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3.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(6): 505-510, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386577

ABSTRACT

The French-language Respiratory Medicine Society (SPLF) proposes a guide for the follow-up of patients who have presented with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The proposals are based on known data from previous epidemics, on acute lesions observed in SARS-CoV-2 patients and on expert opinion. This guide proposes a follow-up based on three categories of patients: (1) patients managed outside hospital for possible or proven SARS-CoV-2 infection, referred by their physician for persistent dyspnoea; (2) patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a medical unit; (3) patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in an intensive care unit. The subsequent follow-up will have to be adapted to the initial assessment. This guide emphasises the possibility of others causes of dyspnoea (cardiac, thromboembolic, hyperventilation syndrome…). These proposals may evolve over time as more knowledge becomes available.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aftercare/standards , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/standards , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/standards , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System/standards , Disease Management , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Health Priorities , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Therapy/standards , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/standards , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology
5.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 701-705, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339452

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thoroughly and deeply affected the provision of healthcare services worldwide. In order to limit the in-hospital infections and to redistribute the healthcare professionals, cardiac percutaneous intervention in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) patients were limited to urgent or emergency ones. The aim of this article is to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Pediatric and ACHD cath laboratory activity during the so-called 'hard lockdown' in Italy. Eleven out of 12 Italian institutions with a dedicated Invasive Cardiology Unit in Congenital Heart Disease actively participated in the survey. The interventional cardiology activity was reduced by more than 50% in 6 out of 11 centers. Adolescent and ACHD patients suffered the highest rate of reduction. There was an evident discrepancy in the management of the hard lockdown, irrespective of the number of COVID-19 positive cases registered, with a higher reduction in Southern Italy compared with the most affected regions (Lombardy, Piedmont, Veneto and Emilia Romagna). Although the pandemic was brilliantly addressed in most cases, we recognize the necessity for planning new, and hopefully homogeneous, strategies in order to be prepared for an upcoming new outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Emergency Medical Services , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infection Control , Risk Management/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Civil Defense/methods , Civil Defense/trends , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ther Drug Monit ; 43(4): 570-576, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305442

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been recommended to optimize the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The authors describe an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem spectrometry method developed in a context of emergency, to analyze HCQ in both human plasma and blood samples. After adding the labeled internal standard and simple protein precipitation, plasma samples were analyzed using a C18 column. Blood samples required evaporation before analysis. The total chromatographic run time was 4 minutes (including 1.5 minutes of column equilibration). The assay was linear over the calibration range (r2 > 0.99) and up to 1.50 mcg/mL for the plasma samples (5.00 mcg/mL for the blood matrix). The limit of quantification was 0.0150 mcg/mL for plasma samples (0.05 mcg/mL blood matrix) with accuracy and precision ranging from 91.1% to 112% and from 0.750% to 11.1%, respectively. Intraday and interday precision and accuracy values were within 15.0%. No significant matrix effect was observed in the plasma or blood samples. This method was successfully applied to patients treated for COVID-19 infection. A simple and rapid ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem spectrometry method adapted to HCQ therapeutic drug monitoring in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection was successfully developed and validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/standards , Antirheumatic Agents/blood , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/standards , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/standards , Drug Monitoring/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 1039-1045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Initially, novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was considered primarily a respiratory pathogen. However, with time it has behaved as a virus with the potential to cause multi-system involvement, including neurological manifestations. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) has increasingly been reported in association with coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we have shed light upon CVT and its possible mechanisms in the backdrop of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this review, data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, until March 30, 2021, using pre-specified searching strategies. The search strategy consisted of a variation of keywords of relevant medical subject headings and keywords, including "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "coronavirus", and "cerebral venous sinus thrombosis". RESULTS: COVID-19 has a causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. CVT has gained particular importance in this regard. The known hypercoagulable state in SARS-CoV-2 infection is thought to be the main mechanism in COVID-19 related CVT. Other plausible mechanisms may include vascular endothelial dysfunction and altered flow dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no specific clinical characteristics, insidious or acute onset headache, seizures, stroke-like, or encephalopathy symptoms in a patient with, or who has suffered COVID-19, should prompt the attending physician to investigate for CVT. The treatment of COVID-19 associated CVT does not differ radically from the therapy of CVT without the infection, i.e. urgent initiation of parenteral unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin followed by conventional or mostly newer oral anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12985, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279901

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the association between cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) under the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) safety protocols in our hospital and the prognosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients, in an urban area, where the prevalence of COVID-19 infection is relatively low. This was a single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study conducted at a tertiary critical care center in Kyoto City, Japan. Adult OHCA patients arriving at our hospital under CPR between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020 were included. Our hospital implemented a revised resuscitation protocol for OHCA patients on April 1, 2020 to prevent COVID-19 transmission. This study defined the conventional CPR period as January 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020, and the COVID-19 safety protocol period as April 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. Throughout the prehospital and in-hospital settings, resuscitation protocols about wearing personal protective equipment and airway management were revised in order to minimize the risk of infection; otherwise, the other resuscitation management had not been changed. The primary outcome was hospitalization survival. The secondary outcomes were return of spontaneous circulation after hospital arrival and 1-month survival after OHCA occurrence. The adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for outcomes to compare the two study periods, and the multivariable logistic model was used to adjust for potential confounders. The study analyzed 443 patients, with a median age of 76 years (65-85), and included 261 men (58.9%). The percentage of hospitalization survivors during the entire research period was 16.9% (75/443 patients), with 18.7% (50/267) during the conventional CPR period and 14.2% (25/176) during the COVID-19 safety protocol period. The adjusted odds ratio for hospitalization survival during the COVID-19 safety protocol period was 0.61 (95% CI 0.32-1.18), as compared with conventional CPR. There were no cases of COVID-19 infection among the staff involved in the resuscitation in our hospital. There was no apparent difference in hospitalization survival between the OHCA patients resuscitated under the conventional CPR protocol compared with the current revised protocol for controlling COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 189-194, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prehospital emergency care of children is challenging. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, when medical personnel should use personal protective equipment against aerosol-generating procedures, the efficiency of medical procedures may decrease. The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of different intravascular access methods applied by nurses wearing biosafety Level-2 suits in simulated paediatric COVID-19 resuscitation. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, crossover, single-blinded simulation trial was performed. Nursing staff attending Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support courses accredited by the American Heart Association participated in the study. A total of 65 nurses were recruited and randomly assigned to different study groups. They received standard training on intravascular access methods employing distinct devices. The participants wore biosafety Level-2 suits and performed vascular access with the following intraosseous devices: NIO-P, EZ-IO, and Jamshidi needle; intravenous (IV) access was used as a reference method. Both the order of participants and the access methods were random. Each participant performed intravascular access with each of the four methods tested. The effectiveness of the first attempt to obtain intravascular access and the following time parameters were analysed: the time between grasping the intravascular device out of the original packing until infusion line connection. The ease of the procedure was measured with a visual analogue scale (1 - easy; 10 - difficult). RESULTS: The first attempt success rate of intravascular access by using NIO-P and EZ-IO equalled 100% and was statistically significantly higher than that with the Jamshidi needle (80.0%; p = 0.02) and with the IV method (69.2%; p = 0.005). The time required to connect the infusion line varied and amounted to 33 ± 4 s for NIO-P compared to 37 ± 6.7 s for EZ-IO (p<0.001), 43 ± 7 s for Jamshidi (p<0.001), and 98.5 ± 10 s for IV access (p<0.001). The procedure was easiest in the case of NIO-P and EZ-IO (2 ± 1 points; p=1.0) compared with Jamshidi (5 ± 3 points; p<0.001) and IV access (7 ± 2 points; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence that nurses wearing biosafety Level-2 suits were able to obtain intraosseous access faster and more effectively as compared with IV access during simulated COVID-19 paediatric resuscitation. The most effective method of intravascular access was the NIO-P intraosseous device. Further clinical trials are necessary to confirm the results.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing , Infusions, Intraosseous/instrumentation , Nurses , Personal Protective Equipment , Resuscitation/instrumentation , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Over Studies , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Manikins , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(7): 1713-1721, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits have declined while excess mortality, not attributable to COVID-19, has grown. It is not known whether older adults are accessing emergency care differently from their younger counterparts. Our objective was to determine patterns of ED visit counts for emergent conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic for older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Observational analysis of ED sites enrolled in a national clinical quality registry. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty-four ED sites in 33 states from January 1, 2019 to November 15, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: We measured daily ED visit counts for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, sepsis, fall, and hip fracture, as well as deaths in the ED, by age categories. We estimated Poisson regression models comparing early and post-early pandemic periods (defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to the pre-pandemic period. We report incident rate ratios to summarize changes in visit incidence. RESULTS: For AMI, stroke, and sepsis, the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years) had the greatest decline in visit counts initially and the smallest recovery in the post-early pandemic periods. For falls, visits declined early and partially recovered uniformly across age categories. In contrast, hip fractures exhibited less change in visit rates across time periods. Deaths in the ED increased during the early pandemic period, but then fell and were persistently lower than baseline, especially for the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years). CONCLUSIONS: The decline in ED visits for emergent conditions among older adults has been more pronounced and persistent than for younger patients, with fewer deaths in the ED. This is concerning given the greater prevalence and risk of poor outcomes for emergent conditions in this age group that are amenable to time-sensitive ED diagnosis and treatment, and may in part explain excess mortality during the COVID-19 era among older adults.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Sepsis , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/mortality , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , United States/epidemiology
11.
A A Pract ; 15(3): e01392, 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151699

ABSTRACT

Ventilator shortages occurred due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of 3-dimensional (3D)-printed splitters and 3D-printed air flow limiters (AFL) in delivering appropriate tidal volumes (TV) to lungs with different compliances. Groups were divided according to the size of the AFL: AFL-4 was a 4-mm device, AFL-5 a 5-mm device, AFL-6 a 6-mm device, and no limiter (control). A ventilator was split to supply TV to 2 artificial lungs with different compliances. The AFL improved TV distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Lung Compliance/physiology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution , Humans , Lung/physiology , Male , Tidal Volume/physiology
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(4): 484-488, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149015

ABSTRACT

In China, the COVID-19 epidemic has had a definite turning point under the nationwide efforts to combat it. The battle against the epidemic has lasted for more than one and a half months and will continue in the short term. Severe infectious risks, massive consumption of medical personnel and materials bring unprecedented challenges to the treatment of non-COVID-19 with emergency and severe cases. To improve the management of emergency and severe cases of non-COVID-19 during the epidemic period, attention should be paid not only to "cure" but also to "prevent." Through the prehospital triage and in-hospital buffer, this paper provides the admission and treatment experience for emergency and severe cases of non-COVID-19, expecting to provide a valuable reference for saving more patients during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Humans , Triage/methods
13.
Acta Orthop ; 92(4): 376-380, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147908

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose - Many countries implemented strict lockdown policies to control the COVID-19 pandemic during March 2020. The impacts of lockdown policies on joint surgeries are unknown. Therefore, we assessed the effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown restrictions on the number of emergency and elective hip joint surgeries, and explored whether these procedures are more/less affected by lockdown restrictions than other hospital care.Patients and methods - In 1,344,355 persons aged ≥ 35 years in the Norwegian emergency preparedness (BEREDT C19) register, we studied the daily number of persons having (1) emergency surgeries due to hip fractures, and (2) electively planned surgeries due to hip osteoarthritis before and after COVID-19 lockdown restrictions were implemented nationally on March 13, 2020, for different age and sex groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) reflect the after-lockdown number of surgeries divided by the before-lockdown number of surgeries.Results - After-lockdown elective hip surgeries comprised one-third the number of before-lockdown (IRR ∼0.3), which is a greater drop than that seen in all-cause elective hospital care (IRR ∼0.6). Men aged 35-69 had half the number of emergency hip fracture surgeries (IRR ∼0.6), whereas women aged ≥ 70 had the same number of emergency hip fracture surgeries after lockdown (IRR ∼1). Only women aged 35-69 and men aged ≥ 70 had emergency hip fracture surgery rates after lockdown comparable to what may be expected based on analyses of all-cause acute care (IRR ∼0.80)Interpretation - It is important to note for future pandemics management that lockdown restrictions may impact more on scheduled joint surgery than other scheduled hospital care. Lockdown may also impact the number of emergency joint surgeries for men aged ≥ 35 but not those for women aged ≥ 70.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Emergency Medical Services , Hip Fractures , Osteoarthritis, Hip , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Defense/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Osteoarthritis, Hip/epidemiology , Osteoarthritis, Hip/surgery , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 46: 90-96, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126660

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Detroit, an earlier termination of resuscitation protocol was initiated in March 2020. To characterize pre-hospital cardiac arrest careduring COVID-19 in Detroit, we analyzed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) rate of ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation) and patient characteristics before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: OHCA data was analyzed between March 10th, 2020 - April 30th, 2020 and March 10th, 2019 - April 30th, 2019. ROSC, patient demographics, arrest location, initial rhythms, bystander CPR and field termination were compared before and during the pandemic. Descriptive statistics were utilized to compare arrest characteristics between years, and the odds of achieving vs. not achieving ROSC. 2020 vs. 2019 as a predictor for ROSC was assessed with logistic regression. RESULTS: 471 patients were included. Arrests increased to 291 during the pandemic vs. 180 in 2019 (62% increase). Age (mean difference + 6; 95% CI: +2.4 to +9.5), arrest location (nursing home OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.42-4.31; public place OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25-0.88), BLS response (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.99), and field termination of resuscitation (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.36-4.07) differed significantly in 2020 compared to 2019. No significant difference was found in the confounder-adjusted odds of ROSC in 2020 vs 2019 (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.34-1.11). CONCLUSION: OHCA increased by 62% during COVID-19 in Detroit, without a significant change in prehospital ROSC. The rate of ROSC remained similar despite the implementation of an early termination of resuscitation protocol in response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , Urban Population , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Anesth Analg ; 132(3): 594-604, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088641

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has infected millions of individuals and posed unprecedented challenges to health care systems. Acute care hospitals have been forced to expand hospital and intensive care capacity and deal with shortages in personal protective equipment. This guide will review 2 areas where the anesthesiologists will be caring for COVID-19 patients: the operating room and on airway teams. General principles for COVID-19 preparation and hospital procedures will be reviewed to serve as a resource for anesthesia departments to manage COVID-19 or future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesiology/methods , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Academic Medical Centers , Aerosols , Anesthesia Department, Hospital , Anesthesiologists , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , New York , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tracheostomy
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(12): 2760.e1-2760.e3, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064710

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced numerous challenges for Health Care Professionals, including exposing Emergency Department (ED) staff to the SARS-CoV-2 virus during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Recent guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) prioritize early intubation with viral filter placement to minimize hospital staff exposure. We propose a novel technique for rapid outdoor non-compression intubation (RONCI) of cardiac arrest patients while en route from the ambulance bay to the resuscitation bay to further decrease the risk of viral aerosolization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Heart Arrest/therapy , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male
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