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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1841-1847, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024814

ABSTRACT

Heightened stress, school closures, loss of income, and social isolation resulting from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have increased the risk for child abuse and neglect (1). Using National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) data from January 6, 2019-September 6, 2020, CDC tabulated weekly numbers of emergency department (ED) visits related to child abuse and neglect and calculated the proportions of such visits per 100,000 ED visits, as well as the percentage of suspected or confirmed ED visits related to child abuse and neglect ending in hospitalization, overall and stratified by age group (0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years). The total number of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect began decreasing below the corresponding 2019 period during week 11 (March 15-March 22, 2020) for all age groups examined, coinciding with the declaration of a national emergency on March 13 (2); simultaneously, the proportion of these visits per 100,000 ED visits began increasing above the 2019 baseline for all age groups. Despite decreases in the weekly number of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect, the weekly number of these visits resulting in hospitalization remained stable in 2020; however, the yearly percentage of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect resulting in hospitalization increased significantly among all age groups. Although the increased proportion of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect might be associated with a decrease in the overall number of ED visits, these findings also suggest that health care-seeking patterns have shifted during the pandemic. Hospitalizations for child abuse and neglect did not decrease in 2020, suggesting that injury severity did not decrease during the pandemic, despite decreased ED visits. Child abuse is preventable; implementation of strategies including strengthening household economic supports and creating family-friendly work policies can reduce stress during difficult times and increase children's opportunities to thrive in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships and environments (3).


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology
2.
Emerg Med J ; 37(9): 565-566, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024248

ABSTRACT

We report the experience of prone ventilation in selected patients treated with helmet non-invasive ventilation (NIV) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute respiratory failure in COVID-19 pneumonia. Preliminary results showed an improvement in the PaO2 value and PaO2/FiO2 ratio after 1 hour of prone ventilation. No variation of the lung ultrasound pattern before and after prone ventilation has been detected. At the time of writing, we attempted proning with helmet NIV CPAP in 10 patients. In 4 out of 10 patients, the attempt failed due to lack of compliance of the patient, scarce pain control even with ongoing treatment and refusal by the patient to prone positioning.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oxygen Consumption , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Positioning , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
Seizure ; 83: 38-40, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdown measures drastically changed health care and emergency services utilization. This study evaluated trends in emergency department (ED) access for seizure-related reasons in the first 8 weeks of lockdown in Italy. METHODS: All ED accesses of children (<14 years of age) at two university hospitals, in Turin and Rome, Italy, between January 6, 2020 and April 21, 2020, were examined and compared with the corresponding periods of 2019. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period (February 23-April 21, 2020), there was a 72 % decrease in all pediatric ED accesses over the corresponding 2019 period (n = 3,395 vs n = 12,128), with a 38 % decrease in seizure-related accesses (n = 41 vs n = 66). The observed decrease of seizure-related ED accesses was not accompanied by significant changes in age, sex, type of seizure, or hospitalization rate after the ED visit. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown was accompanied by a sudden decrease in seizure-related hospital emergency visits. School closure, social distancing, reduced risk of infection, and increased parental supervision are some of the factors that might have contributed to the finding.


Subject(s)
/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Epilepsy/virology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Seizures/virology
4.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 40(11-12): 336-341, 2020 12 09.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022346

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that during the 2003 SARS pandemic, emergency department (ED) visits among the pediatric population decreased. We set out to investigate if this was also true for injury-related ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), we looked at 28 years of injury-related ED visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital, a provincially designated Pediatric Trauma Centre. We compared data from a two-month period during the COVID-19 lockdown (16 March to 15 May) to the same period in previous years (1993-2019) to determine whether the 2020 decrease in ED visit numbers was unprecedented (i.e. a similar decrease had never occurred) for different age groups, nature of injuries, mechanisms and severity. RESULTS: The 2020 decrease was unprecedented across all age groups between 1993 and 2019. When compared with the 2015 to 2019 average, the decrease was smallest in children aged 2 to 5 years (a 35% decrease), and greatest in the group aged 12 to 17 years (83%). Motor vehicle collisions and sports-related injuries practically vanished during the COVID-19 lockdown. Surprisingly, more children aged 6 to 17 years presented with less urgent injuries during the COVID-19 lockdown than in previous years. CONCLUSION: As was the case with SARS in 2003, COVID-19 acted as a deterrent for pediatric ED visits. The lockdown in particular had a profound impact on injury-related visits. The de-confinement period will be monitored to determine the impact in both the short and the long term.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Protective Factors , Quebec/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(1): e11, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on children's utilization of the emergency department (ED) in the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Thus, we aimed to examine ED utilization among pediatric patients and the impact of COVID-19 in one large city affected by the outbreak. METHODS: This retrospective study included data from six EDs in Daegu, Korea. We compared the demographic and clinical data of patients presenting to the ED during the COVID-19 pandemic (February 1st-June 30th 2020) with those of patients who visited the ED in this period during 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Fewer patients, particularly children visited the EDs during the study period in 2020 than those in the previous (2018/2019) year period: the number of adult patient decreased by 46.4% and children by 76.9%. Although the number of patients increased from the lowest point of the decrease in March 2020, the number of pediatric patients visiting the ED remained less than half (45.2%) in June 2020 compared with that of previous years. The proportion of patients with severe conditions increased in adults, infants, and school-aged children, and consequently resulted in increased ambulance use and higher hospitalization rates. Fewer infants and young children but more school-aged children visited the ED with febrile illnesses in 2020 than in 2018/2019. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a substantial decrease in pediatric ED utilization. These findings can help reallocate human and material resources in the EDs during infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(1): 48-53, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preparedness efforts among a diverse set of pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) within the United States. METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicenter survey of PED medical director(s) from selected children's hospitals recruited through a long established national research network. The questionnaire was developed by physicians with expertise in pediatric emergency medicine, disaster readiness, human factors, and survey development. Thirty-five children's hospitals were identified for recruitment through an established national research network. RESULTS: We report on survey responses from 25 (71%) of 35 PEDs, of which 64% were located within academic children's hospitals. All PEDs witnessed decreases in non-COVID-19 patients, 60% had COVID-19-dedicated units, and 32% changed their unit pediatric patient age to include adult patients. All PEDs implemented changes to their staffing model, with the most common change impacting their physician staffing (80%) and triaging model (76%). All PEDs conducted training for appropriate donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE), and 62% reported shortages in PPE. The majority implemented changes in the airway management protocols (84%) and cardiac arrest management in COVID patients (76%). The most common training modalities were video/teleconference (84%) and simulation-based training (72%). The most common learning objectives were team dynamics (60%), and PPE and individual procedural skills (56%). CONCLUSIONS: This national survey provides insight into PED preparedness efforts, training innovations, and practice changes implemented during the start of COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatric emergency departments implemented broad strategies including modifications to staffing, workflow, and clinical practice while using video/teleconference and simulation as preferred training modalities. Further research is needed to advance the level of preparedness and support deep learning about which preparedness actions were effective for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Disaster Planning , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Care Surveys , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/education , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disaster Planning/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Prospective Studies , Simulation Training , Telecommunications , Triage , United States
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243261, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of patients with high suspicion of COVID-19 will become a challenge with the co-circulation of multiple respiratory viruses (RVs). We have identified clinical or biological characteristics to help distinguish SARS-CoV-2 from other RVs. METHODS: We used a prospective cohort including all consecutive patients admitted through the emergency department's (ED) and presenting respiratory symptoms from November 2019 to April 2020. Patients were tested for RV using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. RESULTS: 203/508 patients were positive for an RV during the non-SARS-CoV-2 epidemic period (November to February), and 268/596 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (March to April). Younger age, male gender, fever, absence of expectoration and absence of chronic lung disease were statistically associated with SARS-CoV-2 detection. Combining these variables allowed for the distinguishing of SARS-CoV-2 infections with 83, 65, 75 and 76% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients' characteristics associated with a positive PCR are common between SARS-CoV-2 and other RVs, but a simple discrimination of strong SARS-CoV-2 suspicion with a limited set of clinical features seems possible. Such scoring could be useful but has to be prospectively evaluated and will not eliminate the need for rapid PCR assays.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data
9.
CMAJ Open ; 8(4): E887-E894, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among asymptomatic patients admitted to hospital has implications for personal protective equipment use, testing strategy and confidence in the safety of acute care services. Our aim was to estimate the positivity rate of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing among people admitted to hospital without symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Alberta, Canada. METHODS: Between Apr. 9 and May 24, 2020, we screened for COVID-19 symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in all consecutive adult patients (≥ 18 yr) admitted via emergency department to 3 Alberta hospitals. We summarized the parameters of the epidemic curve and assessed the performance of symptom screening versus RT-PCR results on nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab samples. RESULTS: The study period encompassed Alberta's initial epidemic curve, with peak active cases per 100 000 of 71.4 (0.07%) on Apr. 30, 2020, and 14.7 and 14.6 at the beginning (Apr. 9, 2020) and end (May 24, 2020), respectively. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection (64.9% throat and 35.1% nasopharyngeal swabs) was done on 3375 adults (mean age 51, standard deviation 21, yr; 51.5% men). None of the asymptomatic patients (n = 1814) tested positive, and 71 of those with symptoms tested positive (n = 1561; 4.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.6%-5.7%). Sensitivity of symptom screening (v. RT-PCR) was 100% (95% CI 95%-100%), and specificity was 55% (95% CI 53%-57%). Posttest probabilities for prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 1.5 to 14 times the peak prevalence of active cases during the study did not change when we assumed lower sensitivity (92%). INTERPRETATION: In a region with low disease prevalence where protocolized symptom assessment was in place during the admission process, we did not identify people admitted to hospital without COVID-19 symptoms who were RT-PCR positive. There may not be additive benefit to universal testing of asymptomatic patients on hospital admission in a setting of low pretest probability and strong public health containment.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mass Screening/methods , Quality Improvement , Alberta/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23845, 2020 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990929

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19 pandemic caused a major crisis, affecting and straining health care systems, including some very advanced ones. The pandemic may have also indirectly affected access to health care for patients with other conditions, not related to COVID-19, even in countries not overwhelmed by an outbreak.We analyzed and compared visits to the emergency room (ER) department during the same calendar period of 2019 and 2020 (from March 1 to March 31 of each year) in our hospital, a medium size, tertiary center, located in the center of Athens, which is not a referral center for COVID-19.Total ER visits were reduced by 42.3% and the number of those requiring hospitalization by 34.8%. This reduction was driven by lower numbers of visits for low risk, non-specific symptoms and causes. However, there was a significant decrease in admissions for cardiovascular symptoms and complications (chest pain of cardiac origin, acute coronary syndromes, and stroke) by 39.7% and for suspected or confirmed GI hemorrhage by 54.7%. Importantly, number of ER visits for infections remained unchanged, as well as the number of patients that required hospitalization for infection management; only few patients were diagnosed with COVID-19.During the initial period of the pandemic and lock-down in Greece, there was a major decrease in the patients visiting ER department, including decrease in the numbers of admissions for cardiovascular symptoms and complications. These observations may have implications for the management of non-COVID-19 diseases during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
11.
Actas Urol Esp ; 44(10): 653-658, 2020 12.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986877

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that the recent COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a delay in renal colic patients presenting to the Emergency Department due to the fear of getting infected. This delay may lead to a more severe clinical condition at presentation with possible complications for the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of data collected from three institutions from Spain and Italy. Patients who presented to Emergency Department with unilateral or bilateral renal colic caused by imaging confirmed urolithiasis during the 45 days before and after each national lockdown were included. Data collected included patients' demographics, biochemical urine and blood tests, radiological tests, signs, symptoms and the therapeutic management. Analysis was performed between two groups, Group A: patients presenting prior to the national lockdown date; and Group B: patients presenting after the national lockdown date. RESULTS: A total of 397 patients presented to Emergency Department with radiology confirmed urolithiasis and were included in the study. The number of patients presenting to Emergency Department with renal/ureteric colic was 285 (71.8%) patients in Group A and 112 (28.2%) patients in Group B (p<0.001). The number of patients reporting a delay in presentation was 135 (47.4%) in Group A and 63 (56.3%) in Group B (p=0.11). At presentation, there were no statistical differences between Group A and Group B regarding the serum creatinine level, C reactive protein, white blood cell count, fever, oliguria, flank pain and hydronephrosis. In addition, no significant differences were observed with the length of stay, Urology department admission requirement and type of therapy. CONCLUSION: Data from our study showed a significant reduction in presentations to Emergency Department for renal colic after the lockdown in Spain and Italy. However, we did not find any significant difference with the length of stay, Urology department admission requirement and type of therapy.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Renal Colic/epidemiology , Ureteral Calculi/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Colic/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Ureteral Calculi/complications
12.
S Afr Med J ; 0(0): 13182, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-984482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of restrictive policies on theatre procedures, with profound impacts on service delivery and theatre output. OBJECTIVES: To quantify these effects at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective review of morbidity and mortality data was conducted. The effects on emergency and elective caseload, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions from theatre, theatre cancellations and regional techniques were noted. RESULTS: Theatre caseload decreased by 30% from January to April 2020 (p=0.02), ICU admissions remained constant, and theatre cancellations were proportionally reduced, as were the absolute number of regional techniques. CONCLUSIONS: The resulting theatre case deficit was 1 260 cases. It will take 315 days to clear this deficit if four additional surgeries are performed per day.


Subject(s)
Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control , Surgery Department, Hospital , Tertiary Healthcare , Adult , /prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Mortality , Needs Assessment , Organizational Innovation , Safety Management/trends , South Africa/epidemiology , Surgery Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Surgery Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration , Tertiary Healthcare/trends
13.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(4)2020 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is causing a significant health emergency which is overturning dramatically routine activities in hospitals. The outbreak is generating the need to provide assistance to infected patients and in parallel to treat all nondeferrable oncological and urgent benign diseases. A panel of Italian urologists agreed on possible strategies for the reorganization of urological routine practices and on a set of recommendations that should facilitate a further planning of both inpatient visits and surgical activities during the COVID- 19 pandemic. According to this only urgent benign and nondeferrable oncological activities have been kept. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have considered urgent outpatient visits requested by Emergency Department (ED) or by General Practitioner (GP) and emergency surgical procedures performed in our Urology Unit from March 9th to April 14th 2020, during COVID-19 pandemic. These figures have been compared to those observed last year from March 9th to April 14th 2019. RESULTS: Our data show that urgent care visits decreased during COCID-19 pandemic (from 293 to 179). Urgent care visits of patients who accessed directly to the ED decreased (from 219 to 107) whereas the number of urgent care visits referred by GP remained unchanged (74 vs 72). Consequently, the rate of visits from ED decreased from 75% to 60% and the rate of visit requested by GP increased from 25% to 40% (p = 0.001). Particularly, the rate of visits for renal colic, LUTS and other not precisely defined disorders from ED decreased and the corresponding rates of visits of patients referred by GPs increased significantly (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0180 and p = 0.0185, respectively). The rate of visits for acute urinary retention, hematuria, sepsis, acute scrotum, cystitis, prostatitis and genito-urinary trauma from ED and GP remained unchanged. Finally, urgency endourology and surgical activities have been stable in relation to the same period last year. CONCLUSIONS: Urological emergency activities during COVID- 19 pandemic are more appropriate since urgent outpatients' visits required by ED are decreased and emergency surgical and endourological procedures are stable.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Urologic Diseases/therapy , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Urologic Diseases/epidemiology
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1925-1929, 2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983904

ABSTRACT

As of December 14, 2020, children and adolescents aged <18 years have accounted for 10.2% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported in the United States.* Mitigation strategies to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, among persons of all ages, are important for pandemic control. Characterization of risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents can inform efforts by parents, school and program administrators, and public health officials to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To assess school, community, and close contact exposures associated with pediatric COVID-19, a case-control study was conducted to compare exposures reported by parents or guardians of children and adolescents aged <18 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing (case-patients) with exposures reported among those who received negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results (control participants). Among 397 children and adolescents investigated, in-person school or child care attendance ≤14 days before the SARS-CoV-2 test was reported for 62% of case-patients and 68% of control participants and was not associated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-1.3). Among 236 children aged ≥2 years who attended child care or school during the 2 weeks before SARS-CoV-2 testing, parents of 64% of case-patients and 76% of control participants reported that their child and all staff members wore masks inside the facility (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.8). In the 2 weeks preceding SARS-CoV-2 testing, case-patients were more likely to have had close contact with a person with known COVID-19 (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.0-5.0), have attended gatherings† with persons outside their household, including social functions (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.5) or activities with other children (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.3-8.4), or have had visitors in the home (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9) than were control participants. Close contacts with persons with COVID-19 and gatherings contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents. Consistent use of masks, social distancing, isolation of infected persons, and quarantine of those who are exposed to the virus continue to be important to prevent COVID-19 spread.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , /diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , /transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Mississippi/epidemiology , Risk Factors
15.
Front Public Health ; 8: 583583, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983744

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic led to an emergency scenario within all aspects of health care, determining reduction in resources for the treatment of other diseases. A literature review was conducted to identify published evidence, from 1 March to 1 June 2020, regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the care provided to patients affected by other diseases. The research is limited to the Italian NHS. The aim is to provide a snapshot of the COVID-19 impact on the NHS and collect useful elements to improve Italian response models. Data available for oncology and cardiology are reported. National surveys, retrospective analyses, and single-hospital evidence are available. We summarized evidence, keeping in mind the entire clinical pathway, from clinical need to access to care to outcomes. Since the beginning, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a reduced access to inpatient (-48% for IMA) and outpatient services, with a lower volume of elective surgical procedures (in oncology, from 3.8 to 2.6 median number of procedures/week). Telehealth may plays a key role in this, particularly in oncology. While, for cardiology, evidence on health outcome is already available, in terms of increased fatality rates (for STEMI: 13.7 vs. 4.1%). To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the health of the population, a broader perspective should be taken. Reasons for reduced access to care must be investigated. Patients fears, misleading communication campaigns, re-arranged clinical pathways could had played a role. In addition, impact on other the status of other patients should be mitigated.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Cardiology Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Oncology Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , /epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(10)2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982890

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: the emergency department (ED) is frequently identified by patients as a possible solution for all healthcare problems, leading to a high rate of misuse of the ED, possibly causing overcrowding. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started in China; it then spread throughout Italy, with the first cases confirmed in Lombardy, Italy, in February 2020. This has totally changed the type of patients referred to EDs. The aim of this study was to analyze the reduction of ED admissions at a Second level urban teaching (Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: in this retrospective observational cross-sectional study, we reviewed and compared clinical records of all the patients consecutively admitted to our ED over a 40-day period (21 February -31 March) in the last three years (2018-2019-2020). Mean age, sex, triage urgency level, day/night admission, main presentation symptom, and final diagnosis, according to different medical specialties, hospitalization, and discharge rate, were analyzed. Results: we analyzed 16,281 patient clinical records. The overall reduction in ED admissions in 2020 was 37.6% compared to 2019. In 2020, we observed an increase in triage urgency levels for ED admissions (the main presentation symptom was a fever). We noticed a significant drop in admissions for cardio-thoracic, gastroenterological, urological, otolaryngologic/ophthalmologic, and traumatological diseases. Acute neurological conditions registered only a slight, but significant, reduction. Oncology admissions were stable. Admissions for infectious diseases were 30% in 2020, compared to 5% and 6% in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In 2020, the hospitalization rate increased to 42.9% compared to 27.7%, and 26.4% in previous years. Conclusions: the drastic reduction of ED admissions during the pandemic may be associated with fear of the virus, suggesting that patients with serious illnesses did not go to the emergency room. Moreover, there was possible misuse of the ED in the previous year. In particular, worrisome data emerged regarding a drop in cardiology and neurology admissions. Those patients postponed medical attention, possibly with fatal consequences, just for fear of exposure to COVID-19, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Thoracic Diseases/epidemiology , Urologic Diseases/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 483-488, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Channeling medical resources for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) management can potentially endanger routine healthcare practices. As a preventive measure, a department of obstetrics and gynecology in Israel constructed a separate, designated complex for its COVID-19-exposed patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic infection control measures on obstetric care in the obstetrical emergency department and delivery unit. METHODS: The authors collected data retrospectively from February 2020 to March 2020 and compared it to data of a parallel period in 2019. RESULTS: From 1 February 2020 to 28 March 2020, 3897 women were referred to the emergency department (ED), compared to 4067 the previous year. Mean duration of treatment until decision and referral indications did not differ between 2020 and 2019 (207 vs. 220 minutes, P = 0.26; urgent referrals 58.8% vs. 59.2%, P = 0.83). A per-week comparison showed a significant reduction in ED referrals only in the last week of the period (337 [2020] vs. 515 [2019], P < 0.001). The proportion of women admitted to the delivery unit in active labor was significantly higher in the last three weeks (39.1% vs. 28.2%, P = 0.005). During February and March 2020, 1666 women delivered, compared to 1654 during February and March 2019. The proportion of types and modes of delivery did not differ. In a per-week comparison, the number of deliveries did not differ (mean 208 vs. 206, P = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: With timely preparation and proper management, negative impact of COVID-19 can be reduced in obstetrical emergency departments.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Obstetrics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data
18.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 470-475, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, is a tertiary hospital located in the center of Israel. It is the largest hospital in Israel and was the first to face coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients in the country at the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on our triage method in the emergency department (ED). Our goal was to keep the main hospitalization buildings clean of infection by separating COVID-19 positive patients from COVID-19 negative patients. METHODS: We divided our ED into two separate sections: a regular non-COVID-19 ED and an advanced biological ED. We created clear protocols of triage for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients. We reviewed the data of patients admitted to our ED during the month of March and analyzed the results of our triage method in separating COVID-19 positive from negative patients. RESULTS: During the month of March 2020, 7957 patients were referred to our ED. Among them 2004 were referred to the biological ED and 5953 were referred to the regular ED. Of the 2004 patients referred to the biological ED, 1641 (81.8%) were sampled for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction of whom 143 (8.7%) were positive. Only two COVID-19 positive patients unintentionally entered the main clean hospital, making our triage almost full proof. CONCLUSIONS: Our triage method was successful in separating COVID-19 positive from negative patients and maintained the regular hospital clean of COVID-19 allowing treatment continuation of regular non-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Triage/methods , /prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
BMC Emerg Med ; 20(1): 97, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) worldwide have been in the epicentre of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the impact of the pandemic and national emergency measures on the number of non-COVID-19 presentations and the assessed acuity of those presentations remain uncertain. METHODS: We acquired a retrospective cohort containing all ED visits in a Finnish secondary care hospital during years 2018, 2019 and 2020. We compared the number of presentations in 2020 during the national state of emergency, i.e. from March 16 to June 11, with numbers from 2018 and 2019. Presentations were stratified using localized New York University Emergency Department Algorithm (NYU-EDA) to evaluate changes in presentations with different acuity levels. RESULTS: A total of 27,526 presentations were observed. Compared to previous two years, total daily presentations were reduced by 23% (from 113 to 87, p < .001). In NYU-EDA classes, Non-Emergent visits were reduced the most by 42% (from 18 to 10, p < .001). Emergent presentations were reduced by 19 to 28% depending on the subgroup (p < .001). Number of injuries were reduced by 25% (from 27 to 20, p < .001). The NYU-EDA distribution changed statistically significantly with 4% point reduction in Non-Emergent visits (from 16 to 12%, p < .001) and 0.9% point increase in Alcohol-related visits (from 1.6 to 2.5%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant reduction in total ED visits in the course of national state of emergency. Presentations were reduced in most of the NYU-EDA groups irrespective of the assessed acuity. A compensatory increase in presentations was not observed in the course of the 3 month lockdown. This implies either reduction in overall morbidity caused by decreased societal activity or widespread unwillingness to seek required medical advice.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , New York , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Universities , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(12): e22874, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telephones, internet-connected devices (phablets, personal computers), chat platforms, and mobile apps (eg, Skype, Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp) can be exploited for telemedicine applications. WhatsApp and similar apps are also widely used to facilitate clinical communication between physicians. Moreover, WhatsApp is used by emergency department (ED) physicians and consulting physicians to exchange medical information during ED consultations. This platform is regarded as a useful app in the consultation of dermatological and orthopedic cases. Preventing overcrowding in the ED is key to reducing the risk of disease transmission, and teleconsulting practice is thought to be effective in the diagnosis, treatment, and reduction of transmission risk of disease, most notably during the COVID-19 pandemic. Video consultation is highly recommended in some countries on the grounds that it is likely to reduce the risk of transmission. WhatsApp-like apps are among the video consultation platforms that are assumed to reduce the risk of contamination by minimizing patient-physician contact. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WhatsApp video consultation on patient admission and discharge times in comparison to bedside consultation in the evaluation of potential patients with COVID-19 visiting a COVID-19 outpatient clinic during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients who presented to the ED COVID-19 outpatient clinic between March 11 and May 31, 2020, and for whom an infectious disease specialist was consulted (via WhatsApp or at bedside) were included in the study in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eventually, 54 patients whose consultations were performed via WhatsApp and 90 patients whose consultations were performed at bedside were included in our study. RESULTS: The median length of stay in the ED of discharged patients amounted to 103 minutes (IQR 85-147.75) in the WhatsApp group and 196 minutes (IQR 141-215) in the bedside group. In this regard, the length of stay in the ED was found to be significantly shorter in the WhatsApp group than in the bedside group (P<.001). Among the consulted and discharged patients, 1 patient in each group tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction test and thus was readmitted and hospitalized (P=.62). The median length of stay of the inpatients in the ED was found to be 116.5 minutes (IQR 85.5-145.5) in the WhatsApp group and 132 minutes (IQR 102-168) in the bedside group. The statistical analysis of this time difference revealed that the length of stay in the ED was significantly shorter for patients in the WhatsApp group than in the bedside group (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: Consultation via WhatsApp reduces both contact time with patients with COVID-19 and the number of medical staff contacting the patients, which contributes greatly to reducing the risk of COVID-19 transmission. WhatsApp consultation may prove useful in clinical decision making as well as in shortening process times. Moreover, it does not result in a decreased accuracy rate. The shortened discharge and hospitalization timespans also decreased the length of stay in the ED, which can have an impact on minimizing ED crowding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04645563; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04645563.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Mobile Applications , Remote Consultation/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
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