Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 195
Filter
1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6260262, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874902

ABSTRACT

In this study, an autonomous type deterministic nonlinear mathematical model that explains the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 is proposed and analyzed by considering awareness campaign between humans and infectives of COVID-19 asymptomatic human immigrants. Unlike some of other previous model studies about this disease, we have taken into account the impact of awareness c between humans and infectives of COVID-19 asymptomatic human immigrants on COVID-19 transmission. The existence and uniqueness of model solutions are proved using the fundamental existence and uniqueness theorem. We also showed positivity and the invariant region of the model system with initial conditions in a certain meaningful set. The model exhibits two equilibria: disease (COVID-19) free and COVID-19 persistent equilibrium points and also the basic reproduction number, R 0 which is derived via the help of next generation approach. Our analytical analysis showed that disease-free equilibrium point is obtained only in the absence of asymptomatic COVID-19 human immigrants and disease (COVID-19) in the population. Moreover, local stability of disease-free equilibrium point is verified via the help of Jacobian and Hurwitz criteria, and the global stability is verified using Castillo-Chavez and Song approach. The disease-free equilibrium point is both locally and globally asymptotically stable whenever R 0 < 1, so that disease dies out in the population. If R 0 > 1, then disease-free equilibrium point is unstable while the endemic equilibrium point exists and stable, which implies the disease persist and reinvasion will occur within a population. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number, R 0 with respect to model parameters, is computed to identify the most influential parameters in transmission as well as in the control of COVID-19. Finally, some numerical simulations are illustrated to verify the theoretical results of the model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Models, Biological
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e054331, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865165

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify COVID-19 vulnerabilities for Californian residents by their legal immigration status and place of residence. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of cross-sectional population-representative survey data. DATA: All adult respondents in the restricted version of the California Health Interview Survey (2015-2020, n=128 528). OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative Social Vulnerability Indices for COVID-19 by legal immigration status and census region across six domains: socioeconomic vulnerability; demography and disability; minority status and language barriers; high housing density; epidemiological risk; and access to care. RESULTS: Undocumented immigrants living in Southern California's urban areas (Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego-Imperial) have exceptionally high vulnerabilities due to low socioeconomic status, high language barriers, high housing density and low access to care. San Joaquin Valley is home to vulnerable immigrant groups and a US-born population with the highest demographic and epidemiological risk for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Interventions to mitigate public health crises must explicitly consider immigrants' dual disadvantage from social vulnerability and exclusionary state and federal safety-net policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Los Angeles
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 804, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The health of undocumented immigrants is an important concern in most societies. However, there is no conclusive evidence that inclusive health care policies lead to better outcomes for this group of the population. The aim of this study is to analyse whether there is an association between inclusive health care policies and the mortality patterns of undocumented immigrants, or the distribution of different causes of death among those who have died. METHODS: We analyse individual data concerning the deceased in Switzerland between 2011 and 2017. We proceed in two steps. First, we estimate and compare the patterns of mortality of Swiss citizens, documented immigrants, and undocumented immigrants. Second, we test whether there is an association between cantonal authorities' policies and differing mortality patterns. We use logistic regressions and multinomial regressions to estimate the relationship between legal status and mortality patterns both in Switzerland and across different cantons. RESULTS: We find a difference in the patterns of mortality between undocumented immigrants and the other groups of the population. Specifically, death from circulatory system diseases is twice as frequent among undocumented immigrants compared to documented immigrants and Swiss citizens. However, this difference is smaller in the Swiss cantons that have more inclusive health care policies towards undocumented immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: We interpret these results as an indication that policies that expand access to health services lead to better outcomes for undocumented immigrants. This finding has implications for research on civic stratification and public health. Further analysis is needed to evaluate the effects of extending public health care for undocumented immigrants in different contexts.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Undocumented Immigrants , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Switzerland/epidemiology
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1019, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (known as COVID-19), spread rapidly around the world, affecting all and creating an ongoing global pandemic. Across the United States, Latinx and Indigenous populations have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 cases and death rates. An examination of the perceptions and beliefs about the spread of the virus, COVID-19 testing, and vaccination amongst racial-ethnic minority groups, specifically Latinx and Indigenous Latin American immigrant communities, is needed to alleviate the widespread disparity in new cases and deaths. METHODS: This study was carried out from August 2020 to January 2021 and used community-based participatory research to engage community partners and build the capacity of community health workers (i.e., promotores de salud) and pre-medical and medical students in conducting qualitative research. The objective of the study was to examine the structural and social determinants of health on perceptions of the coronavirus, its spread, and decisions around COVID-19 testing and vaccination. Data collection included ethnography involving observations in public settings and focus groups with members of Latinx and Indigenous Mexican farm-working communities in the Eastern Coachella Valley, located in the Inland Southern California desert region. A total of seven focus groups, six in Spanish and one in Purépecha, with a total of 55 participants were conducted. Topics covered include perceptions of the coronavirus and its spread, as well as COVID-19 testing and vaccination. RESULTS: Using theme identification techniques, the findings identify structural and social factors that underly perceptions held by Latinx and Indigenous Mexican immigrants about the virus and COVID-19, which, in turn, shape attitudes and behaviors related to COVID-19 testing and vaccination. Common themes that emerged across focus groups include misinformation, lack of trust in institutions, and insecurity around employment and residency. CONCLUSIONS: This immigrant population is structurally vulnerable to historical and present-day inequalities that put them at increased risk of COVID-19 exposure, morbidity, and mortality. Study findings indicate a significant need for interventions that decrease structural vulnerabilities by addressing issues of (dis)trust in government and public health among this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination
5.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(7)2022 05 03.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage for COVID-19 varies among immigrant groups in Norway and between different countries. Most likely, childhood/adolescence and consistent contact with the country of birth help form the attitudes to and the desire for vaccination. We therefore compared the vaccination rate among European-born immigrants in Norway and the vaccination coverage in their countries of birth. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Vaccination coverage, the percentage of the adult population that had received at least one vaccination dose, for 22 European countries with universal access to vaccines by 31 August 2021 was retrieved from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and from the Norwegian emergency preparedness register for COVID-19 for the equivalent immigrant groups in Norway on 30 September 2021. Scatter plots with least-squares regression lines showed the association between the vaccination coverage in the country of birth and the rate in the equivalent immigration group in Norway, in total and by time of residence in Norway (< 6 years and ≥ 6 years). RESULT: The model estimated an increase in the vaccination rate in immigrant groups in Norway of 0.64 percentage points for each percentage point increase in the vaccination coverage in their European countries of birth, and explained 63 % of the variation in the vaccination rate in the immigrant groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the co-variation with the country of birth when comparing immigrants with short versus long time of residence. INTERPRETATION: There is a correlation between the vaccination rate for COVID-19 among European-born immigrants in Norway and the coverage in their countries of birth. Attitudes to and desire for vaccination varies between countries and can explain part of the observed differences between immigrant groups in Norway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , Vaccination
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785636

ABSTRACT

Research suggests a disparity in the prevalence of dementia, with Black older adults having double the risk compared to their White counterparts. African immigrants are a fast-growing segment of the U.S. Black population, but the dementia care needs and resources of this population are not fully understood. In this paper, we describe the process of working collaboratively with a community partner and project advisory board to conduct a culturally informed project. Specifically, we describe the process of developing culturally informed instruments to collect data on dementia care needs and resources among African immigrants. Working together with a diverse project advisory board, a guide was developed and used to conduct community conversations about experiences with dementia/memory loss. Transcripts from six conversations with 24 total participants were transcribed and analyzed thematically by two independent coders in Nvivo. These qualitative findings were used to inform the development of a survey for quantitative data collection that is currently ongoing. Themes (e.g., cultural attitudes, challenges, and current resources) from the community conversations that informed the survey are described briefly. Despite the challenges of conducting research during a global pandemic, having trusting relationships with a partnering community organization and project advisory board facilitated the successful development of instruments to conduct preliminary dementia care research in an underserved population. We anticipate that survey results will inform interventions that increase education, outreach, and access to dementia care and caregiving resources for this population. It may serve as a model for community-university partnerships for similar public health efforts in dementia as well as other chronic disease contexts.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Emigrants and Immigrants , Aged , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Universities , Vulnerable Populations
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 766943, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775976

ABSTRACT

Objectives: There are controversies regarding the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrants from conflict-zone countries. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the risk of perinatal and neonatal outcomes among immigrants from conflict-zone countries compared to native-origin women in host countries. Methods: A systematic search on the databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out to retrieve studies on perinatal and neonatal outcomes among immigrants from Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, Syria, Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kosovo, Ukraine, and Pakistan. Only peer-reviewed articles published in the English language were included in the data analysis and research synthesis. The odds ratio and forest plots were constructed for assessing the outcomes of interests using the DerSimonian and Laird, and the inverse variance methods. The random-effects model and the Harbord test were used to account for heterogeneity between studies and assess publication bias, respectively. Further sensitivity analysis helped with the verification of the reliability and stability of our review results. Results: The search process led to the identification of 40 eligible studies involving 215,718 pregnant women, with an immigration background from the conflict zone, and 12,806,469 women of native origin. The adverse neonatal outcomes of the risk of small for gestational age (Pooled OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.1), a 5-min Apgar score <7 (Pooled OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.1), stillbirth (Pooled OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.0), and perinatal mortality (Pooled OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.5) were significantly higher in the immigrant women compared to the women of native-origin. The risk of maternal outcomes, including the cesarean section (C-S) and emergency C-S, instrumental delivery, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Although the risk of some adverse maternal outcomes was comparable in the groups, the immigrant women from conflict-zone countries had a higher risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity, including SGA, a 5-min Apgar score <7, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality compared to the native-origin population. Our review results show the need for the optimization of health care and further investigation of long-term adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant women.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pregnancy Outcome , Cesarean Section , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/ethnology , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(2): 302-310, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immigrants and ethnic minorities have been shown to be at increased risk of hospitalization from COVID-19. Our aim was to analyse the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic risk factors on hospital admissions for COVID-19 among immigrants and ethnic minorities compared to the majority population. METHODS: We used nationwide register data on all hospitalized COVID-19 cases between February and June 2020 (N = 2232) and random controls from the general population (N = 498 117). We performed logistic regression analyses and adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic and demographic factors. The main outcome measure was hospitalization with COVID-19 and was estimated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Among 2232 COVID-19 cases, the OR of hospitalization with COVID-19 among immigrants and descendants of non-Western origin was 2.5 times higher (95% CI: 2.23-2.89) compared with individuals of Danish origin with most pronounced results among individuals from Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan and Somalia. The OR was largely attributed to comorbidity and socioeconomic factors, especially household size, occupation, and population density. CONCLUSION: There is a significantly higher OR of hospitalization with COVID-19 among non-Western immigrants and ethnic minorities compared with ethnic Danes. This knowledge is crucial for health policymakers and practitioners in both the current and future pandemics to identify more vulnerable groups and target prevention initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760595

ABSTRACT

Following resettlement in high-income countries, many immigrants and refugees experience barriers to accessing primary healthcare. Local non-medical settlement organizations, such as the Local Immigration Partnerships in Canada, that support immigrant integration, may also support access to mental health and healthcare services for immigrant populations. This scoping review aims to identify and map the types and characteristics of approaches and interventions that immigrant settlement organizations undertake to support access to primary healthcare for clients. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Social Services Abstracts, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases from 1 May 2013 to 31 May 2021 and mapped research findings using the Social-Ecological Model. The search identified 3299 citations; 10 studies met all inclusion criteria. Results suggest these organizations support access to primary healthcare services, often at the individual, relationship and community level, by collaborating with health sector partners in the community, connecting clients to health services and service providers, advocating for immigrant health, providing educational programming, and initiating community development/mobilization and advocacy activities. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of local non-medical immigrant settlement organizations involved in health care planning and service delivery on reducing barriers to access in order for primary care services to reach marginalized, high-need immigrant populations.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Mental Health Services , Refugees , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mental Health
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 575, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the past decade, the U.S. immigration detention system regularly detained more than 30,000 people per day; in 2019 prior to the pandemic, the daily detention population exceeded 52,000 people. Inhumane detention conditions have been documented by internal government watchdogs, and news media and human rights groups who have observed over-crowding, poor hygiene and sanitation and poor and delayed medical care, as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. METHODS: This study surveyed health professionals across the United States who had provided care for immigrants who were recently released from immigration detention to assess clinician perceptions about the adverse health impact of immigration detention on migrant populations based on real-life clinical encounters. There were 150 survey responses, of which 85 clinicians observed medical conditions attributed to detention. RESULTS: These 85 clinicians reported seeing a combined estimate of 1300 patients with a medical issue related to their time in detention, including patients with delayed access to medical care or medicine in detention, patients with new or acute health conditions such as infection and injury attributed to detention, and patients with worsened chronic or special needs conditions. Clinicians also provided details regarding sentinel cases, categorized into the following themes: Pregnant women, Children, Mentally Ill, COVID-19, and Other serious health issue. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first survey, to our knowledge, of health care professionals treating individuals upon release from detention. Due to the lack of transparency by federal entities and limited access to detainees, this survey serves as a source of credible information about conditions experienced within immigration detention facilities and is a means of corroborating immigrant testimonials and media reports. These findings can help inform policy discussions regarding systematic changes to the delivery of healthcare in detention, quality assurance and transparent reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Health Status , Humans , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
11.
Health Educ Behav ; 49(2): 194-199, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741850

ABSTRACT

In this commentary, we briefly describe our methodology in conducting a remote qualitative investigation with essential workers from southwest Kansas, and then describe some key considerations, challenges, and lessons learned in recruiting and conducting interviews remotely. From August 4, 2020 through August 26, 2020, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff conducted five phone interviews with culturally and linguistically diverse employees in southwest Kansas to understand COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices and communication preferences. Our experience details the potential challenges of the federal government in recruiting individuals from these communities and highlights the possibilities for more effectively engaging health department and community partners to support investigation efforts. Optimizing recruitment strategies with additional participation from community partners, developing culturally and linguistically appropriate data collection tools, and providing supportive resources and services may augment participation from refugee, immigrant, and migrant (RIM) communities in similar remote investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Limited English Proficiency , Refugees , Humans , Kansas
12.
Health Serv Res ; 57 Suppl 1: 111-121, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess and address through policy change the health-care needs of immigrant populations in Colorado. DATA SOURCES: Primary data were collected in two Colorado communities from June 2019 through December 2020. STUDY DESIGN: This work utilized a mixed-method, community power building approach to determine and meet health-care needs of immigrants, a marginalized population of mixed documentation status. Findings were then used to inform Emergency Medicaid (EM) expansion in Colorado. DATA COLLECTION: In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish, English, and Somali with 47 immigrants in rural Morgan County in June-September 2019; findings were presented to the community for feedback in January-February 2020. In March-December 2020, 330 interviews were conducted in Spanish and English with 208 unique individuals in Morgan and Pueblo Counties by local community grassroots leaders via four rounds of a novel phone tree outreach method. Interviewees were identified through snowball sampling and direct outreach among individuals seeking immediate relief (i.e., food assistance). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Interviewees reported numerous barriers to health-care access, including discrimination and limited service hours and transportation options. Data also revealed a clear health insurance coverage gap among undocumented immigrants. These data were then presented to Colorado's Department of Health-Care Policy and Financing, ultimately contributing to securing EM expansion to this population to include COVID treatment, including respiratory therapies and outpatient follow-up appointments. Data-informed continued implementation advocacy to ensure the effectiveness of EM program expansion. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrants are particularly marginalized by the health-care system. Rapid data collection grounded in a community power-building approach produced data that directly informed state policy and an increased power base. This approach enables direct connection to immediate "downstream" needs in communities while simultaneously building collective systemic "upstream" analysis and capacity of community members and laying pathways to translation and implementation of research into policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Colorado , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Medicaid , United States
13.
Scand J Public Health ; 50(1): 52-60, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724275

ABSTRACT

AIM: Immigrants in Norway have higher COVID-19 notification and hospitalisation rates than Norwegian-born individuals. The knowledge about the role of socioeconomic factors to explain these differences is limited. We investigate the relationship between socioeconomic indicators at group level and epidemiological data for all notified cases of COVID-19 and related hospitalisations among the 23 largest immigrant groups in Norway. METHODS: We used data on all notified COVID-19 cases in Norway up to 15 November 2020, and associated hospitalisations, from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and the emergency preparedness register at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We report notified COVID-19 cases and associated hospitalisation rates per 100,000 and their correlation to income, education, unemployment, crowded housing and years of residency at the group level. RESULTS: Crowded housing and low income at a group level were correlated with rates of both notified cases of COVID-19 (Pearson`s correlation coefficient 0.77 and 0.52) and related hospitalisations (0.72, 0.50). In addition, low educational level and unemployment were correlated with a high number of notified cases. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant groups living in disadvantaged socioeconomic positions are important to target with preventive measures for COVID-19. This must include targeted interventions for low-income families living in overcrowded households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 255, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Difficulties accessing health care services can result in delaying in seeking and obtaining treatment. Although these difficulties are disproportionately experienced among vulnerable groups, we know very little about how the intersectionality of realities experienced by immigrants and visible minorities can impact their access to health care services since the pandemic. METHODS: Using Statistics Canada's Crowdsourcing Data: Impacts of COVID-19 on Canadians-Experiences of Discrimination, we combine two variables (i.e., immigrant status and visible minority status) to create a new variable called visible minority immigrant status. This multiplicative approach is commonly used in intersectionality research, which allows us to explore disadvantages experienced by minorities with multiplicative identities. RESULTS: Main results show that, compared to white native-born, visible minority immigrants are less likely to report difficulties accessing non-emergency surgical care (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001), non-emergency diagnostic test (OR = 0.74, p < 0.01), dental care (OR = 0.71, p < 0.001), mental health care (OR = 0.77, p < 0.05), and making an appointment for rehabilitative care (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001) but more likely to report difficulties accessing emergency services/urgent care (OR = 1.46, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We conclude that there is a dynamic interplay of factors operating at multiple levels to shape the impact of COVID-19 related needs to be addressed through changes in social policies, which can tackle unique struggles faced by visible minority immigrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Canada , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Health Commun ; 37(4): 438-449, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721898

ABSTRACT

Latino populations are disproportionately impacted by health disparities and face both connectivity and health literacy challenges. As evidenced by the current global pandemic, access to reliable online health-related information and the ability to apply that information is critical to achieving health equity. Through a qualitative study on how Latino families collaborate to access online health resources, this work frames health literacy as a family-level mechanism. Interviews with parent-child dyads combined with online search tasks reveal how families integrate their individual skillsets to obtain, process, and understand online information about illnesses, symptoms, and even medical diagnoses. As they engage in intergenerational online health information searching and brokering, families creatively navigate information and communication technologies (ICTs) to address a range of health needs. Bilingual children help immigrant parents obtain urgent and non-urgent health information needed to care for other family members. When children are tasked with addressing a health need critical to their parent's wellbeing, they collaborate with their parents to obtain, interpret, and apply online health information. Intergenerational online health information searching and brokering thus reveals family-level strengths that can be leveraged to promote both health and digital literacy among marginalized populations.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Health Literacy , Family , Humans , Pandemics , Parents
16.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 28(2): 117-129, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722737

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted links among economic stability, health outcomes, and migration. The facets of financial worry and their associated psychological burden have been understudied among the immigrant population. The goal of this study was to determine the specific facets of financial worry and associated psychological burden in immigrants. This cross-sectional study, which used data from the 2013 to 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), examined patient-reported measures of worry regarding financial strain. The NHIS is a household survey of noninstitutionalized, nonmilitary adults in the United States. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to define adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for financial worry and psychological distress, adjusting for various sociodemographic variables. Among 131,669 US-born and 26,155 non-US-born participants who responded to all 6 questions on the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), the overall prevalence of participants reporting any serious psychological distress (K6 score ≥13) was 3.0% and 2.25%, respectively. Despite these overall prevalence data, there were specific areas of financial worries that were higher in non-US-born participants than in US-born participants. Compared with US-born participants, non-US-born participants had higher rates of financial worries regarding retirement [75.78% vs. 69.08%, AOR=1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.45, P<0.001], medical costs due to illness (worry about not being able to pay medical costs of a serious illness or accident) (74.94% vs. 65.27%, AOR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.29-1.45, P<0.001), standard of living (74.25% vs. 65.29%, AOR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.34-1.51, P<0.001), and medical cost of health care (worry about not having enough to pay medical costs for normal health care) (66.52% vs. 52.67%, AOR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.43-1.60, P<0.001), among other costs. Notably, serious psychological distress in non-US-born individuals was associated with increased financial worry relative to US-born individuals with a similar level of psychological distress. Further research is needed to evaluate the role physicians can play in mitigating psychological distress in patients with increased financial worry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 393-396, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703908

ABSTRACT

Refugee and immigrant populations are extremely vulnerable to the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination is a critical tool in mitigating these consequences, but these same communities often lack access to COVID-19 vaccines. We describe the efforts of a community-based primary care clinic in Clarkston, Georgia to provide access to COVID-19 vaccines in a culturally sensitive manner to address this health disparity and vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Refugees , COVID-19/ethnology , Cultural Competency , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 296-303, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686117

ABSTRACT

The Asian American health narrative reflects a long history of structural racism in the US and the complex interplay of racialized history, immigrant patterns, and policies regarding Asians in the US. Yet owing to systematic issues in data collection including missing or misclassified data for Asian Americans and practices that lead to indiscriminate grouping of unlike individuals (for example, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Bangladeshi) together in data systems and pervasive stereotypes of Asian Americans, the drivers and experiences of health disparities experienced by these diverse groups remain unclear. The perpetual exclusion and misrepresentation of Asian American experiences in health research is exacerbated by three racialized stereotypes-the model minority, healthy immigrant effect, and perpetual foreigner-that fuel scientific and societal perceptions that Asian Americans do not experience health disparities. This codifies racist biases against the Asian American population in a mutually reinforcing cycle. In this article we describe the poor-quality data infrastructure and biases on the part of researchers and public health professionals, and we highlight examples from the health disparities literature. We provide recommendations on how to implement systems-level change and educational reform to infuse racial equity in future policy and practice for Asian American communities.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Emigrants and Immigrants , Data Accuracy , Humans , Minority Groups
20.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(1): 551-557, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686070

ABSTRACT

The Nepali-speaking Bhutanese (NSB) community living in Central Pennsylvania has been significantly affected by COVID-19 due to various biopsychosocial determinants of health. In this paper, we discuss interventions developed by a tertiary care health system in Central Pennsylvania to provide immediate support to the NSB community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Refugees , Bhutan , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL