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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24108, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585796

ABSTRACT

Despite the great potential of Virtual Reality (VR) to arouse emotions, there are no VR affective databases available as it happens for pictures, videos, and sounds. In this paper, we describe the validation of ten affective interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) designed to be used in Virtual Reality. These environments are related to five emotions. The testing phase included using two different experimental setups to deliver the overall experience. The setup did not include any immersive VR technology, because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but the VEs were designed to run on stereoscopic visual displays. We collected measures related to the participants' emotional experience based on six discrete emotional categories plus neutrality and we included an assessment of the sense of presence related to the different experiences. The results showed how the scenarios can be differentiated according to the emotion aroused. Finally, the comparison between the two experimental setups demonstrated high reliability of the experience and strong adaptability of the scenarios to different contexts of use.


Subject(s)
Arousal/physiology , COVID-19/psychology , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Emotions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virtual Reality , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions/classification , Empathy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photic Stimulation/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259094, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496528

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We read, see and hear news from various media sources every day. A large majority of the news is negative. A previous study from our laboratory showed that reading negative news is associated with both increased stress reactivity (measured via the stress hormone cortisol) and recall of the negative news segments in women. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the effects of positive news on cortisol stress reactivity, memory and affect using a methodology highly similar to the study on negative news that was previously used by our team. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants aged between 18 and 35 years (81% women) were randomly exposed to either positive or neutral news segments, followed by a laboratory stressor. We assessed participants' affect three times during the procedure and measured cortisol in saliva eight times (at 10-minute intervals). Twenty-four hours later, participants were contacted by phone to assess their recall of the news segments. RESULTS: Results showed that exposure to positive news, relative to neutral news, did not modulate participants' cortisol levels in response to the laboratory stressor. Positive news had no impact on memory recall of the news and did not change participants' positive or negative affect. Bayes factors suggested that these nonsignificant results are not attributable to low statistical power. CONCLUSION: Contrary to negative news, positive and neutral news do not modulate stress reactivity, memory and affect. These results suggest that people can stay informed without physiological and psychological costs when the news to which they are exposed adopt a positive or neutral approach.


Subject(s)
Cognition/physiology , Emotions/physiology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Mass Media , Memory/physiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Saliva/chemistry , Young Adult
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 670, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care Providers during the COVID-19 Pandemic have been published in Iran. We aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven stage method with MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the extraction of 3 themes, 9 categories, and 25 subcategories. The themes were as follows: "Fear of Disease", "Burnout", and "Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care providers experience emotional and psychological stress and work challenges during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive support should be provided for the protection of their physical and mental health statuses. By working as a team, utilizing the capacity of telemedicine to care and follow up mothers, and providing maternity care at home, some emerged challenges to maternal care services can be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Burnout, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions/physiology , Female , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interviews as Topic , Iran/epidemiology , Maternal Health Services/trends , Middle Aged , Midwifery/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telemedicine/methods
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254870, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378134

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The concept of death is abstract, complex and has a number of meanings. Thus, its understanding and the approach taken to it depend, to a large extent, on aspects such as age, culture, training and religion. Nursing students have regular contact with the process of death and so it is of great interest to understand the attitudes they have towards it. As we live in a plural society it is even more interesting to not only understand the attitudes of Spanish students but, also, those of students coming from other countries. In the present article, we seek to identify and compare the attitudes held by nursing degree students at Hekima-Santé University (Senegal) and the University of Huelva (Spain) about end of life processes. The study identifies elements that condition attitudes and coping with death, whilst considering curricular differences with regards to specific end of life training. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-center study was conducted. The overall sample (N = 142) was divided into groups: Hekima-Santé University (Dakar, Senegal) and the University of Huelva (Huelva, Spain). The measurement instruments used were an ad-hoc questionnaire and Bugen´s Coping with Death Scale. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences (p = 0.005, 95%CI) were found in relation to overall Bugen Scale scores. We can confirm that specialized end of life training (University of Huelva, Spain) did not lead to better coping when compared with a population whose academic curriculum did not provide specific training and who engaged in more religious practices (Hekima-Santé University, Senegal). CONCLUSIONS: In cultures where religion not only influences the spiritual dimension of the individual, but acts in the ethical and moral system and consequently in the economic, educational and family sphere, the accompaniment at the end of life transcends the formative plane. Considering the plural society in which we live, the training that integrates the Degree in Nursing with regard to the care of the final process, must be multidimensional in which spirituality and faith are integrated, working emotional and attentional skills, as well as cultural competence strategies in this process.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Culture , Students, Nursing/psychology , Terminal Care/psychology , Death , Emotions/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Senegal , Spain , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254883, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331993

ABSTRACT

Epidemics such as COVID-19 and corresponding containment measures are assumed to cause psychological stress. In a survey during the lockdown in Switzerland (n = 1565), we found substantially increased levels of stress in the population. In particular, individuals who did not agree with the containment measures, as well as those who saw nothing positive in the crisis, experienced high levels of stress. In contrast, individuals who are part of a risk group or who are working in healthcare or in essential shops experienced similar stress levels as the general public. The psychological mechanisms that determine stress, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and containment measures, are not yet clear. Thus, we conducted a path analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the psychological mechanisms that lead to stress. Experiencing fear of the disease is a key driver for being worried. Our model further shows that worries about the individual, social, and economic consequences of the crisis, strongly boost stress. The infection rate in the canton (i.e., state) of residence also contributes to stress. Positive thinking and perceived social, organizational, and governmental support mitigate worries and stress. Our findings indicate that containment measures increase worries and stress, especially for those who feel that these measures either are not sufficient or go too far. Thus, highlighting positive aspects of the crisis and convincing people of the effectiveness and necessity of mitigation measures can, not only promote compliance, but also reduce stress. Our model suggests that people who feel protected by the authorities have fewer worries, which can, in turn, limit the negative impact of the crisis on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295522

ABSTRACT

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) can influence emotional predictions, constructed by the brain (generation stage) to prearrange action (implementation stage), and update internal models according to incoming stimuli (updating stage). However, neurocomputational mechanisms by which IU affects emotional predictions are unclear. This high-density EEG study investigated if IU predicted event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain sources activity developing along the stages of emotional predictions, as a function of contextual uncertainty. Thirty-six undergraduates underwent a S1-S2 paradigm, with emotional faces and pictures as S1s and S2s, respectively. Contextual uncertainty was manipulated across three blocks, each with 100%, 75%, or 50% S1-S2 emotional congruency. ERPs, brain sources and their relationship with IU scores were analyzed for each stage. IU did not affect prediction generation. During prediction implementation, higher IU predicted larger Contingent Negative Variation in the 75% block, and lower left anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area activations. During prediction updating, as IU increased P2 to positive S2s decreased, along with P2 and Late Positive Potential in the 75% block, and right orbito-frontal cortex activity to emotional S2s. IU was therefore associated with altered uncertainty assessment and heightened attention deployment during implementation, and to uncertainty avoidance, reduced attention to safety cues and disrupted access to emotion regulation strategies during prediction updating.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Emotions/physiology , Fear/physiology , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Behavior/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiology , Brain Mapping , Contingent Negative Variation/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Face/physiology , Fear/psychology , Female , Forecasting , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Humans , Male , Uncertainty , Young Adult
8.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(11): 2559-2565, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274670

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of serving the Chinese people's health since its birth, including playing an important role in treating and preventing COVID-19 in 2020. The fact that TCM has been used in China for thousands of years shows the value and reason why it must exist. Although TCM has been or is being questioned, there is no doubt about its importance in terms of efficacy. This article focuses on how TCM understands the human body in comparison with anatomy knowledge in western medicine and discusses the development and advances of TCM in terms of the body view and the theory innovation. The purpose is to let foreign scholars get better understanding of TCM from this perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Human Body , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Qi/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions/physiology , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Reference Books, Medical
9.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(2): 263-273, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated through insomnia - effect of coronavirus anxiety on exhaustion, from the perspective of Hobfoll's theory of conservation of resources (COR). According to the COR theory, critical events (e.g., the coronavirus epidemic) make people fearful of losing their valuable resources. A prolonged state of anxiety may lead to sleeping troubles, which over time results in an increase in exhaustion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 440 Polish healthcare providers, including nurses and midwives, doctors, paramedics, medical assistance workers, and wardens. Three measures were used: the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (the sleeping trouble subscale) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (the exhaustion subscale). Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The obtained results fully support the hypotheses. Both the direct and indirect relationships between coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion were observed. Specifically, high coronavirus anxiety increased insomnia, which in turn contributed to the development of exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the COR theory. Prolonged coronavirus anxiety and sleeping problems depleted healthcare providers' resources and made them feel exhausted. Exhaustion among these workers can have serious consequences not only for themselves but also for the health of their patients. Therefore, research into effective ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety is needed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(2):263-73.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions/physiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Burnout, Professional/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113918, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164351

ABSTRACT

Identifying the susceptibility factors of the emotional response to COVID-19 is highly significant for the psychological epidemic-crisis intervention, and autistic-related traits (ATs) is likely to be one of the candidate factors. The current study explored the relationships between ATs, emotional response to COVID-19, and the behavioural immune system (BIS) measured by trait pathogen avoidance and COVID-19 risk perception in the general population. The results showed that ATs predicted increased negative emotions directly and indirectly by enhancing the activation tendency of BIS and COVID-19 risk perception. The findings provide a candidate hypothesis for the reaction characteristics to pathogen threats in individuals with ASD and expand the understanding of individual differences in response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Perception , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Immune System , Individuality , Male , Young Adult
11.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1534-1539, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153258

ABSTRACT

Patient-provider communication is a hallmark of high-quality care and patient safety; however, the pace and increasingly complex challenges that face overextended teams strain even the most dedicated clinicians. The COVID-19 pandemic has further disrupted communication between clinicians and their patients and families. The dependence on phone communication and the physical barriers of protective gear limit nonverbal communication and diminish clinicians' ability to recognize and respond to emotion. Developing new approaches to teach communication skills to trainees who are often responsible for communicating with patients and their families is challenging, especially during a pandemic or other crisis. "Just-in-time" simulation-simulation-based training immediately before an intervention-provides the scaffolding and support trainees need for conducting difficult conversations, and it enhances patients' and families' experiences. Using a realistic scenario, the author illustrates key steps for effectively using just-in-time simulation-based communication training: assessing the learner's understanding of the situation; determining what aspects of the encounter may prove most challenging; providing a script as a cognitive aid; refreshing or teaching a specific skill; preparing learners emotionally through reflection and mental rehearsal; coaching on the approach, pace, and tone for a delivery that conveys empathy and meaning; and providing specific, honest, and curious feedback to close a performance gap. Additionally, the author acknowledges that clinical conditions sometimes require learning by observing rather than doing and has thus provided guidance for making the most of vicarious observational learning: identify potential challenges in the encounter and explicitly connect them to trainee learning goals, explain why a more advanced member of the team is conducting the conversation, ask the trainee to observe and prepare feedback, choose the location carefully, identify everyone's role at the beginning of the conversation, debrief, share reactions, and thank the trainee for their feedback and observations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/standards , Learning/physiology , Observation/methods , Patient-Centered Care/standards , Training Support/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition/physiology , Communication , Computer Simulation , Emotions/physiology , Empathy/physiology , Feedback , Humans , Male , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 512-521, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141315

ABSTRACT

Using data collected from two provinces in China through an online survey, the current study aimed to investigate left-behind children's emotional and academic adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The participants included 1780 left-behind (960 boys) and 1500 non-left-behind (811 boys) children in elementary and junior high school with a mean age of 11.23. Self-reported questionnaires concerning children's depression, loneliness, anxiety, and academic adjustment, and parents' coping with children's negative emotions were completed. The results suggested that compared with non-left-behind children, left-behind children's depression and anxiety symptoms were more severe and their academic adjustment was poorer. However, left-behind children had lower levels of loneliness than non-left-behind children. Additionally, supportive coping types, especially emotion-focused and problem-focused reactions, were significantly negatively correlated with children's depression and anxiety. Unsupportive coping types, especially distress and punitive reactions, were significantly positively correlated with children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Moreover, the relationships between punitive reactions and depression, ignoring and loneliness and problem-focused reactions and academic adjustment were significantly stronger in left-behind children. Hence, during the pandemic, left-behind children were still at a disadvantage even with their parents' company. However, parents' coping style towards left-behind children's negative emotions played a significant role in their adjustment.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Social Adjustment , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e27078, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological stress experienced by the general public in various degrees worldwide. However, effective, tailored mental health services and interventions cannot be achieved until we understand the patterns of mental health issues emerging after a public health crisis, especially in the context of the rapid transmission of COVID-19. Understanding the public's emotions and needs and their distribution attributes are therefore critical for creating appropriate public policies and eventually responding to the health crisis effectively, efficiently, and equitably. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to detect the temporal patterns in emotional fluctuation, significant events during the COVID-19 pandemic that affected emotional changes and variations, and hourly variations of emotions within a single day by analyzing data from the Chinese social media platform Weibo. METHODS: Based on a longitudinal dataset of 816,556 posts published by 27,912 Weibo users in Wuhan, China, from December 31, 2019, to April 31, 2020, we processed general sentiment inclination rating and the type of sentiments of Weibo posts by using pandas and SnowNLP Python libraries. We also grouped the publication times into 5 time groups to measure changes in netizens' sentiments during different periods in a single day. RESULTS: Overall, negative emotions such as surprise, fear, and anger were the most salient emotions detected on Weibo. These emotions were triggered by certain milestone events such as the confirmation of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19. Emotions varied within a day. Although all emotions were more prevalent in the afternoon and night, fear and anger were more dominant in the morning and afternoon, whereas depression was more salient during the night. CONCLUSIONS: Various milestone events during the COVID-19 pandemic were the primary events that ignited netizens' emotions. In addition, Weibo users' emotions varied within a day. Our findings provide insights into providing better-tailored mental health services and interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
J Osteopath Med ; 121(5): 455-461, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127811

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. Due to the rapid spread, strong contagion, high incidence of lethality in severe cases, and the lack of a pharmaceutical prevention or cure, COVID-19 has posed a serious threat to human life and health. It has also had a tremendous impact on mental health, including fear and worry, difficulty sleeping or concentrating, and increased use of poor coping mechanisms. Osteopathic medical students have had additional concerns regarding the interruption of their studies, closing of clinical rotations, and postponed licensing exams. To date, few reports have focused on osteopathic medical students and their reactions to the outbreak. OBJECTIVES: To assess resilience, coping, health behaviors, and emotional wellbeing of osteopathic medical students during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we distributed an anonymous online survey to all medical students enrolled at Nova Southeastern University in May 2020 (n=1,310) via an e-mail invitation using the institution's student listservs. Our major study variables were based on published reports and anecdotal evidence; we subsequently developed the Emotional Wellbeing in Healthcare Professions Students Questionnaire (EWB-Q). This EWB-Q contained validated scales to assess the contribution of levels of coping strategies used, personal resilience, and health behaviors on the emotional wellbeing of osteopathic medical students. Multiple linear regression and other statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS v0.26. RESULTS: Of the 1,310 students invited to participate, 335 (25.5%) surveys were returned. Of those, 133 had more than 33% of the necessary data missing and were removed, resulting in 202 (15.4%) completed questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years. About half (n=92; 45.5%) were in the clinical phase (years 3 and 4) of their medical school training (in rotations). A significant regression equation was found (F[4,171]=17.481, p<0.000, R 2 =0.290, R 2adjusted=0.274), indicating that levels of coping, personal resilience, and health behaviors (i.e., not sleeping more than usual, not exercising less than usual) accounted for a significant amount of the variance in emotional wellbeing scores in osteopathic medical students. Higher levels of resilience, greater use of coping strategies, not sleeping more than usual, and not exercising less than usual were predictors of emotional wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: Cultivating positive mental health should be a high priority for medical educators as they develop and implement curriculum-based initiatives to help medical students bolster their personal resilience and to encourage healthy coping behaviors during times of crisis and beyond. A proactive position that assists with building personal resilience and developing stress management habits is paramount in assisting students who are grappling not only with the challenges of rigorous medical training, but also with the uncertainty and stress that exists during any major global health or socioeconomic crisis.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Mental Health , Osteopathic Medicine/education , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Resilience, Psychological
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5577, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125020

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemics has fostered a pervasive use of facemasks all around the world. While they help in preventing infection, there are concerns related to the possible impact of facemasks on social communication. The present study investigates how emotion recognition, trust attribution and re-identification of faces differ when faces are seen without mask, with a standard medical facemask, and with a transparent facemask restoring visual access to the mouth region. Our results show that, in contrast to standard medical facemasks, transparent masks significantly spare the capability to recognize emotional expressions. Moreover, transparent masks spare the capability to infer trustworthiness from faces with respect to standard medical facemasks which, in turn, dampen the perceived untrustworthiness of faces. Remarkably, while transparent masks (unlike standard masks) do not impair emotion recognition and trust attribution, they seemingly do impair the subsequent re-identification of the same, unmasked, face (like standard masks). Taken together, this evidence supports a dissociation between mechanisms sustaining emotion and identity processing. This study represents a pivotal step in the much-needed analysis of face reading when the lower portion of the face is occluded by a facemask.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Masks/adverse effects , Trust/psychology , Adult , Communication , Emotions/physiology , Face , Facial Recognition/physiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Italy , Male , Masks/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Perception/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 49(7): 935-948, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085645

ABSTRACT

Nearly all families in the United States were exposed to varying degrees of stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic during the spring of 2020. Building on previous research documenting the pernicious effects of stress on youth mental health, we aimed to test the effects of exposure to COVID-19-related stress on youth symptomatology. Further, in light of evidence suggesting that parents play an important role in buffering children from environmental stress, we assessed how specific parental behaviors (i.e., parental emotion socialization, maintenance of home routines, and availability to discuss the pandemic with child) contributed to effective parental buffering of the impact of pandemic-related stress on children's symptomatology. Conversely, we tested whether parental anxiety-related symptomatology and parenting stress exacerbated the effect of children's exposure to pandemic-related stress on children's symptomatology. Results suggest that parents who engaged in relatively higher levels of emotion coaching of children's negative emotions and who maintained more stable home routines during the pandemic were more effectively able to buffer the effects of pandemic-related stress on children's symptomatology. Parents who reported higher levels of parenting stress and anxiety-related symptomatology were less likely to effectively buffer stress. Though interpretation of the findings is limited due to sole reliance on parental report and the cross-sectional study design due to the constraints of collecting data during a global pandemic, findings underscore the importance of assessing family-level factors when considering the impact of stressors on children's symptomatology and highlight the need to support parents during global events that place families under significant stress.


Subject(s)
Emotions/physiology , Mental Health , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Socialization , United States
18.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 50(8): 102079, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: On March 8, 2020, the Italian Government implemented extraordinary measures to limit viral transmission of COV-19/SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle and emotional state in women planning infertility treatments. BASIC PROCEDURES: We performed a quantitative research study using a web-based survey, in 140 women referred to Assisted Reproductive Technologies Center. MAIN FINDINGS: We observed changes in body weight during lockdown in 80 % of women, and a significant increase in BMI in comparison to that observed before (p=.001). We observed a high percentage of non-adherence to the Mediterranean pattern during lockdown due to higher frequency of consumption of sweet/pastries, cheese and meat, rather than fruit, vegetables and legumes. Before lockdown 36.4 % women were snack consumers while during lockdown 55 % (p=.002). By considering individuals' attitude to snack consumption, we observed an increase related to boredom (p=<.0001) and anxiety (p=.05) during lockdown. Increased levels of anxiety and sadness were observed in about 30 %, and of boredom in 25 %. The percentage of women worried about their planning infertility treatment was more than 50 %. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: Quarantine-related restrictions strongly influenced lifestyle psychological behavior leading to an increased burden of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions/physiology , Life Style , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/psychology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e20550, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to measure the public response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Twitter is an important data source for infodemiology studies involving public response monitoring. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine COVID-19-related discussions, concerns, and sentiments using tweets posted by Twitter users. METHODS: We analyzed 4 million Twitter messages related to the COVID-19 pandemic using a list of 20 hashtags (eg, "coronavirus," "COVID-19," "quarantine") from March 7 to April 21, 2020. We used a machine learning approach, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), to identify popular unigrams and bigrams, salient topics and themes, and sentiments in the collected tweets. RESULTS: Popular unigrams included "virus," "lockdown," and "quarantine." Popular bigrams included "COVID-19," "stay home," "corona virus," "social distancing," and "new cases." We identified 13 discussion topics and categorized them into 5 different themes: (1) public health measures to slow the spread of COVID-19, (2) social stigma associated with COVID-19, (3) COVID-19 news, cases, and deaths, (4) COVID-19 in the United States, and (5) COVID-19 in the rest of the world. Across all identified topics, the dominant sentiments for the spread of COVID-19 were anticipation that measures can be taken, followed by mixed feelings of trust, anger, and fear related to different topics. The public tweets revealed a significant feeling of fear when people discussed new COVID-19 cases and deaths compared to other topics. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that Twitter data and machine learning approaches can be leveraged for an infodemiology study, enabling research into evolving public discussions and sentiments during the COVID-19 pandemic. As the situation rapidly evolves, several topics are consistently dominant on Twitter, such as confirmed cases and death rates, preventive measures, health authorities and government policies, COVID-19 stigma, and negative psychological reactions (eg, fear). Real-time monitoring and assessment of Twitter discussions and concerns could provide useful data for public health emergency responses and planning. Pandemic-related fear, stigma, and mental health concerns are already evident and may continue to influence public trust when a second wave of COVID-19 occurs or there is a new surge of the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Machine Learning , Social Media , COVID-19/virology , Data Collection/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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