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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785633

ABSTRACT

Attitudes of healthcare workers towards the elderly significantly affect the quality of care dedicated to this group of patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the approach of Polish physiotherapists to the elderly and to analyze the factors influencing these attitudes. The study was based on a cross-sectional Internet-based survey that was conducted in the period from May to September 2021. It was completed by 252 subjects: 189 women and 63 men. The study was based on the involvement of physiotherapists with the right to practice their profession in accordance with the law in force in Poland. The tools used in the study were The Kogan Attitudes towards the Elderly (KAOP) score and The Jefferson Empathy Scale (JSE). To model the KOAP score as a function of the predictors, Bayesian linear regression was used. The average KOAP score in the sample was M (SD) = 100.7 (17.46), with the central 50% of the observations ranging from 81 to 113 points. We observed one statistically credible relationship: relevance of contacts with elderly people was positively and moderately related to KOAP. Additionally, we observed that the JSE scale was positively, but very weakly, associated with KOAP. Empathy and own experience of health care providers may protect against negative attitudes towards the elderly, meaning empathy in healthcare professionals is crucial.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Physical Therapists , Aged , Attitude , Attitude of Health Personnel , Bayes Theorem , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Poland , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
J Holist Nurs ; 40(1): 58-63, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770118

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this manuscript is to invite a revisiting of the concept of the "discipline" of Nursing, with attention to the spiritual consciousness of "Nurse" within the sacred concept of self-caring and caring-healing consciousness. The notion of including the spiritual, evolving consciousness of "Nurse," in harmony with evolution of Professional Nursing, is congruent with a mature disciplinary matrix of caring science as sacred science. This congruence between Nurse/Nursing contributes to the evolution of Nursing, Holistic Practices and Era III unitary transformative disciplinary thinking.


Subject(s)
Consciousness , Nurse-Patient Relations , Empathy , Humans
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4886, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768845

ABSTRACT

In the face of crises-wars, pandemics, and natural disasters-both increased selfishness and increased generosity may emerge. In this paper, we study the relationship between the presence of COVID-19 threat and generosity using a four-year longitudinal dataset (N = 696,942) capturing real donations made before and during the pandemic, as well as allocations from a 6-month dictator game study (N = 1003 participants) during the early months of the pandemic. Consistent with the notion of "catastrophe compassion" and contrary to some prior research showing a tendency toward self-interested behavior under threat, individuals across both datasets exhibited greater financial generosity when their county experienced COVID-19 threat. While we find that the presence of threat impacted individual giving, behavior was not sensitive to threat level. Our findings have significant societal implications and advance our understanding of economic and psychological theories of social preferences under threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Natural Disasters , COVID-19/epidemiology , Empathy , Humans
4.
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265544, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745306

ABSTRACT

AIM: Our purpose was to clarify the level and correlates of empathy and altruism in the German population during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationally representative survey (n = 3,075) was conducted in August/September 2021. To measure empathy, a short scale based on the Interpersonality Reactivity Index (IRI; German version: Saarbrucken personality questionnaire, SPF) was used (SPF-K). Based on the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; IPIP-5F30F-R1), the subscale altruism was used to quantify altruism. RESULTS: The average altruism score was 3.3 (SD: 0.7), ranging from 1 to 5. Moreover, the average empathy score was 13.1 (SD: 2.8), ranging from 4 to 20. The level of empathy significantly differed between the subgroups. For example, high levels of empathy were identified among women (average: 13.7, SD: 2.7), individuals with children (average: 13.5, SD: 2.8), and individuals with migration background (average: 13.6, SD: 2.8). Effect sizes were mostly small. Similar differences (in terms of effect size) were identified between these groups regarding altruism. Additionally, regressions showed that higher levels of both empathy and altruism were associated with being female, younger age, having children, sports activities and having at least one chronic disease. Moreover, vaccination against Covid-19 was only associated with higher altruism, but not with higher empathy. CONCLUSION: Our study emphasized the moderately high level of empathy and altruism in Germany during times of the pandemic. Identifying the correlates of these factors may help to address individuals with very low levels of these factors.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Empathy , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personality , Sex Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736921

ABSTRACT

Empathy and lifelong learning are two professional competencies that depend on the four principles of professionalism: humanism, altruism, excellence, and accountability. In occupational health, there is evidence that empathy prevents work distress. However, in the case of lifelong learning, the evidence is still scarce. In addition, recent studies suggest that the development of lifelong learning varies in physicians and nurses and that it is sensitive to the influence of cultural stereotypes associated with professional roles. This study was performed with the purpose of determining the specific role that empathy and lifelong learning play in the reduction in occupational stress. This study included a sample composed by 40 physicians and 40 nurses with high dedication to clinical work in ambulatory consultations from a public healthcare institution in Paraguay. Somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation, described as indicators of occupational stress, were used as dependent variables, whereas empathy, lifelong learning, gender, discipline, professional experience, civil status, and family burden were used as potential predictors. Three multiple regression models explained 32% of the variability of somatization based on a linear relationship with empathy, lifelong learning, and civil status; 73% of the variability of exhaustion based on a linear relationship with empathy, somatization, work alienation, and discipline; and 62% of the variability of work alienation based on a linear relationship with lifelong learning, exhaustion, and discipline. These findings indicate that empathy and lifelong learning play important roles in the prevention of work distress in physicians and nurses. However, this role varies by discipline.


Subject(s)
Occupational Stress , Physicians , Education, Continuing , Empathy , Humans , Professionalism
7.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(3): e1058-e1062, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medical profession, with its remarkable physical and emotional demands, predisposes physicians to compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout (BO). Although these conditions have been studied individually, little attention has been paid to how pediatric emergency physicians experience these conditions in the context of an Asian emergency setting especially during a global pandemic In our study, we aim to understand the experiences of individual physicians and describe the potential triggers or protective factors of compassion satisfaction, BO, and compassion satisfaction among physicians in an Asian pediatric emergency department during a pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative, individual interview methodology was used. From March to April 2020, we enrolled 20 physicians involved in frontline care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the pediatric emergency department to participate. Semistructured interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed in verbatim, with identifiers removed. Themes were identified, and data were analyzed using qualitative data analysis and iterative data analysis. RESULTS: We recruited 20 physicians. Three themes emerged from data analysis. First, we showed how workplace conditions are protective, including work morale, leadership and management, and social support received. Second, workload affected participants emotionally and in terms of its heavier quantity and longer hours. Finally, intrinsic factors that were protective in developing CF or BO include having professional autonomy, experience, work-life balance, and having emotional resilience to develop self-care. Cultural influences affect emotional regulation and can lead to negative coping with negative peer pressure. In general, participants quantified their levels of satisfaction at work as average to above average. However, they highlighted experiencing greater stress during COVID-19 with the underlying fear of contagion and infection. CONCLUSIONS: Being a pediatric emergency physician puts one at greater risk of experiencing CF and BO because of work and nonwork stressors, especially during a global pandemic, influenced by sociocultural factors. A positive and supportive work environment should be created while providing culturally adapted strategies to improve individual physician resilience to maintain their well-being.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Empathy , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708932

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that empathy is a relevant psychological trait to face the challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, but at the present very little is known on whether this multi-dimensional construct has been affected by the pandemic outbreak differently in its separate components. Here, we aimed at filling this gap by capitalizing on the opportunity of having collected data from different self-report measures and cognitive tasks assessing the main dimensions of empathy immediately before the beginning of the global pandemic and about one year later. The results showed a detrimental impact of the pandemic outbreak on empathic social skills but not on both cognitive (perspective-taking) and emotional empathy that instead significantly improved. Thus, reduced empathic social skills could be a weakness to be targeted in psychological interventions to help people cope with the mental health challenges related to COVID-19 pandemic, whereas the ability of understanding another's mental states and emotions could represent a strength in dealing with the current long-lasting crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emotions , Empathy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Nurs Adm ; 52(3): 154-159, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691742

ABSTRACT

This article explores crisis leadership, with the purpose of offering a series of leadership behaviors and strategies for nurse administrators to limit and reduce the harm of crises, specifically the COVID-19 pandemic, to healthcare professionals. Based on the assumption that generic or universal crisis management approaches are generally ineffective and efficacious crisis management must be tailored to a specific crisis, a study was conducted to identify the most serious COVID-based stressors. The results revealed 5 categories of COVID stressors which are, in ascending order: miscellaneous, administration, patients/patient family issues, inherent aspect of the job (nursing), and personal issues. Personal issues comprised more than half of the greatest COVID-specific stressors. Building on relevant crisis management literature and the identification of COVID-specific stressors, this article provides suggestions and proven tactics for nurse administrators to guide their crisis leadership efforts for the COVID-19 pandemic. The lessons of this article are applicable to other crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Leadership , Nurse Administrators , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Adult , Communication , Empathy , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667171

ABSTRACT

Italy was the second country to be affected by COVID-19 in early 2020, after China. The confrontation with the pandemic led to great changes in the world of work and, consequently, to the personal world of workers. In such a challenging situation, it is essential to be able to rely on resources that facilitate individual coping. The aim of this study was to understand the association between personal resources (optimism and humor) and exhaustion, and the role of self-compassion in this relationship. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses on a heterogeneous sample of 422 Italian workers during the first lockdown in April-May 2020. The results revealed that optimism and humor were positively associated with self-compassion; optimism and humor also had a negative association with exhaustion; and self-compassion had a mediating role between the two personal resources and exhaustion. These results confirmed the importance of personal resources in maintaining workers' wellbeing during a challenging period such as the pandemic. The present study also contributes to the body of knowledge on self-compassion, a relatively new construct that has been little studied in the organizational field.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Empathy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(4): 461-467, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633564

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic crisis is cruel but crucial lesson for the future of humankind. This crisis involves very complex events, complex in its origin, its spread, its effects and its consequences at multiple levels and fields with a big impact on people's mental health. On the other side, the quality of our individual, collective and public mental health is very important for successful fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic and infodemic. For a better public and global mental health we need a common background, common values and virtues on which we agree and follow them. Knowledge, ethics, empathy, coherence, solidarity, cooperation and unity are the key factors to long-term survival and flourishing of humankind. COVID-19 pandemic and infodemic can be effectively overcome only in spirit of common ethic and mutual empathy, respect, trust and public/global cooperation sowing the seeds for humanistic self, compassionate society and empathic civilization, rather than blaming, scapegoating and xenophobia. The Psychiatria Danubina focus is on expanding the world's collective knowledge and promoting mental health through the culture of empathy and global ethics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Empathy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(1): 46-49, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A private university nursing program established the Initiative for Vital Practice in response to increasing levels of compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout among faculty and staff during an undergraduate program revision and accompanying leadership transitions. METHOD: A pilot mixed-method project evaluated self-management practices meant to mitigate CF among faculty and staff. RESULTS: Faculty and staff (N = 34) identified four primary risk factors for CF, including physical symptoms (14 of 34 = 41%); feeling trapped in work (14 of 34 = 41%); lacking time away from work (11 of 34 = 32%); and inability to work hard enough (10 of 34 = 29%). Individual and organizational stressors and alleviators were analyzed; aggregate scores for three Professional Quality of Life scales presented at a "moderate level." CONCLUSION: Preliminary results establish a baseline to measure the effect of burnout and secondary stress and guide further development of our organizational framework and initiative. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(1):46-49.].


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Compassion Fatigue , Empathy , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Leadership , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Am J Nurs ; 122(1): 22-30, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and experiences of nurses caring for patients and families under the COVID-19 pandemic's socially restrictive practices and policies. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 global pandemic has affected the delivery of health care to patients and their families, with many aspects altered because of the need for social distancing, social isolation, and visitation restriction policies. These policies have created communication challenges for interdisciplinary health care teams, patients, and families. As frontline caregivers, nurses have felt strongly the impact of these challenges. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted among 17 RNs who were caring for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and were recruited via social media posts on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Watson's theory of human caring served as the conceptual framework for the study. RESULTS: Several themes emerged regarding nurses' experiences of communication with patients and families. These include communication challenges and barriers, prioritization, integration of group communication, nurse self-reflection, and acceptance of gratitude. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings underscore the importance of nurses' communication with patients and families under the pandemic's restricted conditions. They demonstrate the value of nurses' ability to innovate in fostering all parties' participation in the plan of care, and highlight the comfort nurses provide to patients who are isolated from loved ones. Strategies that fostered communication were identified, as were areas for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Empathy , Nurses/psychology , Professional-Family Relations , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Interviews as Topic/methods , Nurses/trends , Qualitative Research
17.
N Engl J Med ; 386(1): 7-9, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604986
18.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(12): 1805-1820, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599182

ABSTRACT

We draw from conservation of resources theory to examine how employees' assessments of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) event strength may threaten their existing resources and their subsequent dependence on their supervisors, as well as voice behaviors that are critical to the organization's survival in a disruptive environment. We propose that assessments of COVID-19 as a strong event are positively related to employees' suffering, in turn increasing their sense of dependence on their supervisors and ultimately reducing their tendencies to display promotive and prohibitive voice. Furthermore, we propose that team compassion behavior can mitigate these negative indirect effects of COVID-19 event strength on employee voice by attenuating the positive effect of COVID-19 event strength on individual suffering. We designed a six-wave, multisource, time-lagged field study in a hotel chain based in a Southeast Asian country to capture employees' and supervisors' perceptions and behaviors before the onset of the pandemic (T1) and then following the country's COVID-19 mandatory stay-at-home order (T2-T6). Our results highlight the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employee-supervisor relationships, and the critical role of team compassion behavior as a contextual moderator to reduce the indirect negative effect of COVID-19 event strength on employee voice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Empathy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Ann Behav Med ; 56(4): 381-392, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coping via empathic responding may play a role in preventive behavior engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic, and unlike trait empathy, is a potentially alterable target for changing health behavior. PURPOSE: Our goal was to examine the role of empathic responding in preventive behavior engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic, independent of trait empathy and perceived threat of COVID-19. METHODS: Participants (N = 2,841) completed a baseline survey early in the pandemic, and a follow-up survey approximately 2 weeks later (M = 13.50 days, SD = 5.61). Preventive health behaviors, including physical distancing and hygiene practices, were assessed at both timepoints. Hierarchical linear regression examined the contributions of trait empathy, perceived threat of COVID-19, and empathic responding at baseline to preventive behaviors at follow-up. RESULTS: Controlling for baseline levels of preventive behaviors and demographic covariates, trait empathy and threat of COVID-19 at baseline were each independently associated with preventive behaviors at follow-up. An interaction between perceived threat and empathic responding indicated that those perceiving high threat of COVID-19 at baseline tended to report engaging in preventive behaviors at follow-up regardless of their levels of empathic responding, whereas for those reporting low levels of perceived threat, higher levels of empathic responding were associated with higher engagement in preventive behavior. CONCLUSIONS: When perceived threat of COVID-19 was low, higher empathic responding was associated with increased engagement in preventive behaviors regardless of trait empathy, suggesting that empathic responding can serve as an actionable target for intervention to promote preventive behavior during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/prevention & control , Empathy , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580711

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the government has provided infection-control guidelines to prevent the spread of the virus. The authors of this study examined the structure (causal relationship) of factors that influence public behavior toward COVID-19 and verified the effect of public empathy with infection-control guidelines in each structure. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire survey from 211 Korean adults. The results showed that (1) the perceived susceptibility and severity of economic damage had a positive effect on infection-prevention attitudes and infection-prevention attitudes had a positive effect on infection-prevention behaviors; (2) the perceived severity of economic damage had a positive effect on infection-prevention attitudes; and (3) public empathy with infection-control guidelines positively moderated the effect of the perceived severity of economic damage on infection-prevention behaviors and that of perceived susceptibility on infection-prevention attitudes. Accordingly, the authors of this study present the following three suggestions to prevent the spread of an infectious disease: engage in risk communication focused on a potential virus infection and cooperation, make multifaceted efforts to increase public empathy with infection-control guidelines, and implement measures to alleviate or reduce economic damage to the public in a viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Attitude , Empathy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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