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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1067, 2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that individuals living in lower income neighbourhoods are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection. The relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 risk warrants further study. METHODS: We explored the association between COVID-19 test positivity and patients' socio-demographic variables, using neighborhood sociodemographic data collected retrospectively from two COVID-19 Assessment Centres in Toronto, ON. RESULTS: Eighty-three thousand four hundred forty three COVID-19 tests completed between April 5-September 30, 2020, were analyzed. Individuals living in neighbourhoods with the lowest income or highest concentration of immigrants were 3.4 (95% CI: 2.7 to 4.9) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8 to 3.7) times more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than those in highest income or lowest immigrant neighbourhoods, respectively. Testing was higher among individuals from higher income neighbourhoods, at lowest COVID-19 risk, compared with those from low-income neighbourhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted efforts are needed to improve testing availability in high-risk regions. These same strategies may also ensure equitable COVID-19 vaccine delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Poverty , Retrospective Studies
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923166

ABSTRACT

We review the case of an unstable gynaecological patient in the USA who presented with profuse vaginal bleeding after spontaneous miscarriage and was ultimately diagnosed with a uterine arteriovenous malformation managed with interventional radiology embolisation of her uterine artery. Her case was complicated by the presence of an ankle monitoring device which had been placed by US Immigration and Customs Enforcement as part of the Alternatives to Detention programme in which she was enrolled during her immigration proceedings. The device prompted important considerations regarding the potential use of cautery, MRI compatibility and device-related trauma, in addition to causing significant anxiety for the patient, who was concerned about how the team's actions could affect her immigration case. Discussion of her course and shared perspective highlights the unique clinical and medicolegal considerations presented by the expanded use of ankle monitoring devices for electronic surveillance (or 'e-carceration') of non-violent immigrants and others.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Emigration and Immigration , Ankle , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans
3.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2563684, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902134

ABSTRACT

Indonesia is one of the largest sources of migrant workers in Southeast Asia. Presently, these workers are vulnerable to COVID-19 due to the prolonged migration process, which requires them to relocate from their villages to another country and back to Indonesia on completion of their working contract. Therefore, this study describes and discusses the vulnerability of Indonesian migrant workers (IMWs) to the pandemic at various phases of the migration process. It is related to the implementation and practice of health protocols, ignorance and indifference to the dangers and transmission of the virus, and also to the national vaccination program. The analysis is based on the review of literature studies, such as studies related to the topic, international and national regulations on migrant workers, and official data and statistics published by the Indonesian government. The materials and data were collected from search engines such as Google Search and Google Scholar and also relevant published reports available. Several policies have been implemented by the government of Indonesia and other destination countries where the prospective IMWs intend to work, to protect and prevent the transmission of COVID-19. However, there is still a contagion among IMWs willing to leave abroad and those returning home after completing their employment contract. Therefore, both countries need to be responsible for each migration process, specifically related to providing health protection, increasing awareness of the danger and transmission of the virus, and applying polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and COVID-19 vaccination for migrant workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Demography , Developing Countries , Emigration and Immigration , Health Workforce , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Population Dynamics , Prospective Studies
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115114, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881126

ABSTRACT

Social science research has long critiqued how professional ideals of public service can ignore chronic problems within the healthcare industry, placing unfair burden on the "heroism" of individual workers. Yet, fewer studies investigate how healthcare professionals actively negotiate such demands for service, amidst increasing workplace pressures and risks. This paper studies Filipino nurses' response to a government policy that banned them from working overseas in order to channel their labor to local hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on 51 in-depth interviews, we argue that nurses' willingness to serve in the Philippines' COVID-19 hospitals hinged on the point at which the deployment ban interrupted their emigration trajectories. Specifically, nurses' decision to heed their government's call to service depended on whether they saw local hospital experience as valuable for their plans of working abroad. We introduce the concept of "clocking out" to describe how aspiring nurse migrants set limits to the time they devote to local service, as they pursue a career pathway beyond national borders. We discuss how this concept can inform scholarship on nurse retention and professional values, especially for developing nations in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Workplace
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e054331, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865165

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify COVID-19 vulnerabilities for Californian residents by their legal immigration status and place of residence. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of cross-sectional population-representative survey data. DATA: All adult respondents in the restricted version of the California Health Interview Survey (2015-2020, n=128 528). OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative Social Vulnerability Indices for COVID-19 by legal immigration status and census region across six domains: socioeconomic vulnerability; demography and disability; minority status and language barriers; high housing density; epidemiological risk; and access to care. RESULTS: Undocumented immigrants living in Southern California's urban areas (Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego-Imperial) have exceptionally high vulnerabilities due to low socioeconomic status, high language barriers, high housing density and low access to care. San Joaquin Valley is home to vulnerable immigrant groups and a US-born population with the highest demographic and epidemiological risk for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Interventions to mitigate public health crises must explicitly consider immigrants' dual disadvantage from social vulnerability and exclusionary state and federal safety-net policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Los Angeles
7.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 71: 103081, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777926
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 766943, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775976

ABSTRACT

Objectives: There are controversies regarding the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrants from conflict-zone countries. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the risk of perinatal and neonatal outcomes among immigrants from conflict-zone countries compared to native-origin women in host countries. Methods: A systematic search on the databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out to retrieve studies on perinatal and neonatal outcomes among immigrants from Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, Syria, Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kosovo, Ukraine, and Pakistan. Only peer-reviewed articles published in the English language were included in the data analysis and research synthesis. The odds ratio and forest plots were constructed for assessing the outcomes of interests using the DerSimonian and Laird, and the inverse variance methods. The random-effects model and the Harbord test were used to account for heterogeneity between studies and assess publication bias, respectively. Further sensitivity analysis helped with the verification of the reliability and stability of our review results. Results: The search process led to the identification of 40 eligible studies involving 215,718 pregnant women, with an immigration background from the conflict zone, and 12,806,469 women of native origin. The adverse neonatal outcomes of the risk of small for gestational age (Pooled OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.1), a 5-min Apgar score <7 (Pooled OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.1), stillbirth (Pooled OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.0), and perinatal mortality (Pooled OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.5) were significantly higher in the immigrant women compared to the women of native-origin. The risk of maternal outcomes, including the cesarean section (C-S) and emergency C-S, instrumental delivery, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Although the risk of some adverse maternal outcomes was comparable in the groups, the immigrant women from conflict-zone countries had a higher risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity, including SGA, a 5-min Apgar score <7, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality compared to the native-origin population. Our review results show the need for the optimization of health care and further investigation of long-term adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant women.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pregnancy Outcome , Cesarean Section , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/ethnology , Reproducibility of Results
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 575, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the past decade, the U.S. immigration detention system regularly detained more than 30,000 people per day; in 2019 prior to the pandemic, the daily detention population exceeded 52,000 people. Inhumane detention conditions have been documented by internal government watchdogs, and news media and human rights groups who have observed over-crowding, poor hygiene and sanitation and poor and delayed medical care, as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. METHODS: This study surveyed health professionals across the United States who had provided care for immigrants who were recently released from immigration detention to assess clinician perceptions about the adverse health impact of immigration detention on migrant populations based on real-life clinical encounters. There were 150 survey responses, of which 85 clinicians observed medical conditions attributed to detention. RESULTS: These 85 clinicians reported seeing a combined estimate of 1300 patients with a medical issue related to their time in detention, including patients with delayed access to medical care or medicine in detention, patients with new or acute health conditions such as infection and injury attributed to detention, and patients with worsened chronic or special needs conditions. Clinicians also provided details regarding sentinel cases, categorized into the following themes: Pregnant women, Children, Mentally Ill, COVID-19, and Other serious health issue. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first survey, to our knowledge, of health care professionals treating individuals upon release from detention. Due to the lack of transparency by federal entities and limited access to detainees, this survey serves as a source of credible information about conditions experienced within immigration detention facilities and is a means of corroborating immigrant testimonials and media reports. These findings can help inform policy discussions regarding systematic changes to the delivery of healthcare in detention, quality assurance and transparent reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Health Status , Humans , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
11.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(4): 285-295, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the literature on the prevalence, risk factors, and effects of traumatic experiences on the mental health outcomes of minority youth in the USA. RECENT FINDINGS: The USA has an increasing number of children and youth from minority backgrounds. Research reveals that traumatic experiences disproportionately affect minority youth. These experiences include historical/generational trauma, immigration and acculturation stressors, natural and manmade disasters, experiences of discrimination, family violence, and community violence. The COVID-19 pandemic has also disproportionately affected minority youth resulting in illness and hospitalizations. Despite the higher incidence of trauma exposure, minority youth are less likely to access medical and mental health care. These disparities are resulting in increasing rates of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, substance use disorders, and suicide in minority youth. Recognizing and understanding the impact of trauma is critical to the healthy development and successful functioning of minority youth, and to the success of our nation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Minority Groups , Violence/psychology
12.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 24(4): 862-867, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This article examines how immigration policy uncertainty during the Trump presidency shaped how immigrant serving organizations (ISOs) responded to the needs of immigrant community members in the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We draw on semi-structured interviews conducted over the summer of 2020 with 31 directors and program coordinators of ISOs and health clinics in three southern states (KY, NC, SC). RESULTS: Responding to anti-immigrant policies laid the groundwork for organizations to respond quickly and nimbly to COVID-19 related upheavals. However, organizational flexibility may signal organizational precarity, especially given the long-term impacts of both Trump administration immigration policies and the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Our findings underline how ISOs facilitate access to health and social services for immigrant families. Our findings suggest that this organizational adaptability may signal a relationship between organizational precarity and immigration policy uncertainty that could have an impact well beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Emigration and Immigration , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Uncertainty
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1709, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692564

ABSTRACT

Despite the economic, social, and humanitarian costs of border closures, more than 1000 new international border closures were introduced in response to the 2020-2021 pandemic by nearly every country in the world. The objective of this study was to examine whether these border closures reduced the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Prior to 2020, the impacts of border closures on disease spread were largely unknown, and their use as a pandemic policy was advised against by international organizations. We tested whether they were helpful in reducing spread by using matching techniques on our hand-coded COVID Border Accountability Project (COBAP) Team database of international closures, converted to a time-series cross-sectional data format. We controlled for national-level internal movement restrictions (domestic lockdowns) using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) time-series data. We found no evidence in favor of international border closures, whereas we found a strong association between national-level lockdowns and a reduced spread of SARS-CoV-2 cases. More research must be done to evaluate the byproduct effects of closures versus lockdowns as well as the efficacy of other preventative measures introduced at international borders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigration and Immigration , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262337, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662439

ABSTRACT

The speed of the economic downturn in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic has been exceptional, causing mass layoffs-in Germany up to 30% of the workforce in some industries. Economic rationale suggests that the decision on which workers are fired should depend on productivity-related individual factors. However, from hiring situations we know that discrimination-i.e., decisions driven by characteristics unrelated to productivity-is widespread in Western labor markets. Drawing on representative survey data on forced layoffs and short-time work collected in Germany between April and December 2020, this study highlights that discrimination against immigrants is also present in firing situations. The analysis shows that employees with a migration background are significantly more likely to lose their job than native workers when otherwise healthy firms are unexpectedly forced to let go of part of their workforce, while firms make more efforts to substitute firing with short-time working schemes for their native workers. Adjusting for detailed job-related characteristics shows that the findings are unlikely to be driven by systematic differences in productivity between migrants and natives. Moreover, using industry-specific variation in the extent of the economic downturn, I demonstrate that layoff probabilities hardly differ across the less affected industries, but that the gap between migrants and natives increases with the magnitude of the shock. In the hardest-hit industries, job loss probability among migrants is three times higher than among natives. This confirms the hypothesis that firing discrimination puts additional pressure on the immigrant workforce in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Economic Recession , Economics , Employment/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography/economics , Developed Countries/economics , Emigration and Immigration , Germany , Health Workforce/economics , Humans , Industry/economics , Occupations/economics , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , Transients and Migrants
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the significant staff shortages, emigration of health professionals is one of the key challenges for many healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to explore the estimated trends and directions of emigration among Polish health professionals. METHODS: The emigration phenomenon of Polish health professionals is still under-researched and the number of studies in this field is limited. Thus, the authors have triangulated data using two methods: a data analysis of five national registers maintained by chambers of professionals (doctors, nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, pharmacists, and laboratory diagnosticians), and data analysis from the Regulated Profession Database in The EU Single Market. RESULTS: According to the data from national registers, between 7-9% of practicing doctors and nurses have applied for certificates, which confirm their right to practice their profession in other European countries (most often the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Spain, and Ireland). The relatively high number of such certificates applied for by physiotherapists is also worrying. Emigration among pharmacists and laboratory diagnosticians is rather marginal. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent implementation of an effective mechanism for monitoring emigration trends is necessary. Furthermore, it is not possible to retain qualified professionals without systemic improvement of working conditions within the Polish healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Midwifery , Physical Therapists , Physicians , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Humans , Poland , Pregnancy
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23957, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau provided updates on the novel coronavirus and the government's responses to the pandemic in his daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020, delivered on the official Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) YouTube channel. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine comments on Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings by YouTube users and track these comments to extract the changing dynamics of the opinions and concerns of the public over time. METHODS: We used machine learning techniques to longitudinally analyze a total of 46,732 English YouTube comments that were retrieved from 57 videos of Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020. A natural language processing model, latent Dirichlet allocation, was used to choose salient topics among the sampled comments for each of the 57 videos. Thematic analysis was used to classify and summarize these salient topics into different prominent themes. RESULTS: We found 11 prominent themes, including strict border measures, public responses to Prime Minister Trudeau's policies, essential work and frontline workers, individuals' financial challenges, rental and mortgage subsidies, quarantine, government financial aid for enterprises and individuals, personal protective equipment, Canada and China's relationship, vaccines, and reopening. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to longitudinally investigate public discourse and concerns related to Prime Minister Trudeau's daily COVID-19 briefings in Canada. This study contributes to establishing a real-time feedback loop between the public and public health officials on social media. Hearing and reacting to real concerns from the public can enhance trust between the government and the public to prepare for future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Federal Government , Natural Language Processing , Public Health , Public Opinion , Social Media , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada , Emigration and Immigration , Financial Stress , Financing, Government , Government , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Public Policy , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Unsupervised Machine Learning
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260467, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551300

ABSTRACT

Patients often do not disclose domestic violence (DV) to healthcare providers in emergency departments and other healthcare settings. Barriers to disclosure may include fears and misconceptions about whether, and under what circumstances, healthcare providers report DV to law enforcement and immigration authorities. We sought to assess undocumented Latino immigrants (UDLI), Latino legal residents/citizens (LLRC) and non-Latino legal residents/citizens (NLRC) beliefs about disclosure of DV victimization to healthcare providers and healthcare provider reporting of DV to law enforcement and immigration authorities. From 10/2018-2/2020, we conducted this survey study at two urban emergency departments (EDs) in California. Participants, enrolled by convenience sampling, responded to survey questions adapted from a previously published survey instrument that was developed to assess undocumented immigrant fears of accessing ED care. Our primary outcomes were the proportions of UDLI, LLRC and NLRC who knew of someone who had experienced DV in the past year, whether these DV victims were afraid to access ED care, reasons DV victims were afraid to access ED care, and rates of misconceptions (defined according to current California law) about the consequences of disclosing DV to healthcare providers. Of 667 patients approached, 531 (80%) agreed to participate: 32% UDLI, 33% LLRC, and 35% NLRC. Of the 27.5% of respondents who knew someone who experienced DV in the past year, 46% stated that the DV victim was afraid to seek ED care; there was no significant difference in this rate between groups. The most common fears reported as barriers to disclosure were fear the doctor would report DV to police (31%) and fear that the person perpetrating DV would find out about the disclosure (30.3%). Contrary to our hypothesis, UDLI had lower rates of misconceptions about healthcare provider and law enforcement responses to DV disclosure than LLRC and NLRC. Fear of disclosing DV and misconceptions about the consequences of disclosure of DV to healthcare providers were common, indicating a need for provider, patient, and community education and changes that lower barriers to help-seeking.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , Adult , Domestic Violence , Emergency Service, Hospital , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Undocumented Immigrants
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