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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261771, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622341

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of unconventional emergencies leads to a surge in demand for emergency supplies. How to effectively arrange emergency production processes and improve production efficiency is significant. The emergency manufacturing systems are typically complex systems, which are difficult to be analyzed by using physical experiments. Based on the theory of Random Service System (RSS) and Parallel Emergency Management System (PeMS), a parallel simulation and optimization framework of production processes for surging demand of emergency supplies is constructed. Under this novel framework, an artificial system model paralleling with the real scenarios is established and optimized by the parallel implementation processes. Furthermore, a concrete example of mask shortage, which occurred at Huoshenshan Hospital in the COVID-19 pandemic, verifies the feasibility of this method.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Humans
2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 128-131, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561972

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study we aimed to investigate whether changing rescuers wearing N95 masks every 1 min instead of the standard CPR change over time of 2 min would make a difference in effective chest compressions. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled mannequin study. Participants were selected from healthcare staff. They were divided into two groups of two people in each group. The scenario was implemented on CPR mannequin representing patient with asystolic arrest, that measured compression depth, compression rate, recoil, and correct hand position. Two different scenarios were prepared. In Scenario 1, the rescuers were asked to change chest compression after 1 min. In Scenario 2, standard CPR was applied. The participants' vital parameters, mean compression rate, correct compression rate/ratio, total number of compressions, compression depth, correct recoil/ratio, correct hand position/ratio, mean no-flow time, and total CPR time were recorded. RESULTS: The study hence included 14 teams each for scenarios, with a total of 56 participants. In each scenario, 14 participants were physicians and 14 participants were women. Although there was no difference in the first minute of the cycles starting from the fourth cycle, a statistically significant difference was observed in the second minute in all cycles except the fifth cycle. CONCLUSION: Changing the rescuer every 1 min instead of every 2 min while performing CPR with full PPE may prevent the decrease in compression quality that may occur as the resuscitation time gets longer.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Fatigue/prevention & control , Heart Arrest/therapy , Medical Staff, Hospital , N95 Respirators , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Manikins , Turkey
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468177

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of individual infection control measures and physical distancing on pediatric medical care in a local prefecture in Japan, where the incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pediatric patients was extremely low. We extracted data from hospital records on the number of outpatients, inpatients, infectious disease consultations, and consultations for representative pediatric diseases. We compared attendance in 2017-2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, with 2020, when COVID-19 spread to Japan. There were no COVID-19 patients in the pediatric department during the study period. The total number outpatient visits decreased by 24.4%, and the number of hospital admissions, excluding neonatal care unit admissions, decreased by approximately 35%. There was a marked reduction in the number of hospitalizations for infectious diseases such as influenza (-74.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus infection (-93.5%), and the number of hospitalizations for bronchitis/pneumonia, Kawasaki disease, and bronchial asthma decreased. In contrast, the number of clinical psychological interventions and cases reported to the child guidance center increased. In the context of pandemic infectious diseases, it is important to control the spread of problematic infectious diseases by individual infection control measures and physical distancing. However, it is necessary to maintain social life as much as possible for the mental health and physical development of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Sex Factors
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256073, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403299

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Heightened immigration enforcement may induce fear in undocumented patients when coming to the Emergency Department (ED) for care. Limited literature examining health system policies to reduce immigrant fear exists. In this multi-site qualitative study, we sought to assess provider and system-level policies on caring for undocumented patients in three California EDs. METHODS: We recruited 41 ED providers and administrators from three California EDs (in San Francisco, Oakland, and Sylmar) with large immigrant populations. Participants were recruited using a trusted gatekeeper and snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews and analyzed the transcripts using constructivist grounded theory. RESULTS: We interviewed 10 physicians, 11 nurses, 9 social workers, and 11 administrators, and identified 7 themes. Providers described existing policies and recent policy changes that facilitate access to care for undocumented patients. Providers reported that current training and communication around policies is limited, there are variations between who asks about and documents status, and there remains uncertainty around policy details, laws, and jurisdiction of staff. Providers also stated they are taking an active role in building safety and trust and see their role as supporting undocumented patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces ED-level health system perspectives and recommendations for caring for undocumented patients. There is a need for active, multi-disciplinary ED policy training, clear policy details including the extent of providers' roles, protocols on the screening and documentation of status, and continual reassessment of our health systems to reduce fear and build safety and trust with our undocumented communities.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Fear , Health Policy , Trust , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Qualitative Research
5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(3): 829-837, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384590

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of the dramatic reduction in presentations to Italian Emergency Departments (EDs) on the main indicators of ED performance during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. From February to June 2020 we retrospectively measured the number of daily presentations normalized for the number of emergency physicians on duty (presentations/physician ratio), door-to-physician and door-to-final disposition (length-of-stay) times of seven EDs in the central area of Tuscany. Using the multivariate regression analysis we investigated the relationship between the aforesaid variables and patient-level (triage codes, age, admissions) or hospital-level factors (number of physician on duty, working surface area, academic vs. community hospital). We analyzed data from 105,271 patients. Over ten consecutive 14-day periods, the number of presentations dropped from 18,239 to 6132 (- 67%) and the proportion of patients visited in less than 60 min rose from 56 to 86%. The proportion of patients with a length-of-stay under 4 h decreased from 59 to 52%. The presentations/physician ratio was inversely related to the proportion of patients with a door-to-physician time under 60 min (slope - 2.91, 95% CI - 4.23 to - 1.59, R2 = 0.39). The proportion of patients with high-priority codes but not the presentations/physician ratio, was inversely related to the proportion of patients with a length-of-stay under 4 h (slope - 0.40, 95% CI - 0.24 to - 0.27, R2 = 0.36). The variability of door-to-physician time and global length-of-stay are predicted by different factors. For appropriate benchmarking among EDs, the use of performance indicators should consider specific, hospital-level and patient-level factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Physicians , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Length of Stay , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
6.
CMAJ ; 192(27): E789-E790, 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383769
7.
Emerg Med J ; 38(9): 692-693, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that between 20% and 50% of paediatric head injuries attending our emergency department (ED) could be safely discharged soon after triage, without the need for medical review, using a 'Head Injury Discharge At Triage' tool (HIDAT). We sought to implement this into clinical practice. METHODS: Paediatric ED triage staff underwent competency-based assessments for HIDAT with all head injury presentations 1 May to 31 October 2020 included in analysis. We determined which patients were discharged using the tool, which underwent CT of the brain and whether there was a clinically important traumatic brain injury or representation to the ED. RESULTS: Of the 1429 patients screened; 610 (43%) screened negative with 250 (18%) discharged by nursing staff. Of the entire cohort, 32 CTs were performed for head injury concerns (6 abnormal) with 1 CT performed in the HIDAT negative group (normal). Of those discharged using HIDAT, four reattended, two with vomiting (no imaging or admission) and two with minor scalp wound infections. Two patients who screened negative declined discharge under the policy with later medical discharge (no imaging or admission). Paediatric ED attendances were 29% lower than in 2018. CONCLUSION: We have successfully implemented HIDAT into local clinical practice. The number discharged (18%) is lower than originally described; this is likely multifactorial. The relationship between COVID-19 and paediatric ED attendances is unclear but decreased attendances suggest those for whom the tool was originally designed are not attending ED and may be accessing other medical/non-medical resources.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Head Injuries, Closed/diagnosis , Head Injuries, Penetrating/diagnosis , Triage/methods , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/etiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Head Injuries, Closed/complications , Head Injuries, Penetrating/complications , Health Plan Implementation , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Humans , Nurses, Pediatric/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Discharge , Professional Role , Triage/organization & administration , Triage/standards
8.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 41, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious viral pandemic that has claimed the lives of millions. Personal protective equipment (PPE) may reduce the risk of transmission for health care workers (HCWs), especially in the emergency setting. This study aimed to compare the adherence to PPE donning and doffing protocols in the Emergency Department (ED) vs designated COVID-19 wards and score adherence according to the steps in our protocol. DESIGN: Prior to managing COVID-19 patients, mandatory PPE training was undertaken for all HCWs. HCWs were observed donning or doffing COVID-19 restricted areas. SETTING: Donning and doffing was observed in COVID-19 designated Emergency department and compared to COVID-19 positive wards. PARTICIPANTS: All HCWs working in the aforementioned wards during the time of observation. RESULTS: We observed 107 donning and doffing procedures (30 were observed in the ED). 50% HCWs observed donned PPE correctly and 37% doffed correctly. The ED had a significantly lower mean donning score (ED: 78%, Internal: 95% ICU: 96%, p < 0.001); and a significantly lower mean doffing score (ED: 72%, Internal: 85% ICU: 91%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: As hypothesized, HCWs assigned to the designated ED wing made more protocol deviations compared with HCWs positive COVID-19 wards. Time management, acuity, lack of personnel, stress and known COVID-19 status may explain the lesser adherence to donning and doffing protocols. Further studies to assess the correlation between protocol deviations in use of PPE and morbidity as well as improvement implementations are required. Resources should be invested to ensure PPE is properly used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Israel , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 367-372, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) reperfusion delays despite reduced emergency department (ED) volumes. However, little is known about ED contributions to these delays. We sought to measure STEMI delays and ED quality benchmarks over the course of the first two waves of the pandemic. STUDY: This study was a multi-centre, retrospective chart review from two urban, academic medical centres. We obtained ED volumes, COVID-19 tests and COVID-19 cases from the hospital databases and ED Code STEMIs with culprit lesions from the cath lab. We measured door-to-ECG (DTE) time and ECG-to-Activation (ETA) time during the phases of the pandemic in our jurisdiction: pre-first wave (Jan-Mar 2020), first wave (Apr-June 2020), post-first wave (July-Nov 2020), and second wave (Dec 2020 to Feb 2021). We calculated median DTE and ETA times and compared them to the 2019 baseline using Wilcox rank-sum test. We calculated the percentages of DTE ≤10 min and of ETA ≤10 min and compared them to baseline using chi-square test. We also utilized Statistical Process Control (SPC) Xbar-R charts to assess for special cause variation. RESULTS: COVID-19 cases began during the pre-wave phase, but there was no change in ED volumes or STEMI quality metrics. During the first wave ED volumes fell by 40%, DTE tripled (10.0 to 29.5 min, p = 0.016), ETA doubled (8.5 to 17.0 min, p = 0.04), and percentages for both DTE ≤10 min and ETA ≤10 min fell by three-quarters (each from more than 50%, to both 12.5%, both p < 0.05). After the first wave all STEMI quality benchmarks returned to baseline and did not significantly change during the second wave. A brief period of special cause variation was noted for DTE during the first wave. CONCLUSIONS: Both DTE and ETA metrics worsened during the first wave of the pandemic, revealing how it negatively impacted the triage and diagnosis of STEMI patients. But these normalized after the first wave and were unaffected by the second wave, indicating that nurses and physicians adapted to the pandemic to maintain STEMI quality of care. DTE and ETA metrics can help EDs identify delays to reperfusion during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delayed Diagnosis/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Aged , Canada , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Improvement , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
11.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): 478-480, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on perioperative outcomes of surgical patients during the COVID-19 pandemic to inform continued operating into the winter period. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the rate of 30-day COVID-19 transmission and mortality of all surgical patients in the three hospitals in our trust in the East of England during the first lockdown in March 2020. All patients who underwent a swab were swabbed on or 24 hours prior to admission. RESULTS: There were 4,254 patients and an overall 30-day mortality of 0.99%. The excess surgical mortality in our region was 0.29%. There were 39 patients who were COVID-19 positive within 30 days of admission, 12 of whom died. All 12 were emergency admissions with a length of stay longer than 24 hours. There were three deaths among those who underwent day case surgery, one of whom was COVID-19 negative, and the other two were not swabbed but not suspected to have COVID-19. There were two COVID-19 positive elective cases and none in day case elective or emergency surgery. There were no COVID-19 positive deaths in elective or day case surgery. CONCLUSIONS: There was a low rate of COVID-19 transmission and mortality in elective and day case operations. Our data have allowed us to guide patients in the consent process and provided the evidence base to restart elective and day case operating with precautions and regular review. A number of regions will be similarly affected and should perform a review of their data for the winter period and beyond.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Emergency Treatment/mortality , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/standards , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/standards , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/standards , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , State Medicine/standards , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data
12.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): 487-492, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our emergency general surgery (EGS) service underwent significant restructuring, including establishing an enhanced ambulatory service and undertaking nonoperative management of selected pathologies. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of our EGS service before and after these changes. METHODS: Patients referred by the emergency department were identified prospectively over a 4-week period beginning from the date our EGS service was reconfigured (COVID) and compared with patients identified retrospectively from the same period the previous year (Pre-COVID), and followed up for 30 days. Data were extracted from handover documents and electronic care records. The primary outcomes were the rate of admission, ambulation and discharge. RESULTS: There were 281 and 283 patients during the Pre-COVID and COVID periods respectively. Admission rate decreased from 78.7% to 41.7%, while there were increased rates of ambulation from 7.1% to 17.3% and discharge from 6% to 22.6% (all p<0.001). For inpatients, mean duration of admission decreased (6.9 to 4.8 days), and there were fewer operative or endoscopic interventions (78 to 40). There were increased ambulatory investigations (11 to 39) and telephone reviews (0 to 39), while early computed tomography scan was increasingly used to facilitate discharge (5% vs 34.7%). There were no differences in 30-day readmission or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Restructuring of our EGS service in response to COVID-19 facilitated an increased use of ambulatory services and imaging, achieving a decrease of 952 inpatient bed days in this critical period, while maintaining patient safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , General Surgery/organization & administration , Surgery Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Conservative Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/methods , Emergency Treatment/standards , Female , Follow-Up Studies , General Surgery/standards , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety/standards , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Referral and Consultation/standards , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surgery Department, Hospital/standards , Surgery Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
13.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(5): 619-627, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252440

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health care workers have had the highest risk of infection among essential workers. Although personal protective equipment (PPE) use is associated with lower infection rates, appropriate use of PPE has been variable among health care workers, even in settings with COVID-19 patients. We aimed to evaluate the patterns of PPE adherence during emergency department resuscitations that included aerosol-generating procedures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, video-based review of pediatric resuscitations involving one or more aerosol-generating procedures during the first 3 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (March to June 2020). Recommended adherence (complete, inadequate, absent) with 5 PPE items (headwear, eyewear, masks, gowns, gloves) and the duration of potential exposure were evaluated for individuals in the room after aerosol-generating procedure initiation. RESULTS: Among the 345 health care workers observed during 19 resuscitations, 306 (88.7%) were nonadherent (inadequate or absent adherence) with the recommended use of at least 1 PPE type at some time during the resuscitation, 23 (6.7%) of whom had no PPE. One hundred and forty health care workers (40.6%) altered or removed at least 1 type of PPE during the event. The aggregate time in the resuscitation room for health care workers across all events was 118.7 hours. During this time, providers had either absent or inadequate eyewear for 46.4 hours (39.1%) and absent or inadequate masks for 35.2 hours (29.7%). CONCLUSION: Full adherence with recommended PPE use was limited in a setting at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 virus aerosolization. In addition to ensuring appropriate donning, approaches are needed for ensuring ongoing adherence with PPE recommendations during exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Resuscitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Patient Care Team/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Emerg Med J ; 38(5): 373-378, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153688

ABSTRACT

Anticipating the need for a COVID-19 treatment centre in Israel, a designated facility was established at Sheba Medical Center-a quaternary referral centre. The goals were diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 while protecting patients and staff from infection and ensuring operational continuity and treatment of patients with non-COVID. Options considered included adaptation of existing wards, building a tented facility and converting a non-medical structure. The option chosen was a non-medical structure converted to a hospitalisation facility suited for COVID-19 with appropriate logistic and organisational adaptations. Operational principles included patient isolation, unidirectional workflow from clean to contaminated zones and minimising direct contact between patients and caregivers using personal protection equipment (PPE) and a multimodal telemedicine system. The ED was modified to enable triage and treatment of patients with COVID-19 while maintaining a COVID-19-free environment in the main campus. This system enabled treatment of patients with COVID-19 while maintaining staff safety and conserving the operational continuity and the ability to continue delivery of treatment to patients with non-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Israel/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Triage/organization & administration , Workflow
15.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(21): 1-68, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. At the time of writing (October 2020), the number of cases of COVID-19 had been approaching 38 million and more than 1 million deaths were attributable to it. SARS-CoV-2 appears to be highly transmissible and could rapidly spread in hospital wards. OBJECTIVE: The work undertaken aimed to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of viral detection point-of-care tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 compared with laboratory-based tests. A further objective was to assess occupancy levels in hospital areas, such as waiting bays, before allocation to an appropriate bay. PERSPECTIVE/SETTING: The perspective was that of the UK NHS in 2020. The setting was a hypothetical hospital with an accident and emergency department. METHODS: An individual patient model was constructed that simulated the spread of disease and mortality within the hospital and recorded occupancy levels. Thirty-two strategies involving different hypothetical SARS-CoV-2 tests were modelled. Recently published desirable and acceptable target product profiles for SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests were modelled. Incremental analyses were undertaken using both incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and net monetary benefits, and key patient outcomes, such as death and intensive care unit care, caused directly by COVID-19 were recorded. RESULTS: A SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test with a desirable target product profile appears to have a relatively small number of infections, a low occupancy level within the waiting bays, and a high net monetary benefit. However, if hospital laboratory testing can produce results in 6 hours, then the benefits of point-of-care tests may be reduced. The acceptable target product profiles performed less well and had lower net monetary benefits than both a laboratory-based test with a 24-hour turnaround time and strategies using data from currently available SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. The desirable and acceptable point-of-care test target product profiles had lower requirement for patients to be in waiting bays before being allocated to an appropriate bay than laboratory-based tests, which may be of high importance in some hospitals. Tests that appeared more cost-effective also had better patient outcomes. LIMITATIONS: There is considerable uncertainty in the values for key parameters within the model, although calibration was undertaken in an attempt to mitigate this. The example hospital simulated will also not match those of decision-makers deciding on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. Given these limitations, the results should be taken as indicative rather than definitive, particularly cost-effectiveness results when the relative cost per SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: Should a SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test with a desirable target product profile become available, this appears promising, particularly when the reduction on the requirements for waiting bays before allocation to a SARS-CoV-2-infected bay, or a non-SARS-CoV-2-infected bay, is considered. The results produced should be informative to decision-makers who can identify the results most pertinent to their specific circumstances. FUTURE WORK: More accurate results could be obtained when there is more certainty on the diagnostic accuracy of, and the reduction in time to test result associated with, SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests, and on the impact of these tests on occupancy of waiting bays and isolation bays. These parameters are currently uncertain. FUNDING: This report was commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Evidence Synthesis programme as project number 132154. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 21. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious, and this can cause problems in hospitals, where the virus can spread quickly. Laboratory-based tests can determine whether or not a patient has SARS-CoV-2, but these tests are not perfect and can require a considerable time to provide a result. Point-of-care tests to detect SARS-CoV-2 are being developed that may have much shorter times to a test result, although these are likely to be less accurate than laboratory-based tests. The benefit of quicker tests is that a decision to put a patient in a SARS-CoV-2-infected bay or in a non-SARS-CoV-2-infected bay can be made sooner, limiting contact between patients with SARS-CoV-2 and patients without SARS-CoV-2 and reducing the risk of infection transmission. The disadvantage of reduced accuracy is that some patients may be allocated to the wrong bay, increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A computer model was built to explore the impact of using SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests for people admitted to hospital. This model estimated the number of infections and deaths due to COVID-19, the costs of testing, and the number of people waiting to be put in an appropriate bay. Strategies were run using different values, including the time to get a test result, the accuracy of tests and whether or not staff who do not have symptoms should be tested. The results of the model indicated that point-of-care tests could be good if there was a large reduction in the time to get a test result and if accuracy was high. However, it is not certain whether or not such tests will become available. When newer SARS-CoV-2 tests are available, the model will allow an estimate of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the test to be made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Patient Admission , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom
16.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(3): 307-312, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a freely accessible internet algorithm to correctly identify the need for emergency ophthalmologic consultation for correct diagnosis and management. METHOD: This retrospective observational cohort study was based on the first 100 patients who requested recommendations on the necessity of breaking the lockdown for emergency ophthalmology consultation during the period from March to May 2020. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients completed questionnaires. Forty-nine were directed to emergency consultation and 42 to differed scheduled visits or telemedicine visits. One patient sent for emergency consultation had an overestimated severity and could have been seen later, while two patients initially recommended for a scheduled visit were considered appropriate for emergency consultation. However, these patients' management did not suffer as a consequence of the delay. The sensitivity of the algorithm, defined as the number of emergency consultations suggested by the algorithm divided by the total number of emergency consultations deemed appropriate by the practitioner's final evaluation, was 96.0%. The specificity of the algorithm, defined as the number of patients recommended for delayed consultation by the algorithm divided by the number of patients deemed clinically appropriate for this approach, was 97.5%. The positive predictive value, defined as the number of appropriate emergency consultations divided by the total number of emergency consultations suggested by the algorithm, was 97.9%. Finally, the negative predictive value, defined as the number of appropriately deferred patients divided by the number of deferred patients recommended by the algorithm, was 95.2%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the reliability of an algorithm based on patients' past medical history and symptoms to classify patients and direct them to either emergency consultation or to a more appropriate deferred, scheduled appointment. This algorithm might allow reduction of walk-in visits by half and thus help control patient flow into ophthalmologic emergency departments.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Eye Diseases/therapy , Ophthalmology/organization & administration , Quarantine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Referral and Consultation/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Young Adult
17.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066892

ABSTRACT

We report our experience in using virtual technology in our emergency department (ED) to meet communication needs of our patients who have limited English proficiency (LEP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our project aim was to improve communication between our ED staff and patients who have LEP. Specifically, our primary aim was to eliminate the use of healthcare staff as ad hoc interpreters by 50% in our ED by using virtual medical interpreters within 2 months. To achieve our goal, several strategies were employed. First, we assessed the need for interpreters in our ED by tracking the number of times our nursing staff is pulled away from their nursing role to help other staff as an ad hoc interpreter. Second, a patient survey was conducted to understand their thoughts and needs for interpretation in the ED. Third, we developed strategies in improving access to interpreters in our ED. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a trial of using 'Interpreter on Wheels' (IOW) in our ED. In a 2-month period, we had 477 virtual interpretation encounters totaling 4123 interpretation minutes of IOW usage. We found that it satisfied not only our communication needs but also reduced some of our potential infection control risks during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Communication , Telemedicine/methods , Translating , Adult , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurse's Role/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 7(3): 271-278, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to report and discuss the organization and statistics of dental care during the COVID-19 epidemics on the national level in Slovenia, providing helpful information to health policy planners worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During an eight-week lockdown, Emergency Dental Centers (EDCs) were established and coordinated on the national level to treat patients' urgent dental conditions. Telemedicine was used on the first level of triage to reduce contacts between healthcare workers and patients. Weekly coordination between EDCs was supported by real-time data acquisition on the number of patient visits, prescribed medicine, the number and type of dental procedures, and the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE). RESULTS: In EDCs, 27,468 patients were serviced, on average 235 patients per day/million people. The care was provided by 4798 man days of dental health care workers. Except for the first week, treatment and triage visits showed a slight increase. The number of incisions was nearly constant, while the number of extractions increased. A nearly threefold increase was found for emergency endodontic treatments (EET). The number of antibiotic prescriptions demonstrated an increasing trend. Analgesic prescriptions showed a decreasing trend from the beginning of lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The reorganization and centralization of dental care proved to be an efficient model in Slovenia for the provision of urgent dental care, and the management of the healthcare workforce and PPE. Data from this study may provide helpful information for planning the needs and corresponding resources for the next waves of epidemics of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Slovenia/epidemiology
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