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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate a logistic regression-based machine learning (ML) prognostic algorithm implemented in real-time as a clinical decision support (CDS) system for symptomatic persons under investigation (PUI) for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We developed in a 12-hospital system a model using training and validation followed by a real-time assessment. The LASSO guided feature selection included demographics, comorbidities, home medications, vital signs. We constructed a logistic regression-based ML algorithm to predict "severe" COVID-19, defined as patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or died in or out-of-hospital. Training data included 1,469 adult patients who tested positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 14 days of acute care. We performed: 1) temporal validation in 414 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 2) validation in a PUI set of 13,271 patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 test during an acute care visit, and 3) real-time validation in 2,174 ED patients with PUI test or positive SARS-CoV-2 result. Subgroup analysis was conducted across race and gender to ensure equity in performance. RESULTS: The algorithm performed well on pre-implementation validations for predicting COVID-19 severity: 1) the temporal validation had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of 0.87 (95%-CI: 0.83, 0.91); 2) validation in the PUI population had an AUROC of 0.82 (95%-CI: 0.81, 0.83). The ED CDS system performed well in real-time with an AUROC of 0.85 (95%-CI, 0.83, 0.87). Zero patients in the lowest quintile developed "severe" COVID-19. Patients in the highest quintile developed "severe" COVID-19 in 33.2% of cases. The models performed without significant differences between genders and among race/ethnicities (all p-values > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A logistic regression model-based ML-enabled CDS can be developed, validated, and implemented with high performance across multiple hospitals while being equitable and maintaining performance in real-time validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Triage/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Chin J Physiol ; 64(6): 306-311, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had caused a worldwide pandemic with public health emergencies since 2020. For the symptomatic patients, high mortality rate was observed if without timely and optimized management. In this study, we aimed to investigate the predictive and prognostic roles of hematologic and biochemical parameters obtained in the emergency department (ED) for COVID-19 patients. We conducted a retrospective study in a dedicated COVID-19 medical center, recruiting a total of 228 COVID-19 patients with 86 severe and 142 non-severe cases. Both the hematologic and biochemical parameters obtained in the ED upon arrival were analyzed to evaluate the association of the biomarkers with disease severity and prognosis among COVID-19 patients. Among these parameters, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and D-dimer were significantly higher in the severe group than the non-severe one, whereas the platelet count and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio were significantly lower. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the areas under curve of CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR for differentiating the severity of COVID-19 were 0.713, 0.755, 0.763, 0.741, 0.733, and 0.683, respectively, whereas the areas under curve of CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR for differentiating the mortality of COVID-19 were 0.678, 0.744, 0.680, 0.676, 0.755, and 0.572, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR were independent indicators for prediction of severe COVID-19, and LDH and ferritin were independent factors associated with the mortality in COVID-19. In conclusion, higher CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and NLR were associated with severe COVID-19, whereas higher LDH and ferritin were associated with the mortality in COVID-19. These findings could help early risk stratification in the ED and contribute to optimized patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142354, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604496

ABSTRACT

Importance: Deferred diabetic foot screening and delays in timely care of acute foot complications during the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to an increase in limb loss. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with diabetes-related care measures, foot complications, and amputation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, with diabetes and compared the rates of selected outcomes from January 1, 2020, to February 23, 2021, vs January 1, 2019, to February 23, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment, including foot examination; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement; emergency department visit or hospitalization for diabetic foot ulceration, osteomyelitis, or gangrene; lower extremity open or endovascular revascularization; minor (toe or partial-foot) amputation; and major (above-ankle) leg amputation. Rates and rate ratios (RRs) comparing 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 for each measure were calculated for 10-week periods, anchored relative to onset of the pandemic on March 11, 2020 (11th week of 2020). Results: On March 11, 2020, the study included 1 488 605 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 776 665 [52.2%] men), and on March 11, 2019, the study included 1 441 029 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 751 459 [52.1%] men). After the onset of the pandemic, rates of major amputation in 2020-2021 decreased compared with 2019-2020 levels. The RR for the prepandemic period from January 1 to March 10 was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88-1.25), with RRs in the pandemic periods ranging from 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.03) in May 20 to July 28 to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.13) in October 7 to December 15. There were no consistent differences in demographic characteristics or comorbidities of patients undergoing amputation in the 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 periods. Rates of comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment and HbA1c measurement declined sharply and remained below 2019-2020 levels (eg, in-person assessment, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.28-0.28). The rates of emergency department visits (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.75), hospitalization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87), open revascularization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.79), endovascular revascularization (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81), and minor amputation (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83) initially dropped but recovered to 2019-2020 levels over the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, disruptions in care related to the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with excess leg amputations among people living with diabetes. As the pandemic ends, improved prevention and treatment of diabetic foot complications will be necessary to maintain these positive results.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Foot/pathology , Foot/surgery , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Surgical Procedures
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27634, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597449

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Acute sstroke is the most common time-dependent disease attended in the emergency medical service (EMS) of Madrid (SUMMA 112). Community of Madrid has been one of the most affected regions in Spain by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A significant reduction in acute sstroke hospital admissions has been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same period 1 year before. As international clinical practice guidelines support those patients with suspected acute stroke should be accessed via EMS, it is important to know whether the pandemic has jeopardized urgent pre-hospital stroke care, the first medical contact for most patients. We aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 in stroke codes (SC) in our EMS among 3 periods of time: the COVID-19 period, the same period the year before, and the 2019-2020 seasonal influenza period.We compared the SC frequency among the periods with high cumulative infection rate (above the median of the series) of the first wave of COVID-19, seasonal influenza, and also with the same period of the year before.One thousand one hundred thirty SC were attended during the 3 periods. No significant reduction in SC was found during the COVID-19 pandemic. The reduction of hospital admissions might be attributable to patients attending the hospital by their means. The maximum SC workload seen during seasonal influenza has not been reached during the pandemic. We detected a nonsignificant deviation from the SC protocol, with a slight increase in hospitals' transfers to hospitals without stroke units.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Spain/epidemiology
6.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed) ; 13(2): 259-271, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599551

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to analyze the frequency of the spontaneous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in patients admitted to an Emergency Eye Department in Italy (EED) during the COVID-19 pandemic national lockdown in 2020 compared with the similar time period in 2019. In this retrospective observational study, patient records for ophthalmology EED patients in the month of April 2020 during the COVID-19 Italian national lockdown, were compared with those for an equivalent one-month period in 2019. Diagnoses, gender, and age were assessed. Unpaired Student t-tests were used for continuous variables. Poisson regression was used for count analysis to compare categorical variables. Chi-square test was applied to asses proportion differences. In comparison with the 2019 equivalent period, there was a significant decrease in the overall number of EED visits and in the number of patients presenting with a spontaneous PVD during the 2020 lockdown (-41.6% and -49%, respectively). During the 2020 lockdown, all diagnostic categories showed less patient admittance, however, the proportions remained stable when considering the entire cohort. The proportion of urgent visits was 90% in 2020 and 86% in 2019 (p = 0.66). The proportion of EED patients affected by spontaneous PVD was comparable between the two study periods (8.4% in 2020 vs. 9.6% in 2019, p = 0.34). Patients presenting with spontaneous PVD in both periods were significantly older when compared to patients with other pathologies (mean age of 63years in 2020 and 64years in 2019, p < 0.001). There was a significant bias in female gender (61.2% in 2019 and 60% in 2020, p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease of accesses to the EED during COVID-19 2020 lockdown. Patients affected by spontaneous PVD were about 50% less compared with the same period of 2019. Risk factors for the development of spontaneous PVD were older age and female gender. PVD represents a potentially visual function threatening condition because it can cause retinal ruptures and retinal detachment. Patients need to be educated to get urgent ophthalmic assessments in the presence of important acute signs and symptoms, like floaters and flashes, even in the presence of a lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Vitreous Detachment/diagnosis , Vitreous Detachment/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
7.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 116(6): 748-755, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596438

ABSTRACT

Background: In the case of patients admitted with acute abdomen at the emergency department, interstitial pulmonary pathology (Covid-19 infections) represents a significant operative risk for the patients. The rate of postoperative complications is high with increased morbidity and mortality, a real challenge for the medical staff and surgical/intensive care unit teams. In emergency settings, patients were examined with targeted clinical and paraclinical parameters that assure a fast diagnosis to optimize a rapid medical and surgical treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective comparative study that included patients enrolled and diagnosed with an acute surgical abdomen in Surgical Clinic 1 Tg. Mures Emergency County Hospital. Patients were examined and analyzed at the emergency department UPU-SMURD. We included patients admitted over the two years (2019 and 2020) and divided them into two groups. Results: The total number of patients admitted in the UPU-Smurd emergency department Surgical Clinic I over the two years was 1033. There was a significant reduction in total cases diagnosed with the acute surgical abdomen in the pandemic period (p=0.033). The average time from the admission to the surgical procedure was significantly higher in the pandemic period 380Ã+-2 min in comparison with 222+-3 min (p=0.001) and also with an increased average operative time 223+-3 min versus 145+-2 min (p=0.002). Average hospitalization time was higher in the pandemic period 10+-1 (p=0.031) with no significant difference between the groups regarding Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (p=0.122). Overall mortality has more than doubled, with 31 cases (19%) in the pandemic and 28 (9%) in the non-pandemic. (p=0.001). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has played an essential role in treating acute surgical abdomen cases. The high solicitation rate of the emergency department delayed the diagnosis and treatment of severe surgical cases. As the scale of this pandemic is unprecedented, standard protocols with minor changes do not provide adequate results.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , COVID-19 , Abdomen , Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211067496, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594491

ABSTRACT

A total of 95 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the orthopedics department within half a year of the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected between January 23, 2020 and July 23, 2020. Data such as patients' demographics, type of injury, location, side of lesions, mechanism of injury, injury site, and surgical management were collected and subsequently analyzed. On the one hand, the total number of emergency visits due to hand injury during the COVID-19 outbreak decreased by 37%, compared to the same period in the previous year. On the other hand, work resumption injuries increased by 40%. Injuries within the resumption period occurred predominantly at work (64.7%) and were significantly higher than the same period in 2019 (37.3%) (P < .001). Machine-related injuries were the most frequent injuries seen in our hospital (58.8%). The majority of cases were from cut injuries (82.4%), with fingers being the most common site of these injuries. Simple fractures and dislocations were also reported during the study. Most injuries were classified as either minor or moderate (90%) during the outbreak. However, during the resumption of work, major injuries were more prevalent (40%). The proportion of major injuries this year's work resumption stage (40%) has almost doubled compared to the previous year (21.8%, P = .006). The resumption of work following the COVID-19 outbreak is a time of high-risk for hand injuries. The overall number of patients with hand injuries admitted into our department has decreased compared to the corresponding period last year. However, workplace injuries, particularly machine-related ones, considerably increased during the first six months after the COVID-19 outbreak. As a result, the proportion of major injuries drastically increased. Emergency and surgical health care providers should be aware of this pattern of hand injuries during this untypical time in order to effectively prepare and plan services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Injuries , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hand Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594329

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a global success story, yet UK coverage remains undertarget for a number of diseases. The paediatric emergency department (PED) offers the potential for opportunistic vaccination interventions. OBJECTIVES: To map the Greater Manchester (GM) Child Health Information System network to see if it was a viable source of vaccination data for clinicians working in the PED as a case study. METHODS: Postprimary care vaccination management systems for GM were visualised using a systems mapping approach, with data obtained from the Office for National Statistics and commissioners in the GM Health and Social Care Partnership. RESULTS: Once vaccination data left primary care, it passed through 1 of 10 local child health information services (CHISs), using an assortment of different information technology systems, after which it shed individual identifiers and was aggregated within national systems. None of the existing GM CHISs were accessible to PED practitioners. CONCLUSION: More work needs to be done to explore possible alternative sources of accurate vaccination data during a PED consultation.


Subject(s)
Child Health , Emergency Service, Hospital , Child , England , Humans , Information Services , Vaccination
10.
J Infus Nurs ; 45(1): 41-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583944

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has tested nurse staffing and other resources necessary for lifesaving treatment. The emergency use authorization in November 2020 of bamlanivimab as monotherapy and casirivimab/imdevimab as combination therapy brought hope to many as an option for outpatients at risk for severe illness. However, logistical concerns were soon revealed, because safe administration requires a location where patients can receive specialized care and monitoring for a period of 2 hours. This type of therapy would normally be offered at an outpatient infusion center. These centers often serve persons who are immunocompromised, and introducing COVID-19-positive individuals could threaten the safety of this population. This article describes the deployment of an emergency department-embedded infusion center set up for the purpose of supporting community members and providers electing for this treatment option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e051561, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exploration of the factors that influence hospital doctors' antibiotic prescribing decisions when treating children with respiratory symptoms in UK emergency departments. METHODS: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews based on a critical incident technique with 21 physicians of different grades and specialties that treat children in the UK. Interviews were audio-recorded then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes were identified. These themes illustrate factors which influence clinician prescribing. The three principal themes were authorities, pressures and risk. The fourth transcending theme that ran through all themes was clinician awareness and complicity ('knowing but still doing'). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital doctors prescribe antibiotics even when they know they should not. This appears to be due to the influence of those in charge or external pressures experienced while weighing up the immediate and longer term risks but clinicians do this with full insight into their actions. These findings have implications for invested parties seeking to develop future antimicrobial stewardship programmes. It is recommended that stewardship interventions acknowledge and target these themes which may in turn facilitate behaviour change and antimicrobial prescribing practice in emergency departments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Qualitative Research , United Kingdom
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e052019, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate background rates of selected thromboembolic and coagulation disorders in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases. Records of hospitalisations and emergency department visits were searched to identify cases using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Canada diagnostic codes. PARTICIPANTS: All Ontario residents. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rates of ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and cerebral venous thrombosis during five prepandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million with 51% female. The mean annual rates per 100 000 population during 2015-2019 were 127.1 (95% CI 126.2 to 127.9) for ischaemic stroke, 22.0 (95% CI 21.6 to 22.3) for intracerebral haemorrhage, 9.4 (95% CI 9.2 to 9.7) for subarachnoid haemorrhage, 86.8 (95% CI 86.1 to 87.5) for deep vein thrombosis, 63.7 (95% CI 63.1 to 64.3) for pulmonary embolism, 6.1 (95% CI 5.9 to 6.3) for idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, 1.6 (95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) for disseminated intravascular coagulation, and 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.6) for cerebral venous thrombosis. Rates were lower in 2020 than during the prepandemic years for ischaemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis and idiopathic thrombocytopaenia. Rates were generally consistent over time, except for pulmonary embolism, which increased from 57.1 to 68.5 per 100 000 between 2015 and 2019. Rates were higher for females than males for subarachnoid haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism and cerebral venous thrombosis, and vice versa for ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. Rates increased with age for most of these conditions, but idiopathic thrombocytopaenia demonstrated a bimodal distribution with incidence peaks at 0-19 years and ≥60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates help contextualise observed events of these potential adverse events of special interest and to detect potential safety signals related to COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e052923, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Explore the association between the first national lockdown associated with the COVID-19 pandemic on admissions for violence and the relationship with deprivation. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: North East and North Cumbria (NENC) area of England. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals living in the NENC (total population 3.1 million) admitted 2017/2018, 2018/2019, 2019/2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital Episode Statistics were extracted at Lower Layer Super Output Area and the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2019 decile applied. Directly standardised rates were explored for number of accident and emergency (A&E) attendances (per 1000); Alcohol-related admissions using Public Health England (PHE) Fingertips tool (per 100 000, ID 91414) and emergency admissions for violence (including sexual violence) (per 100 000) (ID 11201 classified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)10 codes X85 to Y09). RESULTS: A&E attendances are higher in NENC compared with England (409.9 per 1000 v 359.2). A&E attendance was 81% higher in 2019/20 in the most deprived compared with the least deprived. Attendances dropped during the first national COVID-19 lockdown and by September 2020 had not returned to 'normal' levels.Admissions related to violence are a third higher in NENC (29% to 34% higher across 3 years) rates 7-10 times higher in most deprived than least deprived areas. Admission rates reduced during the first UK lock down but this bounced back by August higher than any of the previous 12 months. CONCLUSION: Emergency admissions with violence appear to associate with the COVID-19 pandemic being initially higher than before the first national lockdown. This is in the context of overall A&E attendances which are lower post lockdown. Given that emergency admissions with violence have been consistently higher in the NENC compared with England over recent years, we suggest that targeted action is required in NENC to address health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Italy implemented two national lockdowns aimed at reducing virus transmission. We assessed whether these lockdowns affected anti-seizure medication (ASM) use and epilepsy-related access to emergency departments (ED) in the general population. METHODS: We performed a population-based study using the healthcare administrative database of Tuscany. We defined the weekly time series of prevalence and incidence of ASM, along with the incidence of epilepsy-related ED access from 1 January 2018 to 27 December 2020 in the general population. An interrupted time-series analysis was used to assess the effect of lockdowns on the observed outcomes. RESULTS: Compared to pre-lockdown, we observed a relevant reduction of ASM incidence (0.65; 95% Confidence Intervals: 0.59-0.72) and ED access (0.72; 0.64-0.82), and a slight decrease of ASM prevalence (0.95; 0.94-0.96). During the post-lockdown the ASM incidence reported higher values compared to pre-lockdown, whereas ASM prevalence and ED access remained lower. Results also indicate a lower impact of the second lockdown for both ASM prevalence (0.97; 0.96-0.98) and incidence (0.89; 0.80-0.99). CONCLUSION: The lockdowns implemented during the COVID-19 outbreaks significantly affected ASM use and epilepsy-related ED access. The potential consequences of these phenomenon are still unknown, although an increased incidence of epilepsy-related symptoms after the first lockdown has been observed. These findings emphasize the need of ensuring continuous care of epileptic patients in stressful conditions such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248995, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575502

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced healthcare services organization to adjust to mutating healthcare needs. Not exhaustive data are available on the consequences of this on non-COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic on non-COVID-19 patients living in a one-million inhabitants' area in Northern Italy (Bologna Metropolitan Area-BMA), analyzing time trends of Emergency Department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study using data extracted from BMA healthcare informative systems. Weekly trends of ED visits, hospitalizations, in- and out-of-hospital, all-cause and cause-specific mortality between December 1st, 2019 to May 31st, 2020, were compared with those of the same period of the previous year. Non-COVID-19 ED visits and hospitalizations showed a stable trend until the first Italian case of COVID-19 has been recorded, on February 19th, 2020, when they dropped simultaneously. The reduction of ED visits was observed in all age groups and across all severity and diagnosis groups. In the lockdown period a significant increase was found in overall out-of-hospital mortality (43.2%) and cause-specific out-of-hospital mortality related to neoplasms (76.7%), endocrine, nutritional and metabolic (79.5%) as well as cardiovascular (32.7%) diseases. The pandemic caused a sudden drop of ED visits and hospitalizations of non-COVID-19 patients during the lockdown period, and a concurrent increase in out-of-hospital mortality mainly driven by deaths for neoplasms, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases. As recurrencies of the COVID-19 pandemic are underway, the scenario described in this study might be useful to understand both the population reaction and the healthcare system response at the early phases of the pandemic in terms of reduced demand of care and systems capability in intercepting it.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 43(4): 355-362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575321

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) are the point of entry for infectious diseases, making it necessary to reevaluate current practices and make adjustments to decrease transmission when presented with a novel viral infection. This article discusses strategies implemented in the ED to prevent transmission of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) while identifying areas of needed change in creating a safe environment for patients, health care workers, and ancillary staff. A team approach is ultimately necessary for success; therefore, development of interprofessional teams was formed to mitigate any obstacles. Dissemination of the most current information regarding proper personal protective equipment use, triaging, patient flow, and treatment areas were implemented with weekly emails, videoconferencing, and daily huddles. Developing an efficient triage screening process, redesigning patient flow, and cohorting of patients and staff to a geographical location are essential to minimize transmission. Constant reevaluation of processes is necessary to meet all the needs of patients and health care staff to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248438, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Accurate and reliable criteria to rapidly estimate the probability of infection with the novel coronavirus-2 that causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) and associated disease (COVID-19) remain an urgent unmet need, especially in emergency care. The objective was to derive and validate a clinical prediction score for SARS-CoV-2 infection that uses simple criteria widely available at the point of care. METHODS: Data came from the registry data from the national REgistry of suspected COVID-19 in EmeRgency care (RECOVER network) comprising 116 hospitals from 25 states in the US. Clinical variables and 30-day outcomes were abstracted from medical records of 19,850 emergency department (ED) patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. The criterion standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 required a positive molecular test from a swabbed sample or positive antibody testing within 30 days. The prediction score was derived from a 50% random sample (n = 9,925) using unadjusted analysis of 107 candidate variables as a screening step, followed by stepwise forward logistic regression on 72 variables. RESULTS: Multivariable regression yielded a 13-variable score, which was simplified to a 13-point score: +1 point each for age>50 years, measured temperature>37.5°C, oxygen saturation<95%, Black race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, household contact with known or suspected COVID-19, patient reported history of dry cough, anosmia/dysgeusia, myalgias or fever; and -1 point each for White race, no direct contact with infected person, or smoking. In the validation sample (n = 9,975), the probability from logistic regression score produced an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.79-0.81), and this level of accuracy was retained across patients enrolled from the early spring to summer of 2020. In the simplified score, a score of zero produced a sensitivity of 95.6% (94.8-96.3%), specificity of 20.0% (19.0-21.0%), negative likelihood ratio of 0.22 (0.19-0.26). Increasing points on the simplified score predicted higher probability of infection (e.g., >75% probability with +5 or more points). CONCLUSION: Criteria that are available at the point of care can accurately predict the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These criteria could assist with decisions about isolation and testing at high throughput checkpoints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Adult , Aged , Clinical Decision Rules , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough , Databases, Factual , Decision Trees , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
19.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 43(4): 249-254, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574536

ABSTRACT

This review examines the American College of Emergency Physicians' (ACEP) Emergency Department COVID-19 Management Tool (2021). The authors and contributors developed a tool to provide a framework to assist with severity classification, risk assessment, diagnostic workup, disposition, and treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the emergency department. By utilizing the tool from this study, the emergency nurse practitioner can confidently treat COVID-19 and reduce patient risks from unnecessary treatments or unneeded admissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 43(4): 279-292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574416

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of ultrasonography, clinicians have discovered different uses for embedding this technology in the clinical setting. The use of point-of-care ultrasonography has gained a lot of interest in the emergency department. It is a procedure that a clinician can rapidly utilize to triage, risk stratify, evaluate, and monitor the patient's condition. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the significance and application of ultrasonography in identifying and managing patients presenting with lung pathology in the emergency setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurse Practitioners , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
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