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J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 28(7): 1659-1663, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064604


INTRODUCTION: Bortezomib is proteasome inhibitor used in multiple myeloma treatment. The reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) during bortezomib-based therapy is a well-known adverse event. Antiviral prophylaxis is mandatory. Nevertheless, reports of herpesviral encephalitis are scarce. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old multiple myeloma patient who during CyBorD protocol (Bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone), after a transient suspension of antiviral prophylaxis presented progressive headaches unresponsive to conventional analgesics, asthenia, fever, episodic visual hallucinations, and vesicular lesions in the right supraorbital and frontal region. Herpetic encephalitis was diagnosed after detecting herpes zoster in cerebrospinal fluid. MANAGEMENT & OUTCOME: The patient was treated with acyclovir 500mg every 6 hours for 21 days, and subsequent valacyclovir prophylaxis achieving an excellent clinical evolution. Anti-myeloma treatment was changed to lenalidomide and dexamethasone achieving a durable complete response. Herpesviral encephalitis is a rare but severe complication associated with the use of Bortezomib, especially when patients did not receive acyclovir prophylaxis. However, a rapid detection based on the clinical suspicion, and the prompt start of treatment, may lead to overcome this adverse event.

Amyloidosis , Antineoplastic Agents , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Multiple Myeloma , Acyclovir/adverse effects , Amyloidosis/chemically induced , Amyloidosis/complications , Amyloidosis/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Boronic Acids/adverse effects , Bortezomib/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/chemically induced , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Pyrazines
J Neurovirol ; 28(2): 322-325, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783005


Although acute encephalopathy is quite commonly seen in patients of SARS-CoV-2 infection, encephalitis characterised by brain inflammation is relatively rare. Encephalitis caused by Herpes simplex type 1 is the most common cause of identified sporadic encephalitis, and early diagnosis and prompt treatment can prevent the devastating outcome. In this brief communication, we report a case of SARS-CoV-2 associated haemorrhagic encephalitis mimicking herpes encephalitis. In today's pandemic era, it is especially important to distinguish herpes encephalitis from SARS-CoV-2-associated encephalitis as treatment and prognosis of both the conditions differ greatly. This case highlights the importance of suspecting SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient presenting with clinical symptoms and brain imaging suggestive of Herpes encephalitis.

COVID-19 , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Encephalitis, Viral , Herpes Simplex , COVID-19/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Viral/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
QJM ; 115(4): 222-227, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706110


BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is one of the most common infectious causes of sporadic encephalitis. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with immune dysregulation of the host that might increase the risk of infections like HSVE following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is paucity of literature on post COVID-19 HSVE. This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the clinical presentation, brain imaging, and outcome of patients presenting with HSVE within 6 weeks of COVID-19 and providing a comprehensive review on the possible mechanisms of post-COVID-19 HSVE. METHODS: This observational study included patients who had laboratory-confirmed HSVE (type 1 or type 2) and a history of COVID-19 within the previous 6 weeks. Patients were followed up for 3 months. RESULTS: Eight patients were included and all of them had type 1 HSVE. The mean latency of onset of neurological symptoms from being diagnosed with COVID-19 is 23.87 days and a majority of the patients have received injectable steroids with a mean duration of 6.5 days. Behavioral abnormality was the commonest neurological presentation and typical brain imaging involved T2 FLAIR hyperintensities of the medial temporal lobes. All patients received intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every eight hourly for atleast 14 days. One patient with concomitant rhinocerebral mucormycosis succumbed while the majority had a complete recovery. CONCLUSION: Possible immune dysregulation in COVID-19 may increase the susceptibility of HSVE in patients with a history of recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of HSVE in such patients are similar to typical HSVE.

COVID-19 , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Herpes Simplex , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2