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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147078, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669329

ABSTRACT

Importance: Resuscitation is a niche example of how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected society in the long term. Those trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) face the dilemma that attempting to save a life may result in their own harm. This is most of all a problem for drowning, where hypoxia is the cause of cardiac arrest and ventilation is the essential first step in reversing the situation. Objective: To develop recommendations for water rescue organizations in providing their rescuers with safe drowning resuscitation procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence Review: Two consecutive modified Delphi procedures involving 56 participants from 17 countries with expertise in drowning prevention research, resuscitation, and programming were performed from March 28, 2020, to March 29, 2021. In parallel, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify new emerging evidence relevant to each core element, acknowledge previous studies relevant in the new context, and identify knowledge gaps. Findings: Seven core elements, each with their own specific recommendations, were identified in the initial consensus procedure and were grouped into 4 categories: (1) prevention and mitigation of the risks of becoming infected, (2) resuscitation of drowned persons during the COVID-19 pandemic, (3) organizational responsibilities, and (4) organizations unable to meet the recommended guidelines. The common measures of infection risk mitigation, personal protective equipment, and vaccination are the base of the recommendations. Measures to increase drowning prevention efforts reduce the root cause of the dilemma. Additional infection risk mitigation measures include screening all people entering aquatic facilities, defining criteria for futile resuscitation, and avoiding contact with drowned persons by rescuers with a high-risk profile. Ventilation techniques must balance required skill level, oxygen delivery, infection risk, and costs of equipment and training. Bag-mask ventilation with a high-efficiency particulate air filter by 2 trained rescuers is advised. Major implications for the methods, facilities, and environment of CPR training have been identified, including nonpractical skills to avoid being infected or to infect others. Most of all, the organization is responsible for informing their members about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and taking measures that maximize rescuer safety. Research is urgently needed to better understand, develop, and implement strategies to reduce infection transmission during drowning resuscitation. Conclusions and Relevance: This consensus document provides an overview of recommendations for water rescue organizations to improve the safety of their rescuers during the COVID-19 pandemic and balances the competing interests between a potentially lifesaving intervention and risk to the rescuer. The consensus-based recommendations can also serve as an example for other volunteer organizations and altruistic laypeople who may provide resuscitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Drowning/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Technicians , Heart Arrest/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Heart Arrest/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e161, 2020 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531968

ABSTRACT

After the 2003 SARS epidemic, China started constructing a primary-level emergency response system and focused on strengthening and implementation of policies, resource allocation. After 17 years of restructuring, China's primary-level response capabilities towards public health emergencies have greatly improved. During the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, primary-level administrative and medical personnel, social organisations, volunteers, etc. have played a significant role in providing professional services utilising the primary-level emergency response system of 17 years. However, China's organisations did not learn their lesson from the SARS epidemic, and certain problems are exposed in the system. By analysing the experience and shortcomings of China's disease prevention and control system at the primary level, we can focus on the development of disease control systems for major epidemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Epidemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/standards , COVID-19 , China , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Information Technology/trends , Vulnerable Populations
5.
CJEM ; 22(S2): S79-S83, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387052

ABSTRACT

Transporting patients with communicable diseases is common in critical care transport operations. At Ornge, Ontario's critical care transport provider, 13.7% of patients required contact, droplet, or airborne precautions during transport in 2019-2020. Ensuring that staff are protected while transporting patients with communicable diseases must remain a prime directive for medical transport administrators and operators. Success in safety requires a robust system of hazard identification and adherence to generally accepted methods of hazard control. This commentary will discuss some of the administrative and engineering controls, as well as the personal protective equipment (PPE) strategies deployed at Ornge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Safety Management/standards , Transportation of Patients/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(6): 505-510, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386577

ABSTRACT

The French-language Respiratory Medicine Society (SPLF) proposes a guide for the follow-up of patients who have presented with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The proposals are based on known data from previous epidemics, on acute lesions observed in SARS-CoV-2 patients and on expert opinion. This guide proposes a follow-up based on three categories of patients: (1) patients managed outside hospital for possible or proven SARS-CoV-2 infection, referred by their physician for persistent dyspnoea; (2) patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a medical unit; (3) patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in an intensive care unit. The subsequent follow-up will have to be adapted to the initial assessment. This guide emphasises the possibility of others causes of dyspnoea (cardiac, thromboembolic, hyperventilation syndrome…). These proposals may evolve over time as more knowledge becomes available.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aftercare/standards , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/standards , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/standards , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System/standards , Disease Management , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Health Priorities , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Therapy/standards , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/standards , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology
7.
Emerg Med J ; 38(9): 679-684, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel have high COVID-19 risk during resuscitation. The resuscitation protocol for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) was modified in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how the adjustments in the EMS system affected patients with OHCA remains unclear. METHODS: We analysed data from the Taichung OHCA registry system. We compared OHCA outcomes and rescue records for 622 cases during the COVID-19 outbreak period (1 February to 30 April 2020) with those recorded for 570 cases during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: The two periods did not differ significantly with respect to patient age, patient sex, the presence of witnesses or OHCA location. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation with automated external defibrillators were more common in 2020 (52.81% vs 65.76%, p<0.001%, and 23.51% vs 31.67%, p=0.001, respectively). The EMS response time was longer during the COVID-19 pandemic (445.8±210.2 s in 2020 vs 389.7±201.8 s in 2019, p<0.001). The rate of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation was lower in 2020 (6.49% vs 2.57%, p=0.001); 2019 and 2020 had similar rates of survival discharge (5.96% vs 4.98%). However, significantly fewer cases had favourable neurological function in 2020 (4.21% vs 2.09%, p=0.035). CONCLUSION: EMS response time for patients with OHCA was prolonged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early advanced life support by EMS personnel remains crucial for patients with OHCA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Emergency Medical Technicians/standards , Emergency Medical Technicians/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Taiwan/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Ther Drug Monit ; 43(4): 570-576, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305442

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been recommended to optimize the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The authors describe an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem spectrometry method developed in a context of emergency, to analyze HCQ in both human plasma and blood samples. After adding the labeled internal standard and simple protein precipitation, plasma samples were analyzed using a C18 column. Blood samples required evaporation before analysis. The total chromatographic run time was 4 minutes (including 1.5 minutes of column equilibration). The assay was linear over the calibration range (r2 > 0.99) and up to 1.50 mcg/mL for the plasma samples (5.00 mcg/mL for the blood matrix). The limit of quantification was 0.0150 mcg/mL for plasma samples (0.05 mcg/mL blood matrix) with accuracy and precision ranging from 91.1% to 112% and from 0.750% to 11.1%, respectively. Intraday and interday precision and accuracy values were within 15.0%. No significant matrix effect was observed in the plasma or blood samples. This method was successfully applied to patients treated for COVID-19 infection. A simple and rapid ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem spectrometry method adapted to HCQ therapeutic drug monitoring in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection was successfully developed and validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/standards , Antirheumatic Agents/blood , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/standards , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/standards , Drug Monitoring/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
9.
Australas Emerg Care ; 24(3): 186-196, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency clinicians have a crucial role during public health emergencies and have been at the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the knowledge, preparedness and experiences of Australian emergency nurses, emergency physicians and paramedics in managing COVID-19. METHODS: A voluntary cross-sectional study of members of the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia, the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, and the Australasian College of Paramedicine was conducted using an online survey (June-September 2020). RESULTS: Of the 159 emergency nurses, 110 emergency physicians and 161 paramedics, 67.3-78% from each group indicated that their current knowledge of COVID-19 was 'good to very good'. The most frequently accessed source of COVID-19 information was from state department of health websites. Most of the respondents in each group (77.6-86.4%) received COVID-19 specific training and education, including personal protective equipment (PPE) usage. One-third of paramedics reported that their workload 'had lessened' while 36.4-40% of emergency nurses and physicians stated that their workload had 'considerably increased'. Common concerns raised included disease transmission to family, public complacency, and PPE availability. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive training and education and adequate support helped prepare emergency clinicians to manage COVID-19 patients. Challenges included inconsistent and rapidly changing communications and availability of PPE.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/organization & administration , Adult , Australia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Emergency Treatment/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data
10.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(4): 484-488, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149015

ABSTRACT

In China, the COVID-19 epidemic has had a definite turning point under the nationwide efforts to combat it. The battle against the epidemic has lasted for more than one and a half months and will continue in the short term. Severe infectious risks, massive consumption of medical personnel and materials bring unprecedented challenges to the treatment of non-COVID-19 with emergency and severe cases. To improve the management of emergency and severe cases of non-COVID-19 during the epidemic period, attention should be paid not only to "cure" but also to "prevent." Through the prehospital triage and in-hospital buffer, this paper provides the admission and treatment experience for emergency and severe cases of non-COVID-19, expecting to provide a valuable reference for saving more patients during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Humans , Triage/methods
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200657, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To reflect on the safe care exercised by the pre-hospital care team by emergency ambulance in times of coronavirus infection. METHOD: A reflection and description of how to provide safe care to the patient and the professional during pre-hospital care in times of coronavirus infection. RESULTS: To ensure the health of all those involved in the care, health professionals who work in pre-hospital care by emergency ambulance should use the recommended Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), such as the use of surgical masks and N95, N99, N100, PFF2 or PFF3, the use of an apron or overall, goggles and face shield, gloves and a hat. The entire team must receive training and demonstrate the ability to use PPE correctly and safely. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The professional working in the pre-hospital care by ambulance is exposed to a series of occupational risks that need to be discussed and minimized through professional training.


Subject(s)
Ambulances/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Emergency Medical Technicians/standards , Patient Safety/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Transportation of Patients/standards , Adult , Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation of Patients/statistics & numerical data
12.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(1): 1-3, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042459

ABSTRACT

State governments and hospital facilities are often unprepared to handle a complex medical crisis, despite a moral and ethical obligation to be prepared for disaster. The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has drawn attention to the lack of state guidance on how hospitals should provide care in a crisis. When the resources available are insufficient to treat the current patient load, crisis standards of care (CSC) are implemented to provide care to the population in an ethical manner, while maintaining an ability to handle the surge. This Editorial aims to raise awareness concerning a lack of preparedness that calls for immediate correction at the state and local level.Analysis of state guidelines for implementation of CSC demonstrates a lack of preparedness, as only five states in the US have appropriately completed necessary plans, despite a clear understanding of the danger. States have a legal responsibility to regulate the medical care within their borders. Failure of hospital facilities to properly prepare for disasters is not a new issue; Hurricane Katrina (2005) demonstrated a lack of planning and coordination. Improving disaster health care readiness in the United States requires states to create new policy and legislative directives for the health care facilities within their respective jurisdictions. Hospitals should have clear directives to prepare for disasters as part of a "duty to care" and to ensure that the necessary planning and supplies are available to their employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Disaster Planning/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , State Government , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/ethics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States/epidemiology
14.
Ther Drug Monit ; 43(4): 570-576, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915924

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been recommended to optimize the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The authors describe an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem spectrometry method developed in a context of emergency, to analyze HCQ in both human plasma and blood samples. After adding the labeled internal standard and simple protein precipitation, plasma samples were analyzed using a C18 column. Blood samples required evaporation before analysis. The total chromatographic run time was 4 minutes (including 1.5 minutes of column equilibration). The assay was linear over the calibration range (r2 > 0.99) and up to 1.50 mcg/mL for the plasma samples (5.00 mcg/mL for the blood matrix). The limit of quantification was 0.0150 mcg/mL for plasma samples (0.05 mcg/mL blood matrix) with accuracy and precision ranging from 91.1% to 112% and from 0.750% to 11.1%, respectively. Intraday and interday precision and accuracy values were within 15.0%. No significant matrix effect was observed in the plasma or blood samples. This method was successfully applied to patients treated for COVID-19 infection. A simple and rapid ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem spectrometry method adapted to HCQ therapeutic drug monitoring in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection was successfully developed and validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/standards , Antirheumatic Agents/blood , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/standards , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/standards , Drug Monitoring/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e174, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695910

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health threat. A hospital in Zhuhai adopted several measures in Fever Clinic Management (FCM) to respond to the outbreak of COVID-19. FCM has been proved to be effective in preventing nosocomial cross infection. Faced with the emergency, the hospital undertook creative operational steps in relation to the control and spread of COVID-19, with special focuses on physical and administrative layout of buildings, staff training and preventative procedures. The first operational step was to set up triaging stations at all entrances and then complete a standard and qualified fever clinic, which was isolated from the other buildings within our hospital complex. Secondly, the hospital established its human resource reservation for emergency response and the allocation of human resources to ensure strict and standardised training methods through the hospital for all medical staff and ancillary employees. Thirdly, the hospital divided the fever clinic into partitioned areas and adapted a three-level triaging system. The experiences shared in this paper would be of practical help for the facilities that are encountering or will encounter the challenges of COVID-19, i.e. to prevent nosocomial cross infection among patients and physicians.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospital Design and Construction/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fever/therapy , Hospital Design and Construction/standards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Teaching , Time Factors , Triage/methods , Ventilation/standards , Workflow , Workforce/organization & administration , Workforce/standards
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