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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263435, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTIONS: The rate of acute hand trauma visits to emergency departments (ED) and surgeries decreased during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our aim was to analyze the influence of national lockdown during the first wave and the regional restrictions during the second wave on the rate of visits to the ED and urgent hand surgeries in Finland. METHODS: Material for this retrospective study was gathered from three Finnish hospitals All ED visits and urgent or emergency surgeries from January 2017 to December 2020 were included. Incidences per 100 000 persons with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and compared by incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: The incidence of hand injury was lower after the beginning of the lockdown in March 2020 (IRR 0.70 CI 0.63-0.78). After lockdown ended in May, the monthly incidences of ED visits returned to the reference level. During the lockdown, the incidence of fractures and dislocations was 42% lower in March (IRR 0.58 CI 0.50-0.68) and 33% lower in April 2020 (IRR 0.67 CI 0.57-0.80). The incidence of fracture repair surgeries was 43% lower in March 2020 (IRR 0.57 CI 0.35-0.93) and 41% lower in July 2020 (IRR 0.59 CI 0.36-0.98). Incidence of replantation was 49% higher in March 2020 (IRR 1.49 CI 0.53-4.20) and 200% higher in July 2020 (IRR 3.00 CI 0.68-13.2) but these increases had high uncertainty. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of ED visits due to hand injuries decreased while the rate of emergency hand operations remained unchanged during the national COVID-19 lockdown in spring. After the lockdown, the incidences returned to reference level and were unaffected by regional restrictions during the second wave of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services/trends , Hand Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Hand/surgery , Hand Injuries/surgery , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am Surg ; 88(1): 133-139, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in fewer emergency presentations of many acute medical and surgical conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the severity of disease at presentation and quantify the change in number of presentations during this period. METHODS: This retrospective study includes all patients diagnosed with acute diverticulitis on abdominopelvic computerised tomography (CT) between March 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. Follow up scans on the index admission were excluded. Hinchey grade was assessed for all CT scans. Inflammatory markers were analysed, along with outcome measures including length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Acute diverticulitis was diagnosed in 52 CT scans in the acute pandemic period - a decrease of 51.4%. Average age at presentation was unchanged (63.3 ± 14.3 vs. 62.8 ± 13.8, P = .848). The number of Hinchey II, III and IV presentations were significantly higher in the acute pandemic period (28.8% vs. 11.2%, P = .005) and significantly more emergency operations were carried out (7.69% vs. .93%, P = .04). Mortality was not significantly increased, nor were serum levels of C-reactive protein, white cell count and lactate. DISCUSSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer patients presented and were diagnosed with acute diverticulitis. A significantly greater proportion presented at a more advanced stage and required emergency surgery, suggesting late presentation. Our findings support the need for maintaining acute surgical services and the provision of early radiological and surgical input in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute diverticulitis in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diverticulitis, Colonic/diagnosis , Diverticulitis, Colonic/surgery , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Acuity , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diverticulitis, Colonic/epidemiology , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e161, 2020 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531968

ABSTRACT

After the 2003 SARS epidemic, China started constructing a primary-level emergency response system and focused on strengthening and implementation of policies, resource allocation. After 17 years of restructuring, China's primary-level response capabilities towards public health emergencies have greatly improved. During the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, primary-level administrative and medical personnel, social organisations, volunteers, etc. have played a significant role in providing professional services utilising the primary-level emergency response system of 17 years. However, China's organisations did not learn their lesson from the SARS epidemic, and certain problems are exposed in the system. By analysing the experience and shortcomings of China's disease prevention and control system at the primary level, we can focus on the development of disease control systems for major epidemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Epidemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/standards , COVID-19 , China , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Information Technology/trends , Vulnerable Populations
4.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 72S-79S, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Traditional public health surveillance of nonfatal opioid overdose relies on emergency department (ED) billing data, which can be delayed substantially. We compared the timeliness of 2 new data sources for rapid drug overdose surveillance-emergency medical services (EMS) and syndromic surveillance-with ED billing data. METHODS: We used data on nonfatal opioid overdoses in Kentucky captured in EMS, syndromic surveillance, and ED billing systems during 2018-2019. We evaluated the time-series relationships between EMS and ED billing data and syndromic surveillance and ED billing data by calculating cross-correlation functions, controlling for influences of autocorrelations. A case example demonstrates the usefulness of EMS and syndromic surveillance data to monitor rapid changes in opioid overdose encounters in Kentucky during the COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: EMS and syndromic surveillance data showed moderate-to-strong correlation with ED billing data on a lag of 0 (r = 0.694; 95% CI, 0.579-0.782; t = 9.73; df = 101; P < .001; and r = 0.656; 95% CI, 0.530-0.754; t = 8.73; df = 101; P < .001; respectively) at the week-aggregated level. After the COVID-19 emergency declaration, EMS and syndromic surveillance time series had steep increases in April and May 2020, followed by declines from June through September 2020. The ED billing data were available for analysis 3 months after the end of a calendar quarter but closely followed the trends identified by the EMS and syndromic surveillance data. CONCLUSION: Data from EMS and syndromic surveillance systems can be reliably used to monitor nonfatal opioid overdose trends in Kentucky in near-real time to inform timely public health response.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/poisoning , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Sentinel Surveillance , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Humans , Kentucky/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106028, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic greatly influenced the overall quality of healthcare. The purpose of this study was to compare the time variables for acute stroke treatment and evaluate differences in the pre-hospital and in-hospital care before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as well as between the first and second waves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational and retrospective study from an Italian hospital, including patients who underwent thrombectomy between January 1st 2019 and December 31st 2020. RESULTS: Out of a total of 594 patients, 301 were treated in 2019 and 293 in 2020. The majority observed in 2019 came from spoke centers (67,1%), while in 2020 more than half (52%, p < 0.01) were evaluated at the hospital's emergency room directly (ER-NCGH). When compared to 2019, time metrics were globally increased in 2020, particularly in the ER-NCGH groups during the period of the first wave (N = 24 and N = 56, respectively): "Onset-to-door":50,5 vs 88,5, p < 0,01; "Arrival in Neuroradiology - groin":13 vs 25, p < 0,01; "Door-to-groin":118 vs 143,5, p = 0,02; "Onset-to-groin":180 vs 244,5, p < 0,01; "Groin-to-recanalization": 41 vs 49,5, p = 0,03. When comparing ER-NCGH groups between the first (N = 56) and second (N = 49) waves, there was an overall improvement in times, namely in the "Door-to-CT" (47,5 vs 37, p < 0,01), "Arrival in Neuroradiology - groin" (25 vs 20, p = 0,03) and "Onset-to-groin" (244,5 vs 227,5, p = 0,02). CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, treatment for stroke patients was delayed, particularly during the first wave. Reallocation of resources and the shutting down of spoke centers may have played a determinant role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Databases, Factual , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Female , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(4): 380-384, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) is ranked 22nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While the global number of deaths from terrorism over the past five years is down, the number of countries affected by terrorism is growing and the health care repercussions remain significant. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) is rapidly emerging as a necessary sub-specialty, and this study aims to provide the epidemiological context over the past decade supporting this need by detailing the unique injury types responders are likely to encounter and setting the stage for the development of training programs utilizing these data. METHODS: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was searched for all attacks in the US from 2008-2018. Attacks met inclusion criteria if they fulfilled the three terrorism-related criteria as set by the GTD. Ambiguous events were excluded when there was uncertainty as to whether the incident met all of the criteria for inclusion in the GTD. The grey literature was reviewed, and each event was cross-matched with reputable international and national newspaper sources online to confirm or add details regarding weapon type used and, whenever available, details of victim and perpetrator fatalities and injuries. RESULTS: In total, 304 events were recorded during the period of study. Of the 304 events, 117 (38.5%) used incendiary-only weapons, 80 (26.3%) used firearms as their sole weapon, 55 (18.1%) used explosives, bombs, or dynamite (E/B/D), 23 (7.6%) were melee-only, six (2.0%) used vehicles-only, four (1.3%) were chemicals-only, two (0.7%) used sabotage equipment, two (0.7%) were listed as "others," and one (0.3%) used biological weapon. There was no recorded nuclear or radiological weapon use. In addition, 14 (4.6%) events used a mix of weapons. CONCLUSIONS: In the decade from 2008 through 2018, terrorist attacks on US soil used weapons with well-understood injury-causing modalities. A total of 217 fatal injuries (FI) and 660 non-fatal injuries (NFI) were sustained as a result of these events during that period.Incendiary weapons were the most commonly chosen methodology, followed by firearms and E/B/D attacks. Firearm events contributed to a disproportionality high fatality count while E/B/D events contributed to a disproportionally high NFI count.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Emergency Medicine/trends , Terrorism/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Terrorism/trends , United States
11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E592-E601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unique pressures on the emergency services system. This study describes changes in the presentation, presenting severity and disposition of patients accessing emergency services in Calgary, Alberta, during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: In this descriptive study, we constructed a population cohort of all patients who accessed emergency services by calling emergency medical services (EMS) (ambulance service that provides prehospital treatment and transport to medical facilities) or presenting directly to an emergency department (4 adult and 1 pediatric) or 2 urgent care centres in Calgary during the exposure period (December 2019 to June 2020) compared to 2 historical control periods (December to June, 2017-2018 and 2018-2019) combined. Outcomes included frequency of presentation, system flow indicators, patient severity, disposition and mortality. We used a locally estimated scatterplot smoothing function to visualize trends. We described differences at the maximum and minimum point of the exposure period compared to the control period. RESULTS: A total of 1 127 014 patient encounters were included. Compared to the control period, there was a 61% increase in the number of patients accessing EMS and a 35% decrease in the number of those presenting to an adult emergency department or urgent care centre in the COVID-19 period. The proportion of EMS calls for the highest-priority patients remained stable, whereas the proportion of patients presenting to an emergency department or urgent care centre with the highest-priority triage classification increased transiently by 0.9 percentage points (increase of 89%). A smaller proportion of patients were transported by EMS (decrease of 21%), and a greater proportion of emergency department patients were admitted to hospital (increase of 25%). After the first case was reported, the mortality rate among EMS patients increased by 265% (3.4 v. 12.4 per 1000 patient encounters). INTERPRETATION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with substantial changes in the frequency and disposition of patients accessing emergency services. Further research examining the mechanism of these observations is important for mitigating the impact of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Alberta , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a serious respiratory virus pandemic. Patient characteristics, knowledge of the COVID-19 disease, risk behaviour and mental state will differ between individuals. The primary aim of this study was to investigate these variables in patients visiting an emergency department in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare the "COVID-19 suspected" (positive and negative tested group) with the "COVID-19 not suspected" (control group) and to compare in the "COVID-19 suspected" group, the positive and negative tested patients. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients, visiting the emergency room at the Franciscus Gasthuis & Vlietland, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were asked to fill out questionnaires on the abovementioned items on an iPad. The patients were either "COVID-19 suspected" (positive and negative tested group) or "COVID-19 not suspected" (control group). RESULTS: This study included a total of 159 patients, 33 (21%) tested positive, 85 (53%) negative and 41 (26%) were COVID-19 not suspected (control group). All patients in this study were generally aware of transmission risks and virulence and adhered to the non-pharmaceutical interventions. Working as a health care professional was correlated to a higher risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection (p- value 0.04). COVID-19 suspected patients had a significantly higher level of anxiety compared to COVID-19 not suspected patients (p-value < 0.001). The higher the anxiety, the more seriously hygiene measures were followed. The anxiety scores of the patients with (pulmonary) comorbidities were significantly higher than without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first (large) study that investigates and compares patient characteristics, knowledge, behaviour, illness perception, and mental state with respect to COVID-19 of patients visiting the emergency room, subdivided as being suspected of having COVID-19 (positive or negative tested) and a control group not suspected of having COVID-19. All patients in this study were generally aware of transmission risks and virulence and adhered to the non-pharmaceutical interventions. COVID-19 suspected patients and patients with (pulmonary) comorbidities were significantly more anxious. However, there is no mass hysteria regarding COVID-19. The higher the degree of fear, the more carefully hygiene measures were observed. Knowledge about the coping of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic is very important, certainly also in the perspective of a possible second outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Fear , Female , Health Personnel , Health Risk Behaviors/physiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 13, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143232

ABSTRACT

We present the New Year letter from the WSES board to wish everyone a new year full of positive surprises and good news, despite COVID-19 pandemic.We confirm the WSES primary aim: to promote education in emergency surgery putting together all the world experts on emergency surgery without restrictions or boundaries, in inclusivity, equality, and equal opportunities. This will be the year of innovations and WSES will assess the application of artificial intelligence technologies in emergency and trauma surgery.Thank you All for trusting us with your collaboration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Emergency Medicine/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(8): 2261-2268, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111348

ABSTRACT

The emergence of Covid-19 has caused a pandemic and is a major public health concern. Covid-19 has fundamentally challenged the global health care system in all aspects. However, there is a growing concern for the subsequent detrimental effects of continuing delays or adjustments on time-dependent treatments for Covid-19 negative patients. Patients arriving to the ED with STEMIs and acute CVA are currently presumed to have delays due to Covid-19 related concerns. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the implications of the Covid-19 pandemic on non-Covid19 patients in emergency care settings. We conducted a retrospective study from February 2020 to April 2020 and compared this to a parallel period in 2019 to assess the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on three distinct non-Covid-19 ED diagnosis that require immediate intervention. Our primary outcome measures were time to primary PCI in acute STEMI, time to fibrinolysis in acute CVA, and time to femoral hip fracture correction surgery. Our secondary outcome measure included a composite outcome of length of stay in hospital and mortality. From 1 February 2020 to 30 April 2020, the total referrals to ED diagnosed with STEMI, Hip fracture and CVA of which required intervention were 197 within Covid-19 group 2020 compared to 250 in the control group 2019. Mean duration to intervention (PCI, surgery and tPA, respectively) did not differ between COVID-19 group and 2019 group. Among femoral hip fracture patients', the referral numbers to ED were significantly lower in Covid-19 era (p = 0.040) and the hospitalization stay was significantly shorter (p = 0.003). Among CVA patients', we found statistical differences among the number of referrals and the patients' age. Coping with the Covid-19 pandemic presents a challenge for the general healthcare system. Our results suggest that with proper management, despite the obstacles of isolation policies and social distancing, any negative impact on the quality of health care for the non-Covid-19 patients can be minimized in the emergency department setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Humans , Retrospective Studies
19.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 377-388, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962785

ABSTRACT

The Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) is an incident management system specific to hospitals based on the principles of Incident Command System (ICS), and it includes prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. It plays a crucial role in effective and timely response during the periods of disasters, mass casualties, and public health emergencies. In recent times, hospitals have used a customized HICS structure to coordinate effective responses to public health problems such as the Ebola outbreak in the US and SARS epidemic in Taiwan. The current COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented challenges on the healthcare system, necessitating the creation of HICS that can help in the proper allocation of resources and ineffective utilization of healthcare personnel. The key elements in managing a response to this pandemic include screening and early diagnosis, quarantining affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, delivering appropriate treatment, and ensuring an adequate supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) to healthcare staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Crew Resource Management, Healthcare/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Humans , Incidence , Information Centers/trends
20.
Acute Med ; 19(4): 176-182, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934856

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 may have altered the case-mix of non-COVID acute medical admissions. Retrospective analysis of acute medical admissions to University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, showed that medical admissions decreased in April 2020 compared to April 2019. The proportion of young adults, non-cardiac chest pain, musculoskeletal conditions and self-discharges decreased. The proportion of admissions due to alcohol misuse, psychiatric conditions, overdoses and falls increased. There were a higher number of patients admitted to ICU and greater inpatient mortality but not once COVID diagnoses were excluded. There was a significant change in hospitalised case-mix with conditions potentially reflecting social isolation increasing and diagnoses which rarely require hospital treatment, reducing. This analysis will help inform service planning.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
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