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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e061797, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137721

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The credit market has expanded rapidly, increasing the risk of over-indebtedness among those who lack secure employment or adequate income, an issue of concern in the COVID-19 aftermath. We investigated the role of over-indebtedness for developing poor mental health, and whether this impact is modified by age, gender, educational level or being in precarious employment. METHODS: This is a cohort study using data from the Swedish Scania Public Health Cohort, based on individuals randomly selected from the general adult population in Scania, southern Sweden, initiated in 1999/2000 (response rate 58%) with follow-ups in 2005 and 2010. Over-indebtedness was assessed by combining information on cash margin and difficulty in paying household bills. Mental health was assessed by General Health Questionnaire-12. Those with poor mental health at baseline were excluded, and the analyses were further restricted to vocationally active individuals with complete data on main variables, resulting in 1256 men and 1539 women. RESULTS: Over-indebtedness was more common among women, among persons with a low educational level, born abroad and with a precarious employment at baseline. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for poor mental health in 2010 among individuals exposed to over-indebtedness in 1999/2000 or 2005 was 2.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.8). Adjusting for educational level, country of origin and precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005, yielded an IRR of 2.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.6). An interaction analysis indicated that a high level of education may act synergistically with over-indebtedness, regarding poor mental health among men. CONCLUSIONS: Over-indebtedness was related to unfavourable societal power relations, regarding social class, gender and foreign birth. Precarious employment was independently linked to poor mental health and may also mediate the effect by over-indebtedness. The COVID-19 pandemic might entail increased over-indebtedness, which should be acknowledged in policies aiming at buffering social effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Public Health , Sweden/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143130

ABSTRACT

Stress research has widely documented how uncertainty represents a strong stressor that, in general, is negatively associated with well-being. While the literature on job insecurity about this topic is extensive and exhaustive, empirical research on the outcomes of life uncertainty, namely the perception and feeling of precariousness regarding the present and future of one's own life, is yet to be fully explored. In the present paper, we aimed to investigate the relationships among job insecurity, life uncertainty, and psychosocial well-being outcomes, specifically, with a focus on job satisfaction and burnout. The participants were 357 workers (M = 146 and F = 211), with an average age of 41.78 y.o. (SD = 13.49), who completed an online questionnaire containing, in addition to sociodemographics information, measures of the study variables, namely job insecurity, life uncertainty, job satisfaction, and burnout. The results pointed out negative relationships of both job insecurity and life uncertainty with individual well-being, as they were negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively related to burnout. In a path analysis with latent variables, life uncertainty proved to fully mediate the relationship between job insecurity and psychosocial well-being.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Employment , Humans , Adult , Uncertainty , Employment/psychology , Job Satisfaction , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116062

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the levels of COVID-19 risk perception (CVRP), job insecurity (JI), and emotional exhaustion (EE) among Chinese hospitality employees to examine the mediating effect of JI on the relationship between CVRP and EE. The moderating role of employee mindfulness (MF) and perceived employability (PE) have also be examined. Data were collected from 652 hospitality employees in Shandong and Jiangsu Province, China. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized relationship among the variables. Significant relationships were found between hospitality employees' CVRP and EE (ß = 0.103, p < 0.01), CVRP and JI (ß = 0.168, p < 0.001), and JI and EE (ß = 0.378, p < 0.001). According to the results, the higher level of the CVRP of hospitality employees, the higher level of the EE. In addition, results showed mediating effects of JI on the relationship between CVRP and EE. This study also found that MF buffered the positive relationship between CVRP and EE. Therefore, in the era of COVID-19, an effective support system at the organizational level is necessary to reduce JI and EE of hospitality employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , China/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Perception
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This life course study has two aims. First, to explore how diverse employment trajectories across adulthood are related to older people's mental health in Chile, a country with no research in this field, and second, to analyze these associations before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We use data from the nationally-representative and longitudinal 'Chilean Social Protection Survey' sequence analysis to reconstruct employment trajectory types, and bivariate and multivariate analyses to measure their association with depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that formal labor force patterns in adulthood show the lowest burden of depressive symptomology before and after the onset of the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic when controlling for traditional risk factors. CONCLUSION: We emphasize that policymakers in both the labor market and public health domains must consider the relationship between informal employment pathways in adulthood and poorer mental health in old age. Public policies should improve the conditions and quality of jobs during adulthood and promote more formalization in the labor market to address the high uncertainty involving low social protection, which is strongly associated with severe mental health problems in later life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Employment/psychology , Longitudinal Studies
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071460

ABSTRACT

Past research attests to the pivotal role of subjective job insecurity (JI) as a major stressor within the workplace. However, most of this research has used a variable-centered approach to evaluate the relative importance of one (or more) JI facets in explaining employee physical and psychological well-being. Relatively few studies have adopted a person-centered approach to investigate how different appraisals of JI co-occur within employees and how these might lead to the emergence of distinct latent profiles of JI, and, moreover, how those profiles might covary with well-being, personal resources, and performance. Using conservation of resources (COR) theory as our overarching theoretical framework and latent profile analysis as our methodological approach, we sought to fill this gap. To evaluate the external validity of our study results, we used employee sample data from two different countries (Italy and the USA) with, respectively, n = 743 and n = 494 employees. Results suggested the emergence of three profiles (i.e., the "secure", the "average type", and the "insecure") in both country samples. The "secure" group systematically displayed a less vulnerable profile in terms of physical and psychological well-being, self-rated job performance, positive orientation, and self-efficacy beliefs than the "insecure" group, while the "average" type position on the outcomes' continua was narrower. Theoretically, this supports COR's notion of loss spirals by suggesting that differing forms of JI appraisals tend to covary within-person. Practical implications in light of labor market trends and the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment , Humans , Employment/psychology , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Workplace
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043681

ABSTRACT

In the publication Uses of work and forms of governance: precarious work as a tool of discipline Alonso and Fernández [...].


Subject(s)
Employment , Pandemics , Employment/psychology
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14898, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016841

ABSTRACT

Job loss is a stressful event that increases the risk of experiencing depression and anxiety, especially during the initial months of unemployment. This study examined differences in psychological symptoms and resilient functioning accounted by employment status. The results pointed out that recently unemployed compared to currently employed individuals had lower levels of perceived controllability and resilience as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety. Path analyses showed that lower controllability appraisals at wave 1 of recently unemployed compared to employed individuals, in turn, predicted a lower use of active coping and reappraisal at wave 2, with the latter further accounting for lower levels in resilience. Higher use of distraction further mediated the relation between employment status and higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Our findings demonstrate the importance of controllability appraisals and coping strategies used to promote adaptive psychological functioning following job loss.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Employment/psychology , Humans , Unemployment/psychology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010054

ABSTRACT

Long COVID-19 is a term used to describe the symptomatic sequelae that develop after suffering from COVID-19. Very few studies have investigated the impact of COVID-19 sequelae on employment status. The aim of this research was to characterise sequelae of COVID-19 in a population of workers who tested positive for COVID-19, with a follow-up within one year of the acute illness, and to analyse the possible association between this and changes in the workers' occupational status. In this retrospective cohort study, a questionnaire was administered to 155 workers; descriptive, univariate (chi-square tests), and multivariate (logistic regression model) analyses were carried out. The mean age was 46.48 years (SD ± 7.302); 76 participants were males (49.7%), and 33 participants reported being current smokers (21.3%). Overall, 19.0% of patients reported not feeling fully recovered at follow-up, and 13.7% reported a change in their job status after COVID-19. A change in occupational status was associated with being a smoker (OR 4.106, CI [1.406-11.990], p = 0.010); hospital stay was associated with age > 46 years in a statistically significant way (p = 0.025) and with not feeling fully recovered at follow-up (p = 0.003). A persistent worsening in anxiety was more common in women (p = 0.028). This study identifies smoking as a risk factor for workers not able to resume their job; furthermore, occupational physicians should monitor mental health more closely after COVID-19, particularly in female workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 48(5): 327-350, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that precarious employment can have detrimental effects on workers' health, including mental health. Migrant workers are discussed to be especially vulnerable to such effects. Thus, we systematically reviewed existing research on the association between precarious employment and migrant workers' mental health. METHODS: Three electronic databases (Web of Science, PsycINFO and PubMed/Medline) were searched for original articles on quantitative and qualitative studies published from January 1970 to February 2022 in English, German, Turkish and Spanish. Multiple dimensions of precarious employment were considered as exposure, with mental health problems as outcomes. Narrative synthesis and thematic analyses were performed to summarize the findings of the included studies along with risk of bias and quality assessment. RESULTS: The literature search resulted in 1557 original articles, 66 of which met the inclusion criteria - 43 were of high quality and 22 were of moderate quality. The most common exposure dimensions analyzed in the studies included temporariness, vulnerability, poor interpersonal relationships, disempowerment, lacking workers' rights and low income. The outcome measures included stress, depression, anxiety and poor general mental health. The prevalence of these outcomes varied between 10-75% among the included quantitative studies. All qualitative studies reported one or more dimensions of precarious employment as an underlying factor of the development of mental health problems among migrants. Of 33 quantitative studies, 23 reported evidence for an association between dimensions of precarious employment and mental health. CONCLUSION: The results of this review support the hypothesis that precarious employment is associated with migrant workers' mental health.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Transients and Migrants , Employment/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Qualitative Research
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270905, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933372

ABSTRACT

The increasing uncertainty of our world raises important questions for university students on how they should respond to the employment challenges caused by changing environments. One of the central topics is the development of graduate employability. However, most previous research on graduate employability was undertaken in a stable environment, limiting our understanding of how graduate employability develops in a dynamic context. We have advanced the literature by introducing action theory to investigate the process of personal initiative affecting graduate employability in a period of environmental uncertainty. Using a time-lagged research design, we collected data from a sample of 229 Chinese university students and tested the hypothesized relationships. We find that personal initiative positively affects graduate employability through human and psychological capital. We further show that environmental uncertainty plays a contingent role in the above processes. Specifically, when a high level of environmental uncertainty is perceived, the positive indirect effect of personal initiative on graduate employability through either human capital or psychological capital is more likely to be strengthened. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Drive , Employment , Employment/psychology , Humans , Uncertainty
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892876

ABSTRACT

This study looks into the relationship between mental health and social exclusion scenarios, paying special attention to employment-related factors. Previous studies have shown the relationship between mental health, social exclusion and poverty. For this study, authors have used data from the VIII Report on social development and exclusion in Spain, with a sample of 11,655 households. The SPSS Statistics programme was used for statistical analysis. Several factors that could pose a risk or be a protection for the presence of mental health conditions were designed. By means of a binary logistic regression the impact of these factors on mental health issues was scored. The results show that a deteriorated social network and a negative interpretation of reality are the most influential factors related to the presence of mental health conditions in a given household. On the contrary, positive social relationships protect households and function as a support when mental health conditions are already present. Thus, the support of positive and committed social relationships is a key element to protect the mental health of households.


Subject(s)
Employment , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Protective Factors
12.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 48(4): 293-301, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Whether perceived job insecurity increases the risk of suicidal behaviors is unclear. Improved understanding in this area could inform efforts to reduce suicide risk among those experiencing elevated job insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as post-pandemic. We aimed to investigate if perceived job insecurity predicted increased risk of suicide mortality and suicide attempts. METHOD: Employees (N=65 571), representative of the Swedish working population who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Survey in 1991-2003, were followed up through 2016 in the National Inpatient and Death Registers. Suicide deaths and suicide attempts were defined according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 and ICD-8/9 codes of underlying cause of death and in-/outpatient care. Job insecurity and subsequent risk of suicide and suicide attempt were investigated with marginal structural Cox regression analyses and inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding. RESULTS: Perceived job insecurity was associated with an elevated risk of suicide [hazard ratio (HR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.20], but not with incident suicide attempts (HR 1.03, CI 0.86-1.24). Estimates remained similar after considering prevalent/previous poor mental health, other work factors, and when restricting the follow up time to ten years. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that job insecurity is associated with an increased risk of suicide mortality. Concerns about elevated job insecurity and suicide levels in the wake of the current pandemic could thus be considered in strategies to reduce the population health impact job insecurity both during and following the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide, Attempted , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sweden/epidemiology
13.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12319, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Association between employment contract (temporary vs. permanent) and suicidal ideation (persistent suicidal ideation [i.e., with onset before COVID-19] or newly developed under COVID-19 pandemic) was examined using a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan. METHODS: An Internet survey was conducted from August to September 2020. The participants' inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: (i) 20-65 years old, (ii) employees (excluding self-employed, students, retired, housewives, and unemployed). The associations of suicidal ideation with the employees' factors were analyzed using the multinomial logistic regression model, adjusting for covariates (sex, age, marital status, education, company size, industries, and a history of psychiatric disease). RESULTS: Of total 12 249 participants, 72.4% were permanent and 27.6% were temporary employees. The prevalence was 8.5% for persistent suicidal ideation and 3.2% for newly developed suicidal ideation in the COVID-19 pandemic. Temporary employment was significantly associated with persistent suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.16-1.59]; P < .001), but not associated with newly developed suicidal ideation (aOR = 1.10 [0.85-1.42]; P = .457) after adjusting the covariates. Sensitivity analysis showed temporary employment was significantly associated with persistent suicidal ideation only in women. Newly developed suicidal ideation was significantly higher among participants of a young age, employees in drinking/eating/hotel business industry, and those having a history of psychiatric disease than among the counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Working on a temporary employment contract was associated with persistent suicidal ideation under conditions of COVID-19 outbreaks in Japan. However, the result showed no significant difference in newly developed suicidal ideation. Further longitudinal study will be needed to examine the risk of being employed on an unstable occupational contract in the prolonged pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674017

ABSTRACT

The digitalization process for organizations, which was inevitably accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, raises relevant challenges for Human Resource Management (HRM) because every technological implementation has a certain impact on human beings. Between many organizational HRM practices, recruitment and assessment interviews represent a significant moment where a social interaction provides the context for evaluating candidates' skills. It is therefore relevant to investigate how different interaction frames and relational conditions affect such task, with a specific focus on the differences between face-to-face (FTF) and remote computer-mediated (RCM) interaction settings. In particular, the possibility of qualifying and quantifying the mechanisms shaping the efficiency of interaction in the recruiter-candidate dyad-i.e. interpersonal attunement-is potentially insightful. We here present a neuroscientific protocol aimed at elucidating the impact of FTF vs. RCM modalities on social dynamics within assessment interviews. Specifically, the hyperscanning approach, understood as the concurrent recording and integrated analysis of behavioural-physiological responses of interacting agents, will be used to evaluate recruiter-candidate dyads while they are involved in either FTF or RCM conditions. Specifically, the protocol has been designed to collect self-report, oculometric, autonomic (electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability), and neurophysiological (electroencephalography) metrics from both inter-agents to explore the perceived quality of the interaction, automatic visual-attentional patterns of inter-agents, as well as their cognitive workload and emotional engagement. The proposed protocol will provide a theoretical evidence-based framework to assess possible differences between FTF vs. RMC settings in complex social interactions, with a specific focus on job interviews.


Subject(s)
Employment/statistics & numerical data , Eye Movements/physiology , Interviews as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Selection/methods , Psychometrics , Telecommunications/statistics & numerical data , Employment/psychology , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Video Recording
15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260726, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546966

ABSTRACT

Mental health disorders represent an enormous cost to society, are related to economic outcomes, and have increased markedly since the COVID-19 outbreak. Economic activity contracted dramatically on a global scale in 2020, representing the worst crisis since the Great Depression. This study used the COVID Impact Survey to provide insights on the interactions of mental illness and economic uncertainty during COVID-19. We used a probability-based panel survey, COVID Impact Survey, conducted in the U.S. over three waves in the period April-June 2020. The survey covered individual information on employment, economic and financial uncertainty, mental and physical health, as well as other demographic information. The prevalence of moderate mental distress was measured using a Psychological Distress Scale, a 5-item scale that is scored on a 4-point scale (total range: 0-15). The mental distress effect of employment, economic, and financial uncertainty, was assessed in a logit regression analysis conditioning for demographic and health information. It is found that employment, health coverage, social security, and food provision uncertainty are additional stressors for mental health. These economic factors work in addition to demographic effects, where groups who display increased risk for psychological distress include: women, Hispanics, and those in poor physical health. A decrease in employment and increases in economic uncertainty are associated with a doubling of common mental disorders. The population-representative survey evidence presented strongly suggests that economic policies which support employment (e.g., job keeping, job search support, stimulus spending) provide not only economic security but also constitute a major health intervention. Moving forward, the economic uncertainty effect ought to be reflected in community level intervention and prevention efforts, which should include strengthening economic support to reduce financial and economic strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Economic Recession , Mental Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Employment/economics , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Psychological Distress , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uncertainty , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1103-1117, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368908

ABSTRACT

Employers have increasingly turned to virtual interviews to facilitate online, socially distanced selection processes in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little understanding about the experience of job candidates in these virtual interview contexts. We draw from Event System Theory (Morgeson et al., 2015) to advance and test a conceptual model that focuses on a high-stress, high-stakes setting and integrates literatures on workplace stress with literatures on applicant reactions. We predict that when applicants ruminate about COVID-19 during an interview and have higher levels of COVID-19 exhaustion, they will have higher levels of anxiety during virtual interviews, which in turn relates to reduced interview performance, lower perceptions of fairness, and reduced intentions to recommend the organization. Further, we predict that three factors capturing COVID-19 as an enduring and impactful event (COVID-19 duration, COVID-19 cases, COVID-19 deaths) will be positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. We tested our propositions with 8,343 job applicants across 373 companies and 93 countries/regions. Consistent with predictions, we found a positive relationship between COVID-19 rumination and interview anxiety, and this relationship was stronger for applicants who experienced higher (vs. lower) levels of COVID-19 exhaustion. In turn, interview anxiety was negatively related to interview performance, fairness perceptions, and recommendation intentions. Moreover, using a relevant subset of the data (n = 6,136), we found that COVID-19 duration and deaths were positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. This research offers several insights for understanding the virtual interview experience embedded in the pandemic and advances the literature on applicant reactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Employment/psychology , Interviews as Topic , Adult , Aspirations, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
17.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12259, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers' mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33 302 people who participated in the survey, 27 036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures was in place at their workplace (eg, wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. RESULTS: The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, P = .010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, P < .001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, P < .001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment/psychology , Infection Control , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331997

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate whether the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis varied with regards to young Swiss men's pre-crisis level of education and socioeconomic status and to changes in their work situation due to it. METHODS: A cohort of 2345 young Swiss men (from 21 out of 26 Swiss cantons; mean age = 29) completed survey-based assessments shortly before (April 2019 to February 2020) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (May to June 2020). Outcomes measured were psychological outcomes before and during the COVID-19 crisis (depression, perceived stress and sleep quality), and the fear, isolation and psychological trauma induced by it. We investigated associations between these outcomes and their predictors: pre-crisis socioeconomic status (relative financial status, difficulty paying bills, level of education), changes in work situation during the crisis (job loss, partial unemployment, working from home, change in workload) and working in contact with potentially infected people, both inside and outside the healthcare sector. For outcomes measured before and during the crisis, the analyses were adjusted for their pre-crisis levels. RESULTS: About 21% of participants changed their employment status (job loss, partial unemployment or lost money if self-employed) and more than 40% worked predominantly from home during the COVID-19 crisis. Participants with a lower relative socioeconomic status already before the crisis experienced a higher psychological impact due to the COVID-19 crisis, compared to participants with an average socioeconomic status (major depression (b = 0.12 [0.03, 0.22]), perceived stress (b = 0.15 [0.05, 0.25]), psychological trauma (b = 0.15 [0.04, 0.26]), fear (b = 0.20 [0.10, 0.30]) and isolation (b = 0.19 [0.08, 0.29])). A higher impact was also felt by participants who lost their job due to the COVID-19 crisis, the partially unemployed, those with an increased workload or those who worked mainly from home (e.g. depression b = 0.25 [0.16, 0.34] for those working 90%+ at home, compared to those not working at home). CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country like Switzerland, with relatively high social security benefits and universal healthcare, the COVID-19 crisis had a considerable psychological impact, especially among those with a lower socioeconomic status and those who experienced deteriorations in their work situation due to the COVID-19 crisis. Supporting these populations during the crisis may help to prevent an amplification of inequalities in mental health and social status. Such support could help to lower the overall impact of the crisis on the mental well-being of Switzerland's population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Men/psychology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Employment/psychology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Social Class , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland , Unemployment/psychology
19.
J Aging Stud ; 58: 100954, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330923

ABSTRACT

Choosing to continue working after retirement eligibility can attract both negative and positive sentiments from the general public. Studies examining the motivations of older workers have so far been conducted in times of relative social and economic stability. However, little is known about what it means for older workers to work during a lockdown or pandemic situation. The present longitudinal study aimed to explore experiences of retirement-aged workers in Slovenia in relation to their motives for prolonged work activity amid the COVID-19 pandemic, using the theory of gerotranscendence as a theoretical framework. Nine workers were interviewed before and after the start of the pandemic. The qualitative analysis was based on 18 interviews and observations, juxtaposing two analytical methods in order to illustrate common themes across the data as well as tensions in specific situations within a narrative context. Four main themes are presented: Unchanged plans, Motive developments, Psychological preparation for retirement and Views of society. In addition, a narrative analysis is presented with a focus on self-transcending elements in some of the participants' narratives. The findings suggest that during a pandemic, older workers' individual experiences might be constructed more positively compared to other groups, especially if they develop agentic identity and pursue meaningful activities. We discuss an innovative approach to gerotranscendence, complementing this theory with concepts from occupational science to develop a clearer distinction from the now dated disengagement theory and examine the life trajectories of older workers in novel situations such as a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment , Motivation , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Retirement/psychology , Slovenia/epidemiology
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(5): e283-e293, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether patterns of work during COVID-19 pandemic altered by effort to contain the outbreak affected anxiety and depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 911 residents of Philadelphia, inquiring about their working lives during early months of the epidemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression, plus demographics, perceived sources of support, and general health. RESULTS: Occupational contact with suspected COVID-19 cases was associated with anxiety. Concerns about return to work, childcare, lack of sick leave, and loss/reduction in work correlated with anxiety and depression, even when there was no evidence of occupational contact with infected persons; patterns differed by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Heightened anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic can be due to widespread disruption of working lives, especially in "non-essential" low-income industries, on par with experience in healthcare.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Employment/classification , Employment/psychology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking , Unemployment/psychology
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