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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248438, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Accurate and reliable criteria to rapidly estimate the probability of infection with the novel coronavirus-2 that causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) and associated disease (COVID-19) remain an urgent unmet need, especially in emergency care. The objective was to derive and validate a clinical prediction score for SARS-CoV-2 infection that uses simple criteria widely available at the point of care. METHODS: Data came from the registry data from the national REgistry of suspected COVID-19 in EmeRgency care (RECOVER network) comprising 116 hospitals from 25 states in the US. Clinical variables and 30-day outcomes were abstracted from medical records of 19,850 emergency department (ED) patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. The criterion standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 required a positive molecular test from a swabbed sample or positive antibody testing within 30 days. The prediction score was derived from a 50% random sample (n = 9,925) using unadjusted analysis of 107 candidate variables as a screening step, followed by stepwise forward logistic regression on 72 variables. RESULTS: Multivariable regression yielded a 13-variable score, which was simplified to a 13-point score: +1 point each for age>50 years, measured temperature>37.5°C, oxygen saturation<95%, Black race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, household contact with known or suspected COVID-19, patient reported history of dry cough, anosmia/dysgeusia, myalgias or fever; and -1 point each for White race, no direct contact with infected person, or smoking. In the validation sample (n = 9,975), the probability from logistic regression score produced an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.79-0.81), and this level of accuracy was retained across patients enrolled from the early spring to summer of 2020. In the simplified score, a score of zero produced a sensitivity of 95.6% (94.8-96.3%), specificity of 20.0% (19.0-21.0%), negative likelihood ratio of 0.22 (0.19-0.26). Increasing points on the simplified score predicted higher probability of infection (e.g., >75% probability with +5 or more points). CONCLUSION: Criteria that are available at the point of care can accurately predict the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These criteria could assist with decisions about isolation and testing at high throughput checkpoints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Adult , Aged , Clinical Decision Rules , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough , Databases, Factual , Decision Trees , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(10): 671-680, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been reported to be increasing in frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to examine the rates of DKA hospital admissions and the patient demographics associated with DKA during the pandemic compared with in prepandemic years. METHODS: Using a comprehensive, multiethnic, national dataset, the Secondary Uses Service repository, we extracted all emergency hospital admissions in England coded with DKA from March 1 to June 30, 2020 (first wave of the pandemic), July 1 to Oct 31, 2020 (post-first wave), and Nov 1, 2020, to Feb 28, 2021 (second wave), and compared these with DKA admissions in the equivalent periods in 2017-20. We also examined baseline characteristics, mortality, and trends in patients who were admitted with DKA. FINDINGS: There were 8553 admissions coded with DKA during the first wave, 8729 during the post-first wave, and 10 235 during the second wave. Compared with preceding years, DKA admissions were 6% (95% CI 4-9; p<0·0001) higher in the first wave of the pandemic (from n=8048), 6% (3-8; p<0·0001) higher in the post-first wave (from n=8260), and 7% (4-9; p<0·0001) higher in the second wave (from n=9610). In the first wave, DKA admissions reduced by 19% (95% CI 16-21) in those with pre-existing type 1 diabetes (from n=4965 to n=4041), increased by 41% (35-47) in those with pre-existing type 2 diabetes (from n=2010 to n=2831), and increased by 57% (48-66) in those with newly diagnosed diabetes (from n=1072 to n=1681). Compared with prepandemic, type 2 diabetes DKA admissions were similarly common in older individuals and men but were higher in those of non-White ethnicities during the first wave. The increase in newly diagnosed DKA admissions occurred across all age groups and these were significantly increased in men and people of non-White ethnicities. In the post-first wave, DKA admissions did not return to the baseline level of previous years; DKA admissions were 14% (11-17) lower in patients with type 1 diabetes (from n=5208 prepandemic to n=4491), 30% (24-36) higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (from n=2011 to n=2613), and 56% (47-66) higher in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (from n=1041 to n=1625). During the second wave, DKA admissions were 25% (22-27) lower in patients with type 1 diabetes (from n=5769 prepandemic to n=4337), 50% (44-56) higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (from n=2608 to n=3912), and 61% (52-70) higher in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (from n=1234 to n=1986). INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence for differences in the numbers and characteristics of people presenting with DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with in the preceding 3 years. Greater awareness of risk factors for DKA in type 2 diabetes and vigilance for newly diagnosed diabetes presenting with DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic might help mitigate the increased impact of DKA. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases, Factual/trends , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance/methods , Time Factors , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21472, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500505

ABSTRACT

Acute healthcare services are extremely important, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, as healthcare demand has rapidly intensified, and resources have become insufficient. Studies on specific prepandemic hospitalization and emergency department visit (EDV) trends in proximity to death are limited. We examined time-trend specificities based on sex, age, and cause of death in the last 2 years of life. Datasets containing all hospitalizations and EDVs of elderly residents in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy (N = 411,812), who died between 2002 and 2014 at ≥ 65 years, have been collected. We performed subgroup change-point analysis of monthly trends in the 2 years preceding death according to sex, age at death (65-74, 75-84, 85-94, and ≥ 95 years), and main cause of death (cancer, cardiovascular, or respiratory disease). The proportion of decedents (N = 142,834) accessing acute healthcare services increased exponentially in proximity to death (hospitalizations = 4.7, EDVs = 3.9 months before death). This was inversely related to age, with changes among the youngest and eldest decedents at 6.6 and 3.5 months for hospitalizations and at 4.6 and 3.3 months for EDVs, respectively. Healthcare use among cancer patients intensified earlier in life (hospitalizations = 6.8, EDVs = 5.8 months before death). Decedents from respiratory diseases were most likely to access hospital-based services during the last month of life. No sex-based differences were found. The greater use of acute healthcare services among younger decedents and cancer patients suggests that policies potentiating primary care support targeting these at-risk groups may reduce pressure on hospital-based services.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cause of Death , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Terminal Care
4.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1050-1055, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, injuries cause >5 million deaths annually and children and young people are particularly vulnerable. Injuries are the leading cause of death in people aged 5-24 years and a leading cause of disability. In most low-income and middle-income countries where the majority of global child injury burden occurs, systems for routinely collecting injury data are limited. METHODS: A new model of injury surveillance for use in emergency departments in Nepal was designed and piloted. Data from patients presenting with injuries were collected prospectively over 12 months and used to describe the epidemiology of paediatric injury presentations. RESULTS: The total number of children <18 years of age presenting with injury was 2696, representing 27% of all patients presenting with injuries enrolled. Most injuries in children presenting to the emergency departments in this study were unintentional and over half of children were <10 years of age. Falls, animal bites/stings and road traffic injuries accounted for nearly 75% of all injuries with poisonings, burns and drownings presenting proportionately less often. Over half of injuries were cuts, bites and open wounds. In-hospital child mortality from injury was 1%. CONCLUSION: Injuries affecting children in Nepal represent a significant burden. The data on injuries observed from falls, road traffic injuries and injuries related to animals suggest potential areas for injury prevention. This is the biggest prospective injury surveillance study in Nepal in recent years and supports the case for using injury surveillance to monitor child morbidity and mortality through improved data.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Global Burden of Disease/economics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Animals , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Burns/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drowning/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Poisoning/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Wounds and Injuries/prevention & control
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21002, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483148

ABSTRACT

COVID19 infection was associated with possible psychiatric manifestations, including psychosis and mania. In addition, psychiatric disorders might be triggered by severe psychological reactions to the pandemic or the measures taken to contain it. This study aimed to assess the trends of new-onset psychosis/mania during the pandemic timeline. Psychiatric emergency department records during January-July 2019 and 2020 of two regional mental health centers were manually examined. Cases of new-onset psychosis or mania were found in 326 out of 5161 records examined. The ratio of these cases increased by 45.5% in 2020 compared to 2019 (189 out of 2367, 137 out of 2479, respectively, p = 0.001). The peak increase was in April 2020 (9.4% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.015). There was no association between the rise of new-onset psychotic or manic episodes and national incidence of COVID19 cases, as observed during Israel 2nd wave. PCR tests were negative, except a single case. In this study, an increase in new-onset psychosis/mania was identified during the initial phase of the pandemic. Though causality could not be directly inferred, lack of infection symptoms, negative PCR testing and temporal distribution incongruent with COVID19 caseload did not support a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2. Alternative explanations are discussed, such as psychological reaction to stress and preventive measures, as well as case-shifting between different mental health settings.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Electronic Health Records , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Hospitals, Psychiatric/trends , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(10): e008573, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unprecedented shift to remote heart failure outpatient care occurred during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given challenges inherent to remote care, we studied whether remote visits (video or telephone) were associated with different patient usage, clinician practice patterns, and outcomes. METHODS: We included all ambulatory cardiology visits for heart failure at a multisite health system from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019 (pre-COVID) or April 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020 (COVID era), resulting in 10 591 pre-COVID in-person, 7775 COVID-era in-person, 1009 COVID-era video, and 2322 COVID-era telephone visits. We used multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards regressions with propensity weighting and patient clustering to study ordering practices and outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with in-person visits, video visits were used more often by younger (mean 64.7 years [SD 14.5] versus 74.2 [14.1]), male (68.3% versus 61.4%), and privately insured (45.9% versus 28.9%) individuals (P<0.05 for all). Remote visits were more frequently used by non-White patients (35.8% video, 37.0% telephone versus 33.2% in-person). During remote visits, clinicians were less likely to order diagnostic testing (odds ratio, 0.20 [0.18-0.22] video versus in-person, 0.18 [0.17-0.19] telephone versus in-person) or prescribe ß-blockers (0.82 [0.68-0.99], 0.35 [0.26-0.47]), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (0.69 [0.50-0.96], 0.48 [0.35-0.66]), or loop diuretics (0.67 [0.53-0.85], 0.45 [0.37-0.55]). During telephone visits, clinicians were less likely to prescribe ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor/ARB (angiotensin receptor blockers)/ARNIs (angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors; 0.54 [0.40-0.72]). Telephone visits but not video visits were associated with higher rates of 90-day mortality (1.82 [1.14-2.90]) and nonsignificant trends towards higher rates of 90-day heart failure emergency department visits (1.34 [0.97-1.86]) and hospitalizations (1.36 [0.98-1.89]). CONCLUSIONS: Remote visits for heart failure care were associated with reduced diagnostic testing and guideline-directed medical therapy prescription. Telephone but not video visits were associated with increased 90-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists/trends , Heart Failure/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/trends , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Utilization/trends , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Telephone/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing/trends
7.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(5): 1060-1066, 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Very little is known about the effects of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated social distancing practices on trauma presentations to the emergency department (ED). This study aims to assess the impact of a city-wide stay at home order on the volume, type, and outcomes of traumatic injuries at urban EDs. METHODS: The study was a retrospective chart review of all patients who presented to the ED of an urban Level I Trauma Center and its urban community affiliate in the time period during the 30 days before the institution of city-wide shelter-in-place (preSIP) order and 60 days after the shelter-in-place (SIP) order and the date-matched time periods in the preceding year. Volume and mechanism of traumatic injuries were compared using paired T-tests. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in overall ED volume. The volume of certain blunt trauma presentations (motor vehicle collisions) during the first 60 days of SIP compared to the same period from the year prior also significantly decreased. Importantly, the volume of penetrating injuries, including gunshot wounds and stab wounds, did not differ for the preSIP and SIP periods when compared to the prior year. The mortality of traumatic injuries was also unchanged during the SIP comparison period. CONCLUSION: While there were significant decreases in visits to the ED and overall trauma volume, penetrating trauma, including gun violence, and other severe traumatic injuries remain a public health crisis that affects urban communities despite social distancing recommendations enacted during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Population
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(5): 1032-1036, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The cumulative burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the United States' healthcare system is substantial. To help mitigate this burden, novel solutions including telehealth and dedicated screening facilities have been used. However, there is limited data on the efficacy of such models and none assessing patient comfort levels with these changes in healthcare delivery. The aim of our study was to evaluate patients' perceptions of a drive-through medical treatment system in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Patients presenting to a drive-through COVID-19 medical treatment facility were surveyed about their experience following their visit. An anonymous questionnaire consisting of five questions, using a five-point Likert scale was distributed via electronic tablet. RESULTS: We obtained 827 responses over two months. Three quarters of respondents believed care received was similar to that in a traditional emergency department (ED). Overall positive impression of the drive-through was 86.6%, and 95% believed that it was more convenient. CONCLUSION: Overall, the drive-through medical system was perceived as more convenient than the ED and was viewed as a positive experience. While representing a dramatic change in the delivery model of medical care, if such systems can provide comparable levels of care, they may be a viable option for sustained and surge healthcare delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Patient Access to Records/psychology , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Perception , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Triage/trends , United States/epidemiology
9.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 400-402, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394713

ABSTRACT

Background: On January 20, 2020, the first documented case of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was reported in the United States. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to report more morbidity and mortality in adults than in children. Early in Pandemic, there was a concern that patients with asthma would be affected disproportionately from COVID-19, but this was not manifested. It is now recognized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors that are used by the coronavirus for infection have low expression in children with atopy that may contribute to decreased infectivity in children who are atopic. There are several early reports of decreased emergency department (ED) visits for children with asthma. The authors previously reported a decrease in pediatric ED visits in the spring of 2020, which correlated with school closure. Objective: To determine if this trend of decreased ED visits for pediatric asthma was sustained throughout the first COVID-19 pandemic year. Methods: ED data from one inner city children's hospital were collected by using standard medical claims codes. Conclusion: We reported a sustained year of decreased ED visits for children with asthma in one pediatric ED in an inner-city hospital; this seemed to be secondary to school closure and decreased exposure to upper respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Physical Distancing , Schools , Urban Health
11.
Respirology ; 26(11): 1041-1048, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption to health, social interaction, travel and economies worldwide. In New Zealand, the government closed the border to non-residents and required all arrivals to quarantine for 14 days. They also implemented a strict contact-restriction system to eliminate COVID-19 from the community. These measures also reduced the circulation of other respiratory viruses such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. We assessed the impact of these measures on hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiac diseases. METHODS: National data on hospital admissions for each week of 2020 were compared to admissions for the previous 5 years. Analyses were curtailed after week 33, when a COVID-19 outbreak in Auckland led to different levels of pandemic restrictions making national data difficult to interpret. RESULTS: The numbers of acute infectious respiratory admissions were similar to previous years before the introduction of COVID-19 restrictions, but then fell lower and remained low after the pandemic restrictions were eased. The usual winter peak in respiratory admissions was not seen in 2020. Other than small reductions during the period of the strictest contact restrictions, non-infectious respiratory and cardiac admissions were similar to previous years and the usual winter peak in heart failure admissions was observed. CONCLUSION: The observed patterns of hospital admissions in 2020 are compatible with the hypothesis that circulating respiratory viruses drive the normal seasonal trends in respiratory admissions. By contrast, these findings suggest that respiratory viruses do not drive the winter peak in heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 924-926, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324450

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to pose major challenges for GP practice and emergency rooms across Germany. Even if there is now a certain routine, the optimal treatment of patients is still difficult. This article provides an overview of the aspects of caring for COVID-19 patients in GP practice and emergency rooms and the changes since the beginning of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , General Practice/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , General Practice/standards , General Practice/trends , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors
13.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(4): 487-499, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267588

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the economics of emergency department care (ED). METHODS: We conducted an observational study of 136 EDs from January 2019 to September 2020, using 2020-to-2019 3-week moving ratios for ED visits, complexity, revenue, and staffing expenses. We tabulated 2020-to-2019 staffing ratios and calculated hour and full-time-equivalent changes. RESULTS: Following the COVID-19 pandemic's onset, geriatric (age ≥65), adult (age 18 to 64), and pediatric (age <18) ED visits declined by 43%, 40%, and 73%, respectively, compared to 2019 visits and rose thereafter but remained below 2019 levels through September. Relative value units per visit rose by 8%, 9%, and 18%, respectively, compared to 2019, while ED admission rates rose by 32%. Both fell subsequently but remained above 2019 levels through September. Revenues dropped sharply early in the pandemic and rose gradually but remained below 2019 levels. In medium and large EDs, staffing and expenses were lowered with a lag, largely compensating for lower revenue at these sites, and barely at freestanding EDs. Staffing and expense reductions could not match revenue losses in smaller EDs. During the pandemic, emergency physician and advanced practice provider clinical hours and compensation fell 15% and 27%, respectively, corresponding to 174 lost physician and 193 lost advanced practice provider full-time-equivalent positions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacted the economics of ED care, with large drops in overall and, in particular, low-acuity ED visits, necessitating reductions in clinical hours. Staffing cutbacks could not match reduced revenue at small EDs with minimum emergency physician coverage requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital/economics , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , United States
14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(8): e13623, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the influence of population-wide COVID-19 lockdown measures implemented on 16, March 2020 on routine and emergency care of cancer outpatients at a tertiary care cancer centre in Vienna, Austria. METHODS: We compared the number/visits of cancer outpatients receiving oncological therapies at the oncologic day clinic (DC) and admissions at the emergency department (ED) of our institution in time periods before (pre-lockdown period: 1 January - 15 March 2020) and after (post-lockdown period: 16 March- 31 May 2020) lockdown implementation with the respective reference periods of 2018 and 2019. Additionally, we analysed Emergency Severity Index (ESI) score of unplanned cancer patient presentations to the ED in the same post-lockdown time periods. Patient outcome was described as 3-month mortality rate (3-MM). RESULTS: In total, 16 703 visits at the DC and 2664 patient visits for the respective time periods were recorded at the ED. No decrease in patient visits was observed at the DC after lockdown implementation (P = .351), whereas a substantial decrease in patient visits at the ED was seen (P < .001). This translates into a 26%-31% reduction of cancer-related patient visits per half month after the lockdown at the ED (P < .001 vs. 2018 + 2019). There was no difference in the distribution of ESI scores at ED presentation (P = .805), admission rates or 3-MM in association with lockdown implementation (P = .086). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining antineoplastic therapy administration during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, our data underline the need for adapted management strategies for emergency presentations of cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cancer Care Facilities , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Austria , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
CMAJ ; 193(21): E753-E760, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reduced use of the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic may result in increased disease acuity when patients do seek health care services. We sought to evaluate emergency department visits for common abdominal and gynecologic conditions before and at the beginning of the pandemic to determine whether changes in emergency department attendance had serious consequences for patients. METHODS: We conducted a population-based analysis using administrative data to evaluate the weekly rate of emergency department visits pre-COVID-19 (Jan. 1-Mar. 10, 2020) and during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic (Mar. 11-June 30, 2020), compared with a historical control period (Jan. 1-July 1, 2019). All residents of Ontario, Canada, presenting to the emergency department with appendicitis, cholecystitis, ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage were included. We evaluated weekly incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of emergency department visits, management strategies and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Across all study periods, 39 691 emergency department visits met inclusion criteria (40.2 % appendicitis, 32.1% miscarriage, 21.3% cholecystitis, 6.4% ectopic pregnancy). Baseline characteristics of patients presenting to the emergency department did not vary across study periods. After an initial reduction in emergency department visits, presentations for cholecystitis and ectopic pregnancy quickly returned to expected levels. However, presentations for appendicitis and miscarriage showed sustained reductions (IRR 0.61-0.80), with 1087 and 984 fewer visits, respectively, after the start of the pandemic, relative to 2019. Management strategies, complications and mortality rates were similar across study periods for all conditions. INTERPRETATION: Although our study showed evidence of emergency department avoidance in Ontario during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, no adverse consequences were evident. Emergency care and outcomes for patients were similar before and during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Cholecystitis , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Genital Diseases, Female , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Abortion, Spontaneous/diagnosis , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/therapy , Adult , Aged , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cholecystitis/diagnosis , Cholecystitis/epidemiology , Cholecystitis/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genital Diseases, Female/diagnosis , Genital Diseases, Female/epidemiology , Genital Diseases, Female/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Ectopic/diagnosis , Pregnancy, Ectopic/epidemiology , Pregnancy, Ectopic/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a serious respiratory virus pandemic. Patient characteristics, knowledge of the COVID-19 disease, risk behaviour and mental state will differ between individuals. The primary aim of this study was to investigate these variables in patients visiting an emergency department in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare the "COVID-19 suspected" (positive and negative tested group) with the "COVID-19 not suspected" (control group) and to compare in the "COVID-19 suspected" group, the positive and negative tested patients. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients, visiting the emergency room at the Franciscus Gasthuis & Vlietland, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were asked to fill out questionnaires on the abovementioned items on an iPad. The patients were either "COVID-19 suspected" (positive and negative tested group) or "COVID-19 not suspected" (control group). RESULTS: This study included a total of 159 patients, 33 (21%) tested positive, 85 (53%) negative and 41 (26%) were COVID-19 not suspected (control group). All patients in this study were generally aware of transmission risks and virulence and adhered to the non-pharmaceutical interventions. Working as a health care professional was correlated to a higher risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection (p- value 0.04). COVID-19 suspected patients had a significantly higher level of anxiety compared to COVID-19 not suspected patients (p-value < 0.001). The higher the anxiety, the more seriously hygiene measures were followed. The anxiety scores of the patients with (pulmonary) comorbidities were significantly higher than without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first (large) study that investigates and compares patient characteristics, knowledge, behaviour, illness perception, and mental state with respect to COVID-19 of patients visiting the emergency room, subdivided as being suspected of having COVID-19 (positive or negative tested) and a control group not suspected of having COVID-19. All patients in this study were generally aware of transmission risks and virulence and adhered to the non-pharmaceutical interventions. COVID-19 suspected patients and patients with (pulmonary) comorbidities were significantly more anxious. However, there is no mass hysteria regarding COVID-19. The higher the degree of fear, the more carefully hygiene measures were observed. Knowledge about the coping of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic is very important, certainly also in the perspective of a possible second outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Fear , Female , Health Personnel , Health Risk Behaviors/physiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 114-119, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the trend of rising Emergency Department (ED) visits over the past decade, researchers have observed drastic declines in number of ED visits due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and governor mandated Stay at Home Order on ED super utilizers. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the 12 emergency departments of the Franciscan Mission of Our Lady Hospital System in Louisiana between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020. Patients who were 18 years of age or older and had four ED visits within a one-year period (2018, 2019, or 2020) were classified as super-utilizers. We examined number and category of visits for the baseline period (January 2018 - March 2020), the governor's Stay at Home Order, and the subsequent Reopening Phases through December 31, 2020. RESULTS: The number of visits by super utilizers decreased by over 16% when the Stay at Home Order was issued. The average number of visits per week rose from 1010.63 during the Stay at Home Order to 1198.09 after the Stay at Home Order was lifted, but they did not return to Pre-COVID levels of approximately 1400 visits per week in 2018 and 2019. When categories of visits were examined, this trend was found for emergent visits (p < 0.001) and visits related to injuries (p < 0.001). Non-emergent visits declined during the Stay at Home Order compared to the baseline period (p < 0.001), and did not increase significantly during reopening compared to the Stay at Home Order (p = 0.87). There were no changes in number of visits for psychiatric purposes, alcohol use, or drug use during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Significant declines in emergent visits raise concerns that individuals who needed ED treatment did not seek it due to COVID-19. However, the finding that super utilizers with non-emergent visits continued to visit the ED less after the Stay at Home Order was lifted raises questions for future research that may inform policy and interventions for inappropriate ED use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Health Policy , Medical Overuse/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Government Regulation , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Louisiana , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , State Government , Young Adult
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 187-191, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193199

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The global COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the utilization of healthcare services; however, the impact on population-level emergency department (ED) utilization patterns for the treatment of acute injuries has not been fully characterized. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the frequency of North Carolina (NC) EDs visits for selected injury mechanisms during the first eleven months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data were obtained from the NC Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT), NC's legislatively mandated statewide syndromic surveillance system for the years 2019 and 2020. Frequencies of January - November 2020 NC ED visits were compared to frequencies of 2019 visits for selected injury mechanisms, classified according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) injury diagnosis and mechanism codes. RESULTS: In 2020, the total number of injury-related visits declined by 19.5% (N = 651,158) as compared to 2019 (N = 809,095). Visits related to motor vehicle traffic crashes declined by a greater percentage (29%) and falls (19%) declined by a comparable percentage to total injury-related visits. Visits related to assault (15%) and self-harm (10%) declined by smaller percentages. Medication/drug overdose visits increased (10%), the only injury mechanism studied to increase during this period. CONCLUSION: Both ED avoidance and decreased exposures may have contributed to these declines, creating implications for injury morbidity and mortality. Injury outcomes exacerbated by the pandemic should be addressed by timely public health responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , North Carolina/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Young Adult
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