a comparison using Poisson regression modeling. The clinician's decision to hospitalize or discharge home the patient after the ED visit was examined as an index of clinical severity. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a 72.0% decrease in the number of all pediatric ED visits (3,395) compared with the corresponding period in 2019 (12,128), with a 46.2% decrease in psychiatric visits (50 vs 93). The mean age of psychiatric patients was higher in the COVID-19 period (15.7 vs 14.1 years). No significant changes were found in hospitalization rate or in the prevalence distribution of the primary reason for the psychiatric ED visit (suicidality, anxiety/mood disorders, agitation). CONCLUSIONS: In the first 8 weeks of the COVID-19-induced social lockdown, the number of child and adolescent psychiatric ED visits significantly decreased, with an increase in patient age. This decrease does not appear to be explained by severity-driven self-selection and might be due to a reduction in psychiatric emergencies or to the implementation of alternative ways of managing acute psychopathology.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Education, Distance , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/organization & administration , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(7): 1713-1721, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits have declined while excess mortality, not attributable to COVID-19, has grown. It is not known whether older adults are accessing emergency care differently from their younger counterparts. Our objective was to determine patterns of ED visit counts for emergent conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic for older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Observational analysis of ED sites enrolled in a national clinical quality registry. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty-four ED sites in 33 states from January 1, 2019 to November 15, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: We measured daily ED visit counts for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, sepsis, fall, and hip fracture, as well as deaths in the ED, by age categories. We estimated Poisson regression models comparing early and post-early pandemic periods (defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to the pre-pandemic period. We report incident rate ratios to summarize changes in visit incidence. RESULTS: For AMI, stroke, and sepsis, the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years) had the greatest decline in visit counts initially and the smallest recovery in the post-early pandemic periods. For falls, visits declined early and partially recovered uniformly across age categories. In contrast, hip fractures exhibited less change in visit rates across time periods. Deaths in the ED increased during the early pandemic period, but then fell and were persistently lower than baseline, especially for the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years). CONCLUSIONS: The decline in ED visits for emergent conditions among older adults has been more pronounced and persistent than for younger patients, with fewer deaths in the ED. This is concerning given the greater prevalence and risk of poor outcomes for emergent conditions in this age group that are amenable to time-sensitive ED diagnosis and treatment, and may in part explain excess mortality during the COVID-19 era among older adults.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Sepsis , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/mortality , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 112, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Elective cardiac surgery has been universally postponed with only urgent and emergency cardiac operations being performed. The National Health Service in the United Kingdom introduced national measures to conserve intensive care beds and significantly limit elective activity shortly after lockdown. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two cases of early post-operative mortality secondary to COVID-19 infection immediately prior to the implementation of these widespread measures. CONCLUSION: The role of cardiac surgery in the presence of COVID-19 is still very unpredictable and further studies on both short term and long term outcomes are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Emergencies/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Comorbidity , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Period , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Survival Rate/trends , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 665-675, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195138

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Dec 2019, COVID-19 was first recognized and led to a worldwide pandemic. The German government implemented a shutdown in Mar 2020, affecting outpatient and hospital care. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 shutdown on patient volumes and surgical procedures of a Level I trauma center in Germany. METHODS: All emergency patients were recorded retrospectively during the shutdown and compared to a calendar-matched control period (CTRL). Total emergency patient contacts including trauma mechanisms, injury patterns and operation numbers were recorded including absolute numbers, incidence proportions and risk ratios. RESULTS: During the shutdown period, we observed a decrease of emergency patient cases (417) compared to CTRL (575), a decrease of elective cases (42 vs. 13) and of the total number of operations (397 vs. 325). Incidence proportions of emergency operations increased from 8.2 to 12.2% (shutdown) and elective surgical cases decreased (11.1 vs. 4.3%). As we observed a decrease for most trauma mechanisms and injury patterns, we found an increasing incidence proportion for severe open fractures. Household-related injuries were reported with an increasing incidence proportion from 26.8 to 47.5% (shutdown). We found an increasing tendency of trauma and injuries related to psychological disorders. CONCLUSION: This analysis shows a decrease of total patient numbers in an emergency department of a Level I trauma center and a decrease of the total number of operations during the shutdown period. Concurrently, we observed an increase of severe open fractures and emergency operations. Furthermore, trauma mechanism changed with less traffic, work and sports-related accidents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infection Control/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Organizational Innovation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/organization & administration , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
19.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 31: S12-S17, 2021 Feb.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172424

ABSTRACT

At the international level, the enormous demand to manage the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a challenge both in the provision of personnel and in supplies and sanitary material. There is no precedent or publication related to the management and leadership of nursing services in Spain within the emergency plan for the COVID-19 pandemic. This article describes the experience of the Hospital Clinico de Barcelona in the current extraordinary circumstances that undoubtedly constitute a nursing management of enormous magnitude and unprecedented due to the high number of people affected and the extraordinary risk of healthcare personnel. Following national and international guidelines to alleviate the pandemic, protect health and prevent the spread of the outbreak. The ability to work as a team, emotional management and respect for organizational decisions have made it possible to face the challenges that the pandemic has put in place and that the Nursing Department can lead in a calm and orderly manner the different actions to perform. Lastly, it will be necessary to continue with an in-depth analysis of the situation and of the actions carried out in order to identify the areas for improvement as well as to evaluate the overall nature of the process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Administration , Leadership , Nursing Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Bed Conversion , COVID-19/therapy , Checklist , Clinical Protocols , Emergencies/epidemiology , Health Personnel/education , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Humans , Nurse's Role , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Spain/epidemiology , Triage/organization & administration
20.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(1): 119-125, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A previous study revealed a preliminary trend towards higher in hospital mortality in patients admitted as an emergency with acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The current study aimed to further examine the possible impact of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on in hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER. Patients hospitalised for ST elevation (STEMI) and non-ST elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction, acute limb ischaemia (ALI), aortic rupture, acute stroke, or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) between 1 January 2017, and 31 October 2020, were included. Admission rates per 10 000 insured and mortality were compared between March - June 2017 - 2019 (pre-COVID) and March - June 2020 (COVID). Mortality rates were determined by the occurrence of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 316 718 hospitalisations were included (48.7% female, mean 72.5 years), and 21 191 (6.7%, 95% CI 6.6% - 6.8%) deaths occurred. In hospital mortality increased during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with the three previous years for patients with acute stroke from 8.3% (95% CI 8.0 - 8.5) to 9.6% (95% CI 9.1 - 10.2), while no statistically significant changes were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, ALI, aortic rupture, and TIA. When comparing patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.4%, 95% CI 2.3 - 2.5) vs. non-infected patients, a higher in hospital mortality was observed for acute stroke (12.4% vs. 9.0%), ALI (14.3% vs. 5.0%), and TIA (2.7% vs. 0.3%), while no statistically significant differences were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, and aortic rupture. CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis of claims data has provided hints of an association between the COVID-19 pandemic and increased in hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Furthermore, confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased mortality in patients with stroke, TIA, and ALI. Future studies are urgently needed to better understand the underlying mechanism and relationship between the new coronavirus and acute stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Administrative Claims, Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Extremities/blood supply , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy
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