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1.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1103-1117, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368908

ABSTRACT

Employers have increasingly turned to virtual interviews to facilitate online, socially distanced selection processes in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little understanding about the experience of job candidates in these virtual interview contexts. We draw from Event System Theory (Morgeson et al., 2015) to advance and test a conceptual model that focuses on a high-stress, high-stakes setting and integrates literatures on workplace stress with literatures on applicant reactions. We predict that when applicants ruminate about COVID-19 during an interview and have higher levels of COVID-19 exhaustion, they will have higher levels of anxiety during virtual interviews, which in turn relates to reduced interview performance, lower perceptions of fairness, and reduced intentions to recommend the organization. Further, we predict that three factors capturing COVID-19 as an enduring and impactful event (COVID-19 duration, COVID-19 cases, COVID-19 deaths) will be positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. We tested our propositions with 8,343 job applicants across 373 companies and 93 countries/regions. Consistent with predictions, we found a positive relationship between COVID-19 rumination and interview anxiety, and this relationship was stronger for applicants who experienced higher (vs. lower) levels of COVID-19 exhaustion. In turn, interview anxiety was negatively related to interview performance, fairness perceptions, and recommendation intentions. Moreover, using a relevant subset of the data (n = 6,136), we found that COVID-19 duration and deaths were positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. This research offers several insights for understanding the virtual interview experience embedded in the pandemic and advances the literature on applicant reactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Employment/psychology , Interviews as Topic , Adult , Aspirations, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
2.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12259, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers' mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33 302 people who participated in the survey, 27 036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures was in place at their workplace (eg, wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. RESULTS: The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, P = .010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, P < .001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, P < .001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment/psychology , Infection Control , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
J Aging Stud ; 58: 100954, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330923

ABSTRACT

Choosing to continue working after retirement eligibility can attract both negative and positive sentiments from the general public. Studies examining the motivations of older workers have so far been conducted in times of relative social and economic stability. However, little is known about what it means for older workers to work during a lockdown or pandemic situation. The present longitudinal study aimed to explore experiences of retirement-aged workers in Slovenia in relation to their motives for prolonged work activity amid the COVID-19 pandemic, using the theory of gerotranscendence as a theoretical framework. Nine workers were interviewed before and after the start of the pandemic. The qualitative analysis was based on 18 interviews and observations, juxtaposing two analytical methods in order to illustrate common themes across the data as well as tensions in specific situations within a narrative context. Four main themes are presented: Unchanged plans, Motive developments, Psychological preparation for retirement and Views of society. In addition, a narrative analysis is presented with a focus on self-transcending elements in some of the participants' narratives. The findings suggest that during a pandemic, older workers' individual experiences might be constructed more positively compared to other groups, especially if they develop agentic identity and pursue meaningful activities. We discuss an innovative approach to gerotranscendence, complementing this theory with concepts from occupational science to develop a clearer distinction from the now dated disengagement theory and examine the life trajectories of older workers in novel situations such as a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment , Motivation , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Retirement/psychology , Slovenia/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331997

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate whether the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis varied with regards to young Swiss men's pre-crisis level of education and socioeconomic status and to changes in their work situation due to it. METHODS: A cohort of 2345 young Swiss men (from 21 out of 26 Swiss cantons; mean age = 29) completed survey-based assessments shortly before (April 2019 to February 2020) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (May to June 2020). Outcomes measured were psychological outcomes before and during the COVID-19 crisis (depression, perceived stress and sleep quality), and the fear, isolation and psychological trauma induced by it. We investigated associations between these outcomes and their predictors: pre-crisis socioeconomic status (relative financial status, difficulty paying bills, level of education), changes in work situation during the crisis (job loss, partial unemployment, working from home, change in workload) and working in contact with potentially infected people, both inside and outside the healthcare sector. For outcomes measured before and during the crisis, the analyses were adjusted for their pre-crisis levels. RESULTS: About 21% of participants changed their employment status (job loss, partial unemployment or lost money if self-employed) and more than 40% worked predominantly from home during the COVID-19 crisis. Participants with a lower relative socioeconomic status already before the crisis experienced a higher psychological impact due to the COVID-19 crisis, compared to participants with an average socioeconomic status (major depression (b = 0.12 [0.03, 0.22]), perceived stress (b = 0.15 [0.05, 0.25]), psychological trauma (b = 0.15 [0.04, 0.26]), fear (b = 0.20 [0.10, 0.30]) and isolation (b = 0.19 [0.08, 0.29])). A higher impact was also felt by participants who lost their job due to the COVID-19 crisis, the partially unemployed, those with an increased workload or those who worked mainly from home (e.g. depression b = 0.25 [0.16, 0.34] for those working 90%+ at home, compared to those not working at home). CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country like Switzerland, with relatively high social security benefits and universal healthcare, the COVID-19 crisis had a considerable psychological impact, especially among those with a lower socioeconomic status and those who experienced deteriorations in their work situation due to the COVID-19 crisis. Supporting these populations during the crisis may help to prevent an amplification of inequalities in mental health and social status. Such support could help to lower the overall impact of the crisis on the mental well-being of Switzerland's population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Men/psychology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Employment/psychology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Social Class , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland , Unemployment/psychology
5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(5): e283-e293, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether patterns of work during COVID-19 pandemic altered by effort to contain the outbreak affected anxiety and depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 911 residents of Philadelphia, inquiring about their working lives during early months of the epidemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression, plus demographics, perceived sources of support, and general health. RESULTS: Occupational contact with suspected COVID-19 cases was associated with anxiety. Concerns about return to work, childcare, lack of sick leave, and loss/reduction in work correlated with anxiety and depression, even when there was no evidence of occupational contact with infected persons; patterns differed by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Heightened anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic can be due to widespread disruption of working lives, especially in "non-essential" low-income industries, on par with experience in healthcare.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Employment/classification , Employment/psychology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking , Unemployment/psychology
7.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(6): 811-824, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275873

ABSTRACT

Whereas many workplaces shut down following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many others in essential industries had to remain operational, thus exposing their employees to COVID-19's inherent dangers. These firms were pressed to take immediate action to protect their employees' safety and financial well-being. However, firms varied considerably in the degree to which they took action, and stakeholders appeared to take notice. Leveraging attribution theory, we build theory around the impact of firm actions to protect employee safety and compensation on stakeholder sentiment toward the firm. We further examined how firm leadership helped shape stakeholder sentiment by theorizing about the joint impact of actions with Chief Executive Officer (CEO) benevolence. We built a unique, multisourced data set and tested our theory on a sample of public firms in the consumer staples sector. Our longitudinal analysis of positive stakeholder sentiment expressed on social media demonstrated the importance of these immediate firm actions on sentiment in the initial months of the pandemic. Specifically, firm compensation actions were associated with a growth in positive sentiment over these months, particularly when made by CEOs with high benevolence, whereas firm safety actions led to growth in positive sentiment but only when made by CEOs with low benevolence. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of firm actions and leadership at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Beneficence , COVID-19/prevention & control , Employment/psychology , Job Satisfaction , Leadership , Stakeholder Participation/psychology , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
8.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(5): 657-673, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258552

ABSTRACT

New labor market entrants face significant hurdles when searching for a job, with these stressors likely amplified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we consider how COVID-induced job search anxiety-feeling anxious about one's job search due to issues imposed by the pandemic-has the potential to affect adaptive, goal-directed efforts, and maladaptive, goal-avoidant reactions. We theorize that this anxiety can prompt job seekers to engage in problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination, with these experiences relating to whether job seekers engage in various forms of search-related efforts the following week. In particular, we consider whether job seekers are engaging in dream job search effort (i.e., effort toward pursuing one's dream job), as well as focused (i.e., effort toward a selection of carefully screened jobs), exploratory (i.e., effort toward a wide swath of jobs in a broad manner), and haphazard (i.e., effort toward applying for any job without a clear plan) job search effort. Further, we consider how stable beliefs relevant to the pandemic (i.e., belief in conspiracy theories; belief in COVID-19 being a public health crisis) affect the aforementioned relationships. Using a weekly study of 162 new labor market entrants, results indicated that COVID-induced job search anxiety positively related to problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination; problem-solving pondering promoted dream, focused, and exploratory job search effort the following week, whereas affect-focused rumination hindered dream job search effort. Finally, the detrimental effects of COVID-induced job search anxiety via affect-focused rumination were amplified for those who held higher levels of conspiracy theory beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Job Application , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Problem Solving , Psychological Tests , Rumination, Cognitive , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Maturitas ; 150: 14-21, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253363

ABSTRACT

Governments, employers, and trade unions are increasingly developing "menopause at work" policies for female staff. Many of the world's most marginalised women work, however, in more informal or insecure jobs, beyond the scope of such employment protections. This narrative review focuses upon the health impact of such casual work upon menopausal women, and specifically upon the menopausal symptoms they experience. Casual work, even in less-then-ideal conditions, is not inherently detrimental to the wellbeing of menopausal women; for many, work helps manage the social and emotional challenges of the menopause transition. Whereas women in higher status work tend to regard vasomotor symptoms as their main physical symptom, women in casual work report musculoskeletal pain as more problematic. Menopausal women in casual work describe high levels of anxiety, though tend to attribute this not to their work as much as their broader life stresses of lifelong poverty and ill-health, increasing caring responsibilities, and the intersectionally gendered ageism of the social gaze. Health and wellbeing at menopause is determined less by current working conditions than by the early life experiences (adverse childhood experiences, poor educational opportunities) predisposing women to poverty and casual work in adulthood. Approaches to supporting menopausal women in casual work must therefore also address the lifelong structural and systemic inequalities such women will have faced. In the era of COVID-19, with its devastating economic, social and health effects upon women and vulnerable groups, menopausal women in casual work are likely to face increased marginalisation and stress. Further research is need.


Subject(s)
Employment/psychology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/standards , Female , Humans , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology
10.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(4): 530-541, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236066

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected everyone's work and daily life, and many employees are talking with their coworkers about this widespread pandemic on a regular basis. In this research, we examine how talking about crises such as COVID-19 at the team level affects team dynamics and behaviors. Drawing upon cultural tightness-looseness theory, we propose that talking about the COVID-19 crisis among team members is positively associated with team cultural tightness, which in turn benefits teams by decreasing team deviance but hurts teams by decreasing team creativity. Furthermore, we suggest that team virtuality moderates and weakens these indirect effects because face-to-face communication about COVID-19 is more powerful in influencing team cultural tightness than virtual communication. Results from a multisource, three-wave field study during the pandemic lend substantial support to these hypotheses. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Creativity , Employment/psychology , Group Processes , Organizational Culture , Adult , China , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(4): 501-517, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236064

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty is a defining feature of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, because uncertainty is an aversive state, uncertainty reduction theory (URT) holds that employees try to manage it by obtaining information. To date, most evidence for the effectiveness of obtaining information to reduce uncertainty stems from research conducted in relatively stable contexts wherein employees can acquire consistent information. Yet, research on crises and news consumption provides reasons to believe that the potential for information to mitigate uncertainty as specified by URT may break down during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrating URT with research on crises and news consumption, we predict that consuming news information during crises-which tends to be distressing, constantly evolving, and inconsistent-will be positively related to uncertainty. This in turn may have negative implications for employee goal progress and creativity; two work outcomes that take on substantial significance in times of uncertainty and the pandemic. We further predict that death anxiety will moderate this relationship, such that the link between employees' news consumption and uncertainty is stronger for those with lower levels of death anxiety, compared to those with higher levels. We test our theorizing via an experience-sampling study with 180 full-time employees, with results providing support for our conceptual model. Our study reveals important theoretical and practical implications regarding information consumption during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Employment/psychology , Mass Media , Teleworking , Uncertainty , Workplace/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
New Solut ; 31(2): 107-112, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232404

ABSTRACT

The global political economy is generating new forms and growing shares of informal, insecure, and precarious labor, adding to histories of insecure work and an externalization of social costs. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the consequences of ignoring such signals in terms of the increased risk and vulnerability of insecure labor. This paper explores how such trends are generating intersecting adverse health outcomes for workers, communities, and environments and the implications for breaking siloes and building links between the paradigms, science, practice, and tools for occupational health, public health, and eco-health. Applying the principle of controlling hazards at the source is argued in this context to call for an understanding of the upstream production and socio-political factors that are jointly affecting the nature of work and employment and their impact on the health of workers, the public, and the planet.


Subject(s)
Employment , Occupational Health/trends , Adolescent , Africa, Eastern , Africa, Southern , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Employment/standards , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Politics , Public Health , Unemployment/psychology , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/psychology , Workplace/standards , Young Adult
13.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(3): 317-329, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192098

ABSTRACT

The current study aims to understand the detrimental effects of COVID-19 pandemic on employee job insecurity and its downstream outcomes, as well as how organizations could help alleviate such harmful effects. Drawing on event system theory and literature on job insecurity, we conceptualize COVID-19 as an event relevant to employees' work, and propose that event strength (i.e., novelty, disruption, and criticality) of COVID-19 influences employee job insecurity, which in turn affects employee work and non-work outcomes. We also identified important organization adaptive practices responding to COVID-19 based on a preliminary interview study, and examined its role in mitigating the undesired effects of COVID-19 event strength. Results from a two-wave lagged survey study indicated that employees' perceived COVID-19 event novelty and disruption (but not criticality) were positively related to their job insecurity, which in turn was positively related to their emotional exhaustion, organizational deviance, and saving behavior. Moreover, organization adaptive practices mitigated the effects of COVID-19 event novelty and criticality (but not disruption) on job insecurity. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Employment/psychology , Job Satisfaction , Occupational Health , Personnel Management/methods , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Theory , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control
14.
J Agromedicine ; 25(4): 430-433, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174774

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and associated coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has brought farmers and farmworkers the designation of "essential", while placing them into heightened vulnerability for the disease. Many factors diminish access to education and prevention technologies emerging to combat COVID-19. For farmers, advanced age and rural location play a part. Farmworkers encounter numerous additional barriers including language and cultural differences, socioeconomic pressures, and immigration status. The unusual persistence and multiple transmission pathways of SARS-CoV-2 emerging from ongoing scientific study require customization of otherwise standard prevention messaging to farmers and farmworkers to prevent infection and disease exacerbation. AgriSafe Network and Migrant Clinicians Network, both national organizations and major stakeholders in agricultural health, are on the front lines of translating science into practical prevention strategies for those providing health services to farmworkers and farmers. The partnerships pursued provide a blueprint for quickly translating emerging disease ecology to support the health of agricultural populations during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Occupational Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Employment/psychology , Farmers/psychology , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data
17.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12209, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused devastating damage to employment globally, particularly among the non-standard workforce. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of the pandemic on the employment status and lives of working students in Japan. METHODS: The Labour Force Survey (January 2019 to May 2020) was used to examine changes in students' work situations. In addition, to investigate the economic and health conditions of university students during the pandemic, the Student Lifestyle Survey was conducted in late May 2020. This survey asked students at a national university in Tokyo about recent changes in their studies, work, and lives. RESULTS: The number of working students reported in the Labour Force Survey has declined sharply since March 2020, falling by 780,000 (46%) in April. According to a survey of university students' living conditions, 37% were concerned about living expenses and tuition fees, and a higher percentage of students who were aware of financial insecurity had poor self-rated health. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of working students have lost their jobs during the pandemic in Japan, which has affected their lives, studies, and health. There is a need to monitor the impact of economic insecurity on students' studies and health over time, and to expand the safety net for disadvantaged students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Employment/psychology , Life Style , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Work-Life Balance , Young Adult
18.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(9): 686-691, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether job insecurity due to COVID-19 and financial concern were associated with worse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Participants (N = 474 employed U.S. individuals) completed an online survey from April 6 to 12, 2020. Linear regressions were used to examine factors associated with mental health. RESULTS: After accounting for demographic characteristics, health status, other COVID-19 experiences, and anxiety symptoms, greater job insecurity due to COVID-19 was related to greater depressive symptoms. Conversely, after accounting for covariates and depressive symptoms, greater financial concern was related to greater anxiety symptoms. Further, greater job insecurity was indirectly related to greater anxiety symptoms due to greater financial concern. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that employers should aim to reduce job insecurity and financial concern among employees during the COVID-19 pandemic to address the associated mental health consequences.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Employment/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
19.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 191: 114463, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071100

ABSTRACT

Our study aimed to assess the change in the sleep patterns during the Coronavirus lockdown in five regions (Austria/Germany, Ukraine, Greece, Cuba and Brazil), using online surveys, translated in each language. Part of the cohort (age 25-65, well-educated) was collected directly during lockdown, to which retrospective cross-sectional data from and after lockdown (retrospective) questionnaires were added. We investigated sleep times and sleep quality changes from before to during lockdown and found that, during lockdown, participants had (i) worse perceived sleep quality if worried by COVID-19, (ii) a shift of bedtimes to later hours during workdays, and (iii) a sleep loss on free days (resulting from more overall sleep during workdays in non-system relevant jobs), leading to (iv) a marked reduction of social jetlag across all cultures. For further analyses we directly compared system relevant and system irrelevant jobs, because it was assumed that the nature of the lockdown's consequences is dependent upon system relevance. System relevant jobs were found to have earlier wake-up times as well as shorter total sleep times on workdays, leading to higher social jetlag for people in system relevant jobs. Cultural differences revealed a general effect that participants from Greece and Ukraine had later bedtimes (on both work and free days) and wake-up times (on workdays) than Cuba, Brazil and Austria, irrespective of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Employment/trends , Sleep/physiology , Adult , Aged , Austria/ethnology , Brazil/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba/ethnology , Employment/psychology , Female , Greece/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ukraine/ethnology
20.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 65(5): 381-396, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the world battles COVID-19, there is a need to study the perceptions of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) about the effects of the pandemic and associated lockdown on their lives. This work explores the perceptions of Spaniards with IDD during the lockdown with respect to four topics: access to information, emotional experiences, effects on living conditions and access to support. METHODS: The topics were explored using a subset of 16 closed-ended questions from an online survey. In total, 582 participants with IDD completed the survey. The frequencies and percentages of responses to the questions were calculated, and chi-square tests performed to explore the relationship between participants' sociodemographic characteristics and responses. Given that people differed in the way in which they completed the survey, the relationship between participants' responses and completion method was also analysed. RESULTS: Participants reported that the pandemic and subsequent lockdown have had a deleterious effect on their emotional well-being (around 60.0% of participants) and occupations (48.0% of students and 72.7% of workers). Although access to information and support was reportedly good overall, being under the age of 21 years and studying were associated with perceptions reflecting poorer access to information (V = .20 and V = .13, respectively) and well-being support (V = .15 and V = .13, respectively). Being supported by a third party to complete the survey was consistently related to perceptions of worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The study yielded data on the perceptions of people with IDD regarding the effects that COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown have had on their lives. Suggestions on how to overcome the difficulties reported and future lines of research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developmental Disabilities/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Consumer Health Information , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Persons with Mental Disabilities/psychology , Qualitative Research , Social Support , Spain , Students/psychology , Young Adult
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