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1.
BMC Emerg Med ; 23(1): 56, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first weeks of the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the North Denmark emergency medical services authorised paramedics to assess patients suspected of COVID-19 at home, and then decide if conveyance to a hospital was required. The aim of this study was to describe the cohort of patients who were assessed at home and their outcomes in terms of subsequent hospital visits and short-term mortality. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study in the North Denmark Region with consecutive inclusion of patients suspected of COVID-19 who were referred to a paramedic's assessment visit by their general practitioner or an out-of-hours general practitioner. The study was conducted from 16 March to 20 May 2020. The outcomes were the proportion of non-conveyed patients who subsequently visited a hospital within 72 hours of the paramedic's assessment visit and mortality at 3, 7 and 30 days. Mortality was estimated using a Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation. RESULTS: During the study period, 587 patients with a median age of 75 (IQR 59-84) years were referred to a paramedic's assessment visit. Three of four patients (76.5%, 95% CI 72.8;79.9) were non-conveyed, and 13.1% (95% CI 10.2;16.6) of the non-conveyed patients were subsequently referred to a hospital within 72 hours of the paramedic's assessment visit. Within 30 days from the paramedic's assessment visit, mortality was 11.1% [95% CI 6.9;17.9] among patients directly conveyed to a hospital and 5.8% [95% CI 4.0;8.5] among non-conveyed patients. Medical record review revealed that deaths in the non-conveyed group had happened among patients with 'do-not-resuscitate' orders, palliative care plans, severe comorbidities, age ≥ 90 years or nursing home residents. CONCLUSIONS: The majority (87%) of the non-conveyed patients did not visit a hospital for the following three days after a paramedic's assessment visit. The study implies that this newly established prehospital arrangement served as a kind of gatekeeper for the region's hospitals in regard to patients suspected of COVID-19. The study also demonstrates that implementation of non-conveyance protocols should be accompanied by careful and regular evaluation to ensure patient safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Paramedics , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Patient Safety
3.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 71(6): 345-349, 2022 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267959

ABSTRACT

Technological advances over the past two decades have paved the way for the prehospital use of ultrasound. This practice was first developed in traumatology and then in a multitude of other indications, including cardiology. The development of pulmonary ultrasound is certainly the most visible illustration of this. Firstly, because it is an extra-cardiac examination that provides the answer to a cardiac question. Secondly because from a theoretical point of view this ultrasound indication was a bad indication for the use of ultrasound due to the air contained in the thorax. Thirdly, because this indication has become a 'standard of care' when caring for a patient with dyspnea - a practice that has become widespread during the COVID epidemic. In patients with heart failure, ultrasound has a high diagnostic power (including for alternative diagnoses) which is all the more precise since the technique is non-invasive, the response is obtained quickly, the examination can be repeated at desire to follow the evolution of the patient. The main other indications for prehospital ultrasound are cardiac arrest to search for a curable cause, identification of residual mechanical cardiac activity, monitoring of cerebral perfusion; chest pain, for both positive and negative diagnoses; shock for the search for an etiology and therapeutic follow-up or even pulmonary embolism or ultrasound for the search for dilation of the right ventricle which is now at the forefront of the recommendation algorithm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Emergencies , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods
4.
Resuscitation ; 187: 109770, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265972

ABSTRACT

AIM: We sought to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence and survival outcomes of emergency medical service (EMS)-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: We performed an interrupted time-series analysis of adult EMS-witnessed OHCA patients of medical aetiology. Patients treated during the COVID-19 period (1st March 2020 to 31st December 2021) were compared to a historical comparator period (1st January 2012 and 28th February 2020). Multivariable poisson and logistic regression models were used to examine changes in incidence and survival outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. RESULTS: We included 5,034 patients, 3,976 (79.0%) in the comparator period and 1,058 (21.0%) in the COVID-19 period. Patients in the COVID-19 period had longer EMS response times, fewer public location arrests and were significantly more likely to receive mechanical CPR and laryngeal mask airways compared to the historical period (all p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence of EMS-witnessed OHCA between the comparator and COVID-19 periods (incidence rate ratio 1.06, 95% CI: 0.97-1.17, p = 0.19). Also, there was no difference in the risk-adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge for EMS-witnessed OHCA occurring during COVID-19 period compared to the comparator period (adjusted odd ratio 1.02, 95% CI: 0.74-1.42; p = 0.90). CONCLUSION: Unlike the reported findings in non-EMS-witnessed OHCA populations, changes during the COVID-19 pandemic did not influence incidence or survival outcomes in EMS-witnessed OHCA. This may suggest that changes in clinical practice that sought to limit the use of aerosol generating procedures did not influence outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Victoria/epidemiology , Registries
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 66: 40-44, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285196

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Response to medical incidents in mountainous areas is delayed due to the remote and challenging terrain. Drones could assist in a quicker search for patients and can facilitate earlier treatment through delivery of medical equipment. We aim to assess the effects of using drones in search and rescue (SAR) operations in challenging terrain. We hypothesize that drones can reduce the search time and treatment-free interval of patients by delivering an emergency kit and telemedical support. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial with a cross-over design two methods of searching for and initiating treatment of a patient were compared. The primary outcome was a comparison of the times for locating a patient through visual contact and starting treatment on-site between the drone-assisted intervention arm and the conventional ground-rescue control arm. A linear mixed model (LMM) was used to evaluate the effect of using a drone on search and start of treatment times. RESULTS: Twenty-four SAR missions, performed by six SAR teams each with four team members, were analyzed. The mean time to locate the patient was 14.6 min (95% CI 11.3-17.9) in the drone-assisted intervention arm and 20.6 min (95% CI 17.3-23.9) in the control arm. The mean time to start treatment was 15.7 min (95% CI 12.4-19.0) in the drone-assisted arm and 22.4 min (95% CI 19.1-25.7) in the control arm (p < 0.01 for both comparisons). CONCLUSION: The successful use of drones in SAR operations leads to a reduction in search time and treatment-free interval of patients in challenging terrain, which could improve outcomes in patients suffering from traumatic injuries, the most commonly occurring incident requiring mountain rescue operations.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Telemedicine , Humans , Unmanned Aerial Devices , Aircraft , Rescue Work/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods
6.
Resuscitation ; 182: 109662, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) recommend a ventilation rate of 8-10 per minute yet acknowledge that few data exist to guide recommendations. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of continuous capnography to measure ventilation rates and the association with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. We included all OHCA during a two-year period and excluded traumatic and pediatric patients. Ventilations were recorded using non-invasive continuous capnography. Blinded medically trained team members manually annotated all ventilations. Four techniques were used to analyze ventilation rate. The primary outcome was sustained prehospital ROSC. Secondary outcomes were vital status at the end of prehospital care and survival to hospital admission. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. RESULTS: A total of 790 OHCA were analyzed. Only 386 (49%) had useable capnography data. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final study cohort was 314 patients. The median ventilation rate per minute was 7 (IQR 5.4-8.5). Only 70 (22%) received a guideline-compliant ventilation rate of 8-10 per minute. Sixty-two (20%) achieved the primary outcome. No statistically significant associations were observed between any of the ventilation parameters and patient outcomes in both univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to detect an association between intra-arrest ventilation rates measured by continuous capnography and proximal patient outcomes after OHCA. Capnography has poor reliability as a measure of ventilation rate. Achieving guideline-compliant ventilation rates remains challenging.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Humans , Child , Capnography , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cohort Studies , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Return of Spontaneous Circulation
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225190

ABSTRACT

The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system faced overwhelming challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, further information is required to determine how the pandemic affected the EMS response and the clinical outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in COVID-19 low-incidence cities. A retrospective study was conducted in Chiayi, Taiwan, a COVID-19 low-incidence urban city. We compared the outcomes and rescue records before (2018-2019) and during (2020-2021) the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 567 patients before and 497 during the pandemic were enrolled. Multivariate analysis revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic had no significant influence on the achievement of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and sustained ROSC but was associated with lower probabilities of survival to discharge (aOR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.89, p = 0.002) and discharge with favorable neurologic outcome among OHCA patients (aOR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16-0.77, p = 0.009). Patients' ages and OHCA locations were also discovered to be independently related to survival results. The overall impact of longer EMS rescue times on survival outcomes during the pandemic was not significant, with an exception of the specific group that experienced prolonged rescue times (total EMS time > 21 min).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Incidence , Pandemics , Emergency Medical Services/methods
8.
Med Care ; 61(3): 150-156, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This systematic literature review presents an overview of studies that assess the experiences of Hispanic adults with (1) activation of emergency medical services (EMS); (2) on-scene care provided by EMS personnel; (3) mode of transport (EMS vs. non-EMS) to an emergency department (ED); and (4) experiences with EMS before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A bibliographic database search was conducted to identify relevant studies on Ovid MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Quantitative, mixed methods, and qualitative studies published in English or Spanish were included if they discussed Hispanic adults' experiences with EMS in the US between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2021. The Hawker and colleagues quality assessment instrument was used to evaluate the quality of studies. RESULTS: Of the 43 included studies, 13 examined EMS activation, 13 assessed on-scene care, 22 discussed the mode of transport to an ED, and 4 described Hispanic adults' experiences with EMS during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hispanics were less likely to activate EMS (N=7), less likely to receive certain types of on-scene care (N=6), and less likely to use EMS as the mode of transport to an ED (N=13), compared with non-Hispanic Whites. During the early COVID-19 pandemic period (March to May 2020), EMS use decreased by 26.5% compared with the same months during the previous 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of this study is its attention to Hispanic adults' experiences with the different phases of the US EMS system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Adult , United States , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hispanic or Latino
9.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 80, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to emergency medical communication centers (EMCCs) is pivotal to address potentially life-threatening conditions. Maintaining public access to EMCCs without delay is crucial in case of disease outbreak despite the significant increased activity and the difficulties to mobilize extra staff resources. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of two-level filtering on EMCC performance during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A before-after monocentric prospective study was conducted at the EMCC at the Nantes University Hospital. Using telephone activity data, we compared EMCC performance during 2 periods. In period one (February 27th to March 11th 2020), call takers managed calls as usual, gathering basic information from the caller and giving first aid instructions to a bystander on scene if needed. During period two (March 12th to March 25th 2020), calls were answered by a first-line call taker to identify potentially serious conditions that required immediate dispatch. When a serious condition was excluded, the call was immediately transferred to a second-line call taker who managed the call as usual so the first-line call taker could be rapidly available for other incoming calls. The primary outcome was the quality of service at 20 s (QS20), corresponding to the rate of calls answered within 20 s. We described activity and outcome measures by hourly range. We compared EMCC performance during periods one and two using an interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 45,451 incoming calls during the two study periods: 21,435 during period 1 and 24,016 during period 2. Between the two study periods, we observed a significant increase in the number of incoming calls per hour, the number of connected call takers and average call duration. A linear regression model, adjusted for these confounding variables, showed a significant increase in the QS20 slope (from - 0.4 to 1.4%, p = 0.01), highlighting the significant impact of two-level filtering on the quality of service. CONCLUSIONS: We found that rapid access to our EMCC was maintained during the COVID-19 pandemic via two-level filtering. This system helped reduce the time gap between call placement and first-line call-taker evaluation of a potentially life-threatening situation. We suggest implementing this system when an EMCC faces significantly increased activity with limited staff resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Triage/methods , COVID-19 , Controlled Before-After Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 937202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080285

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergency medical services (EMSs) are an important element of the healthcare system as it provides an opportunity to respond to critical medical conditions and save people's lives. In Saudi Arabia, EMS is offered via the EMS phone number "997" and mobile application "Asefny". Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional survey study exploring public awareness and use of the EMS phone number during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. A bivariate analysis was performed to investigate factors affecting awareness and use of the EMS phone number and to compare the EMS acceptance to transport and timelines of ambulance arrival between requests made via the "997" EMS phone number and the "Asefny" mobile application during the country's emergency lockdown. Results: A total of 805 participants were included in the analysis, where 66% reported awareness of the EMS phone number and 75% of them accurately identified the nature of the service provided by dialing the number. The men who participated, those with a bachelor's degree, with children, and with chronic conditions were more aware of the EMS phone number compared to the other participants. Of the total sample, 46.7% used EMS phone numbers at least one time (ever users). During the COVID-19 lockdown, the EMS accepted to transport 87% of the calls made by 997 phone number and 56.2% of the mobile application requests (P < 0.00). The ambulance arrived in ≤ 8 min in 53.6% of the 997 phone calls and 35.5% of the Asefny mobile requests (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Findings showed commendable levels of awareness and the use of EMS phone numbers. However, the results suggest room for improvement by developing promotional and educational campaigns inspired by the factors identified as influential on both awareness and use. Mobile applications in EMS are promising to improve prehospital emergency service accessibility, which needs to be further investigated to assess its impact on the public health informatics experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Male , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Medical Services/methods
12.
Circ J ; 86(10): 1579-1585, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic may have influenced the prehospital emergency care and deaths of individuals experiencing an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).Methods and Results: We analyzed the registry data of 2,420 and 2,371 OHCA patients in Osaka City, Japan in 2019 and 2020, respectively, according to the 3 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patient outcomes were compared using multivariable logistic regression analyses with the 2019 data as the reference. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated significantly less frequently in 2020 than in 2019 (2019: 48.0%, 2020: 42.7%, P<0.001), particularly during the first wave (2019: 47.2%, 2020: 42.9%, P=0.046) and second wave (2019: 48.1%, 2020: 41.2%, P=0.010), but not during the third wave (2019: 49.2%, 2020: 44.1%, P=0.066). The public-access automated external defibrillator was less frequently applied during the first wave (2019: 12.6%, 2020: 9.9%, P=0.043), with no significant difference during the second wave (2019: 12.5%, 2020: 12.8%, P=0.863) and third wave (2019: 13.7%, 2020: 13.0%, P=0.722). There was a significant difference in 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcomes (2019: 4.6%, 2020: 3.3%, P=0.018), with a 28% reduction in the adjusted odds ratio in 2020 (0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.99, P=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Bystander CPR and neurologically favorable outcomes after OHCA decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057305, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review, inventory and compare available diagnostic tools and investigate which tool has the best performance for prehospital risk assessment in patients suspected of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline and Embase were searched up till 1 April 2021. Prospective studies with patients, suspected of NSTE-ACS, presenting in the primary care setting or by emergency medical services (EMS) were included. The most important exclusion criteria were studies including only patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and studies before 1995, the pretroponin era. The primary end point was the final hospital discharge diagnosis of NSTE-ACS or major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 6 weeks. Risk of bias was evaluated by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies Criteria. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of findings for risk stratification in patients suspected of NSTE-ACS. RESULTS: In total, 15 prospective studies were included; these studies reflected in total 26 083 patients. No specific variables related to symptoms, physical examination or risk factors were useful in risk stratification for NSTE-ACS diagnosis. The most useful electrocardiographic finding was ST-segment depression (LR+3.85 (95% CI 2.58 to 5.76)). Point-of-care troponin was found to be a strong predictor for NSTE-ACS in primary care (LR+14.16 (95% CI 4.28 to 46.90) and EMS setting (LR+6.16 (95% CI 5.02 to 7.57)). Combined risk scores were the best for risk assessment in an NSTE-ACS. From the combined risk scores that can be used immediately in a prehospital setting, the PreHEART score, a validated combined risk score for prehospital use, derived from the HEART score (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, Troponin), was most useful for risk stratification in patients with NSTE-ACS (LR+8.19 (95% CI 5.47 to 12.26)) and for identifying patients without ACS (LR-0.05 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.15)). DISCUSSION: Important study limitations were verification bias and heterogeneity between studies. In the prehospital setting, several diagnostic tools have been reported which could improve risk stratification, triage and early treatment in patients suspected for NSTE-ACS. On-site assessment of troponin and combined risk scores derived from the HEART score are strong predictors. These results support further studies to investigate the impact of these new tools on logistics and clinical outcome. FUNDING: This study is funded by ZonMw, the Dutch Organisation for Health Research and Development. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This meta-analysis was published for registration in PROSPERO prior to starting (CRD York, CRD42021254122).


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Emergency Medical Services , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods
16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(7-8): 594-603, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934883

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, prehospital and hospital services were put under great stress because of limited resources and increased workloads. One expected effect was the increased number of out-of-hospital (OHCA) and in-hospital (IHCA) cardiac arrests that occurred during 2020 compared to previous years. Both direct and indirect mechanisms were involved. In the former case, although the exact mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 causes cardiac arrest (CA) are still unknown, severe hypoxia, a dysregulated immune host response and sepsis are probably implicated and are often seen in COVID-19 patients with poor outcomes. In the latter case, the strain on hospitals, changes in treatment protocols, governments' actions to limit the spread of the disease and fear of the contagion naturally affected treatment efficacy and disrupted the CA chain of survival; as expected in OHCA, only a small proportion of patients were positive to COVID-19, and yet reported outcomes were worse during the pandemic. CA patient characteristics were reported, along with modifications in patient management. In this review, we summarize the evidence to date regarding OHCA and IHCA epidemiology and management during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Demography , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Australas Emerg Care ; 25(4): 334-340, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study seeks to explore the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the social support perception and acute stress disorder of prehospital care providers (PCPs) in the province of Denizli. METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted between December 25, 2020 and January 25, 2021. Out of 510 ambulatory care staff constituting the study population, there were 287 PCPs (%56.2), including 13 physicians, 89 paramedics, 134 emergency medical technicians, and 51 individuals from other occupational groups (nurse, driver, cleaning staff, medical secretary) based at emergency health services. The data collection tools employed in the study include an introductory information form, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and National Stressful Events Survey Acute Stress Disorder Short Scale (NSESSS), which was organized as an online questionnaire. RESULTS: We analyzed the data from 287 PCPs that completed the form and scales. The mean score of the NSESSS was calculated as 1.53 ± 0.79. The PCPs who experienced health problems (1.85 ± 0.69), suffered from mental problems and received psychotherapy and medication (2.57 ± 0.57), encountered COVID-19 patients (1.58 ± 0.8), provided care for COVID-19 patients (1.59 ± 0.79), and took polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests (1.68 ± 0.78) had higher acute stress symptom levels. The total mean score of MSPSS was calculated as 66.28 ± 17.22. Total MSPSS scores of the participants varied significantly in terms of age, marital status, taking a COVID-19 test, suffering from mental problems, status of encountering a COVID-19 patient, and workplace satisfaction (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings are suggestive of high perceptions of multidimensional social support and low acute stress symptom levels of the PCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , Social Support
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 114-123, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803389

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of cases worldwide. As the pandemic has progressed, the understanding of this disease has evolved. Its impact on the health and welfare of the human population is significant; its impact on the delivery of healthcare is also considerable. OBJECTIVE: This article is another paper in a series addressing COVID-19-related updates to emergency clinicians on the management of COVID-19 patients with cardiac arrest. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. From a global perspective, as of February 23, 2022, 435 million infections have been noted with 5.9 million deaths (1.4%). Current data suggest an increase in the occurrence of cardiac arrest, both in the outpatient and inpatient settings, with corresponding reductions in most survival metrics. The frequency of out-of-hospital lay provider initial care has decreased while non-shockable initial cardiac arrest rhythms have increased. While many interventions, including chest compressions, are aerosol-generating procedures, the risk of contagion to healthcare personnel is low, assuming appropriate personal protective equipment is used; vaccination with boosting provides further protection against contagion for the healthcare personnel involved in cardiac arrest resuscitation. The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of cardiac arrest care is considerable and, despite multiple efforts, has adversely impacted the chain of survival. CONCLUSION: This review provides a focused update of cardiac arrest in the setting of COVID-19 for emergency clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics
19.
Am J Emerg Med ; 56: 133-136, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There exists a need for prognostic tools for the early identification of COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. Here we investigated the association between a clinical (initial prehospital shock index (SI)) and biological (initial prehospital lactatemia) tool and the ICU admission and 30-day mortality among COVID-19 patients cared for in the prehospital setting. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed COVID-19 patients initially cared for by a Paris Fire Brigade advanced (ALS) or basic life support (BLS) team in the prehospital setting between 2020, March 08th and 2020, May 30th. We assessed the association between prehospital SI and prehospital lactatemia and ICU admission and mortality using logistic regression model analysis after propensity score matching with Inverse Probability Treatment Weighting (IPTW) method. Covariates included in the IPTW propensity analysis were: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), initial respiratory rate (iRR), initial pulse oximetry without (SpO2i) and with oxygen supplementation (SpO2i.O2), initial Glasgow coma scale (GCSi) value, initial prehospital SI and initial prehospital lactatemia. RESULTS: We analysed 410 consecutive COVID-19 patients [254 males (62%); mean age, 64 ± 18 years]. Fifty-seven patients (14%) deceased on the scene, of whom 41 (72%) were male and were significantly older (71 ± 12 years vs. 64 ± 19 years; P 〈10-3). Fifty-three patients (15%) were admitted in ICU and 39 patients (11%) were deceased on day-30. The mean prehospital SI value was 1.5 ± 0.4 and the mean prehospital lactatemia was 2.0 ± 1.7 mmol.l-1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis on matched population after IPTW propensity analysis reported a significant association between ICU admission and age (adjusted Odd-Ratio (aOR), 0.90; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.93-0.98;p = 10-3), SpO2i.O2 (aOR, 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02-1.20;p = 0.002) and BMI (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.16;p = 0.02). 30-day mortality was significantly associated with SpO2i.O2 (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98;p = 0.01 P < 10-3) and GCSi (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99;p = 0.04). Neither prehospital SI nor prehospital lactatemia were associated with ICU admission and 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Neither prehospital initial SI nor lactatemia were associated with ICU admission and 30-day mortality among COVID-19 patients initially cared for by a Paris Fire Brigade BLS or ALS team. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Shock , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 800, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635245

ABSTRACT

Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR), early defibrillation and timely treatment by emergency medical services (EMS) can double the chance of survival from out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (OHCA). We investigated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pre-hospital chain of survival. We searched five bibliographical databases for articles that compared prehospital OHCA care processes during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted, and meta-regression with mixed-effect models and subgroup analyses were conducted where appropriate. The search yielded 966 articles; 20 articles were included in our analysis. OHCA at home was more common during the pandemic (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.71, p = 0.0069). BCPR did not differ during and before the COVID-19 pandemic (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.11, p = 0.4631), although bystander defibrillation was significantly lower during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88, p = 0.0107). EMS call-to-arrival time was significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic (SMD 0.27, 95% CI 0.13-0.40, p = 0.0006). Resuscitation duration did not differ significantly between pandemic and pre-pandemic timeframes. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected prehospital processes for OHCA. These findings may inform future interventions, particularly to consider interventions to increase BCPR and improve the pre-hospital chain of survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/mortality , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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