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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 154, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection show various clinical manifestations, including neurological . Altered consciousness due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 encephalitis is a very threatening condition if not treated immediately. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 34-year-old Asian female who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection using a nasopharyngeal swab sample and presented with acute changes in consciousness without typical respiratory symptoms. Empiric therapy was immediately and simultaneously given with cerebrospinal fluid analysis using polymerase chain reaction, which later also showed positive results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to consider the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 encephalitis when a patient presents with acute altered consciousness and no typical respiratory symptoms. Early empiric therapy can improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev Neurol ; 74(8): 280-283, 2022 Apr 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, could give rise to damage the nervous system. Many studies have been conducted on this topic, but few have focused specifically on encephalitis. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the clinical expression of other neurotropic viruses, such as Herpesviridae, is unknown. CASE REPORTS: We describe the cases of two young men (39 and 18 years old) in whom SARS-CoV-2 had been detected -reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-, and with a clinical diagnosis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis consistent with encephalitis. The first patient had a positive PCR for varicella zoster virus in CSF, while the second had a positive PCR for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The first patient, who was recently diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus, presented with fever, headache, vomiting, cough, inappropriate behaviour and epileptic seizures; the second was seen to have fever, headache, myalgia and exanthema. Both offered the same laboratory findings (lymphopenia and high interleukin 6). CSF showed pleocytosis with a predominance of monomorphonuclear cells, hyperproteinorrachia and normal glycorrhachia. A cranial CT scan showed only mild diffuse cerebral oedema in the first case. Both cases were treated with corticosteroids, antibiotics and acyclovir. The second progressed favourably, while the first did not. CONCLUSIONS: Little is known about co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with neurotropic viruses, such as Herpesviridae, and we have only limited evidence of direct neurological involvement of SARS-CoV-2, due to the technical difficulty of detecting it in the nervous system, thus making it important to take co-infection into account in order to be able to establish an early diagnosis and treatment to improve prognosis.


TITLE: COVID-19 y encefalitis por herpesvirus.Introducción. El virus SARS-CoV-2, causante de la COVID-19, podría generar lesiones en el sistema nervioso. Son múltiples los estudios relacionados con esto, pero escasos en cuanto a la encefalitis en particular. A su vez, se desconoce el efecto del SARS-CoV-2 sobre la expresión clínica de otros virus neurótropos, como los Herpesviridae. Casos clínicos. Se describen dos casos de varones jóvenes, de 39 y 18 años, con detección de SARS-CoV-2 ­reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa (RT-PCR)­, con diagnóstico clínico y análisis del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) compatibles con encefalitis. En el primer paciente se obtuvo una PCR positiva para el virus de la varicela zóster en el LCR, mientras que, en el segundo, para el virus del herpes simple de los tipos 1 y 2. El primer paciente, con diagnóstico reciente positivo para el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, presentó fiebre, cefalea, vómitos, tos, conductas inapropiadas y crisis epiléptica; y el segundo, fiebre, cefalea, mialgias y exantema. Ambos compartieron hallazgos en la analítica (linfopenia e interleucina 6 elevada). En el LCR se observó pleocitosis con predominio de monomorfonucleares, hiperproteinorraquia y glucorraquia normal. La tomografía computarizada de cráneo sólo evidenció un edema cerebral difuso leve en el primer caso. En ambos casos se realizó un tratamiento con corticoides, antibióticos y aciclovir. En el segundo, la evolución fue favorable, mientras que en el primero, no. Conclusiones. Poco se conoce sobre la coinfección del SARS-CoV-2 con virus neurótropos, como los Herpesviridae, lo que se suma a la escasa evidencia de la afectación neurológica directa del SARS-CoV-2, debido a la dificultad técnica para su detección en el sistema nervioso, por lo que es importante considerar la coinfección para realizar un diagnóstico y un tratamiento precoces que mejoren el pronóstico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833548, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771039

ABSTRACT

The direct impact and sequelae of infections in children and adults result in significant morbidity and mortality especially when they involve the central (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS). The historical understanding of the pathophysiology has been mostly focused on the direct impact of the various pathogens through neural tissue invasion. However, with the better understanding of neuroimmunology, there is a rapidly growing realization of the contribution of the innate and adaptive host immune responses in the pathogenesis of many CNS and PNS diseases. The balance between the protective and pathologic sequelae of immunity is fragile and can easily be tipped towards harm for the host. The matter of immune privilege and surveillance of the CNS/PNS compartments and the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood nerve barrier (BNB) makes this even more complex. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of many post-infectious manifestations of various microbial agents remains elusive, especially in the diverse African setting. Our exploration and better understanding of the neuroimmunology of some of the infectious diseases that we encounter in the continent will go a long way into helping us to improve their management and therefore lessen the burden. Africa is diverse and uniquely poised because of the mix of the classic, well described, autoimmune disease entities and the specifically "tropical" conditions. This review explores the current understanding of some of the para- and post-infectious autoimmune manifestations of CNS and PNS diseases in the African context. We highlight the clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment of these neurological disorders and underscore the knowledge gaps and perspectives for future research using disease models of conditions that we see in the continent, some of which are not uniquely African and, where relevant, include discussion of the proposed mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced autoimmunity. This review covers the following conditions as models and highlight those in which a relationship with COVID-19 infection has been reported: a) Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy; b) Measles-associated encephalopathies; c) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) neuroimmune disorders, and particularly the difficulties associated with classical post-infectious autoimmune disorders such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome in the context of HIV and other infections. Finally, we describe NMDA-R encephalitis, which can be post-HSV encephalitis, summarise other antibody-mediated CNS diseases and describe myasthenia gravis as the classic antibody-mediated disease but with special features in Africa.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Diseases , Communicable Diseases , Encephalitis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Autoimmunity , Central Nervous System , Child , Humans , Peripheral Nervous System
5.
Psychiatr Q ; 93(1): 271-284, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus that is causing the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, was first reported in late 2019. Since then, an unprecedented amount of new knowledge has emerged about this virus and its treatment. Although the reported symptoms of COVID-19 are primarily respiratory with acute respiratory distress syndrome, SARS-CoV-2 has also been shown to affect other organs, including brain, and there are growing reports of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to COVID-19. There are two suggested pathways for how COVID-19 can affect the brain and mind: the direct impact on the brain and impact mediated via stress. Direct impact on the brain is manifested as encephalitis/encephalopathy with altered mental status (AMS) and delirium. In this paper, we summarize evidence from studies of previous outbreaks and current data from the COVID-19 pandemic that describe how COVID-19 is associated with an increased prevalence of anxiety, stress, poor sleep quality, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and depression among the general population during the pandemic. In addition, we summarize the current evidence that supports how COVID-19 can also impact the CNS directly and result in delirium, cerebrovascular events, encephalitis, unspecified encephalopathy, AMS, or peripheral neurologic disorders.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Delirium , Encephalitis , Brain , Delirium/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
10.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 35(2): 212-219, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662160

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Does neuroinflammation promote neurodegeneration? Does neurodegeneration promote neuroinflammation? Or, is the answer to both questions, yes? These questions have proven challenging to answer in patients with typical age-related neurodegenerative diseases in whom the onset of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration are largely unknown. Patients recovering from diseases associated with abrupt-onset neuroinflammation, including rare forms of antibody-mediated encephalitis (AME) and common complications of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), provide a unique opportunity to untangle the relationship between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. This review explores the lessons learned from patients with AME and COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized in patients recovering from AME or COVID-19, yet the drivers of impairment remain largely unknown. Clinical observations, neuroimaging and biofluid biomarkers, and pathological studies imply a link between the severity of acute neuroinflammation, subsequent neurodegeneration, and disease-associated morbidity. SUMMARY: Data from patients with AME and COVID-19 inform key hypotheses that may be evaluated through future studies incorporating longitudinal biomarkers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in larger numbers of recovering patients. The results of these studies may inform the contributors to cognitive impairment in patients with AME and COVID-19, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in patients with age-related neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/complications , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3491-3502, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, recent studies have reported the occurrence of neurological disorders such as stroke in relation to COVID-19 infection. Encephalitis is an inflammatory condition of the brain that has been described as a severe neurological complication of COVID-19. Despite a growing number of reported cases, encephalitis related to COVID-19 infection has not been adequately characterised. To address this gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to describe the incidence, clinical course, and outcomes of patients who suffer from encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19. METHODS: All studies published between 1 November 2019 and 24 October 2020 that reported on patients who developed encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 were included. Only cases with radiological and/or biochemical evidence of encephalitis were included. RESULTS: In this study, 610 studies were screened and 23 studies reporting findings from 129,008 patients, including 138 with encephalitis, were included. The average time from diagnosis of COVID-19 to onset of encephalitis was 14.5 days (range = 10.8-18.2 days). The average incidence of encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 was 0.215% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.056%-0.441%). The average mortality rate of encephalitis in COVID-19 patients was 13.4% (95% CI = 3.8%-25.9%). These patients also had deranged clinical parameters, including raised serum inflammatory markers and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although encephalitis is an uncommon complication of COVID-19, when present, it results in significant morbidity and mortality. Severely ill COVID-19 patients are at higher risk of suffering from encephalitis as a complication of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 485, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against COVID-19 continues apace, but side-effects, both common and severe, continue to be reported. We report here the first published case of COVID-19 vaccine-related encephalitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A young woman presented with acute neuropsychiatric symptoms following recent ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Extensive investigation did not identify alternative causes. CONCLUSIONS: This difficult case is here described, including presentation, investigation, and management. Further study on neuropsychiatric side-effects of COVID-19 vaccination, including investigation as to whether there may be a causal link, is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Encephalitis/chemically induced , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2262-e2268, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) cases after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported, but the frequency is unknown. We aimed to determine the frequency and diagnostic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related AE. METHODS: Residual sera from 556 consecutive Mayo Clinic Rochester patients (laboratory cohort) who underwent autoimmune encephalopathy neural immunoglobulin G (IgG) evaluation were tested for total antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein using a Food and Drug Administration-authorized chemiluminescence assay (October 2019-December 2020). Clinical records from patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody result and available research consent were reviewed. This laboratory cohort was cross-referenced with the Department of Neurology's COVID-19-related consultative experience (encephalopathy cohort, n = 31). RESULTS: Eighteen of the laboratory cohort (3%) were SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive (April-December 2020). Diagnoses were as follows: AE, 2; postacute sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC), 3; toxic-metabolic encephalopathy during COVID-19 pneumonia, 2; diverse non-COVID-19 relatable neurologic diagnoses, 9; unavailable, 2. Five of the encephalopathy cohort had AE (16%, including the 2 laboratory cohort cases that overlapped), representing 0.05% of 10,384 patients diagnosed and cared for with any COVID-19 illness at Mayo Clinic Rochester in 2020. The 5 patients met definite (n = 1), probable (n = 1), or possible (n = 3) AE diagnostic criteria; median symptom onset age was 61 years (range, 46-63); 3 were women. All 5 were neural IgG negative and 4 tested were SARS-CoV-2 PCR/IgG index negative in CSF. Phenotypes (and accompanying MRI and EEG findings) were diverse (delirium [n = 5], seizures [n = 2], rhombencephalitis [n = 1], aphasia [n = 1], and ataxia [n = 1]). No acute disseminated encephalomyelitis cases were encountered. The 3 patients with possible AE had spontaneously resolving syndromes. One with definite limbic encephalitis was immune therapy responsive but had residual mood and memory problems. One patient with probable autoimmune rhombencephalitis died despite immune therapy. The remaining 26 encephalopathy cohort patients had toxic-metabolic diagnoses. DISCUSSION: We encountered occasional cases of AE in our 2020 COVID-19 experience. Consistent with sporadic reports and small case series during the COVID-19 pandemic, and prior experience of postinfectious AE, our cases had diverse clinical presentations and were neural IgG and CSF viral particle negative. Application of diagnostic criteria assists in differentiation of AE from toxic-metabolic causes arising in the setting of systemic infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Hashimoto Disease/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Neurol Sci ; 43(3): 1533-1547, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544481

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which has been spreading rapidly amongst humans and causing a global pandemic. The notorious infection has shown to cause a wide spectrum of neurological syndrome, including autoimmune encephalitis. OBJECTIVE: Here, we systematically review the literature on autoimmune encephalitis that developed in the background of SARS-CoV-2 infections and also the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of auto-immune mediated damage to the nervous system. METHODOLOGY: An exhaustive search was made in Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus and other medical databases, and 28 relevant published articles were selected according to the strict inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Autoimmune encephalitis can occur via three possible proposed pathophysiological mechanism and can manifest during or after the acute infection period. It is more common in adult but can also occur in the paediatric patients. There were various spectra of autoantibody panels reported including antineuronal antibody, anti-gangliosides antibody and onconeural antibody. Majority of the patients responded well to the immunomodulating therapy and achieved good recovery. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, SARSCoV-2 infection can induce various spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis. It is a major concern since there is very limited long-term study on the topic. Hence, this review aims to elucidate on the potential long-term complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hopefully to improve the management and prognosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Child , Encephalitis/complications , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 12(1): 29-34, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547169

ABSTRACT

Background: Accurate diagnosis and management of patients with rapidly progressive dementia may be challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has negatively influenced the diagnostic performances, medical resource allocation and routine care for all non-COVID-19 diseases. Case presentation: We herein present a case of a 57-year-old male with rapidly progressive cognitive decline, headache, diplopia, myalgia, unsteady gait, aggression, depression, insomnia, hallucinations and delusions of persecution. COVID-19-associated encephalitis was briefly considered as a differential diagnosis. However, this hypothesis was rejected upon further investigation. A final diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was made. Conclusion: A timely and accurate diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease gives patients and their families the chance to receive a good standard of healthcare and avoid extensive evaluations for other conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/complications , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/diagnosis , Encephalitis/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
18.
Neurol Sci ; 43(3): 1487-1489, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540230
19.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(12): 2314-2318, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536111

ABSTRACT

We report a subtype of immune-mediated encephalitis associated with COVID-19, which closely mimics acute-onset sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. A 64-year-old man presented with confusion, aphasia, myoclonus, and a silent interstitial pneumonia. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Cognition and myoclonus rapidly deteriorated, EEG evolved to generalized periodic discharges and brain MRI showed multiple cortical DWI hyperintensities. CSF analysis was normal, except for a positive 14-3-3 protein. RT-QuIC analysis was negative. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in the CSF and serum. Treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins produced EEG and clinical improvement, with a good neurological outcome at a 6-month follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/etiology , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome , Encephalitis/pathology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(2): 626-647, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a clinical presentation, neither a specific diagnosis nor a clinical entity. It refers to a patient without active epilepsy or other pre-existing relevant neurological disorder, with a NORSE without a clear acute or active structural, toxic or metabolic cause. This study reviews the currently available evidence about the aetiology of patients presenting with NORSE and NORSE-related conditions. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out for clinical trials, observational studies, case series and case reports including patients who presented with NORSE, febrile-infection-related epilepsy syndrome or the infantile hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia and epilepsy syndrome. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty records were initially identified, of which 197 were included in the review. The selected studies were retrospective case-control (n = 11), case series (n = 83) and case reports (n = 103) and overall described 1334 patients both of paediatric and adult age. Aetiology remains unexplained in about half of the cases, representing the so-called 'cryptogenic NORSE'. Amongst adult patients without cryptogenic NORSE, the most often identified cause is autoimmune encephalitis, either non-paraneoplastic or paraneoplastic. Infections are the prevalent aetiology of paediatric non-cryptogenic NORSE. Genetic and congenital disorders can have a causative role in NORSE, and toxic, vascular and degenerative conditions have also been described. CONCLUSIONS: Far from being a unitary condition, NORSE is a heterogeneous and clinically challenging presentation. The development and dissemination of protocols and guidelines to standardize diagnostic work-up and guide therapeutic approaches should be implemented. Global cooperation and multicentre research represent priorities to improve the understanding of NORSE.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Encephalitis , Epileptic Syndromes , Status Epilepticus , Adult , Child , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/etiology , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Encephalitis/complications , Epileptic Syndromes/complications , Epileptic Syndromes/diagnosis , Epileptic Syndromes/therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Status Epilepticus/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Status Epilepticus/therapy
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