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1.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211029787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299320

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 65-year-old man with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) post-infectious encephalitis who presented with delirium as an initial manifestation. He had severe COVID-19 pneumonia and recovered with dexamethasone and tocilizumab. One week after discharge, he developed abnormal behavior and delirium without fever and respiratory symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis and elevated protein concentrations and was negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 RNA. No anti-neuronal autoantibodies against intracellular and neuronal surface proteins were detected. The cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory changes compatible with post-infectious encephalitis, and the patient recovered with intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Delirium could be an initial symptom of post-infectious encephalitis in older adults with COVID-19, and these patients may require immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delirium/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
J Neuroimmunol ; 357: 577623, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253231

ABSTRACT

A wide number of neurological manifestations have been described in association with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We describe an unusual case of a young man who developed severe rhombencephalitis after COVID-19. He demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement with high dose corticosteroids, plasma exchange and intravenous immune globulin. Our findings, along with previously reported cases that we review here, support an autoimmune para- or post-infectious mechanism and highlight a possible role for immunotherapy in patients with rhombencephalitis after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Rhombencephalon/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e270-e271, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201291

ABSTRACT

The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed in adults, with only a few reported cases in children. In the pediatric population, COVID-19 infection appears to be often unremarkable or associated with mild respiratory symptoms. Little is known about neurologic complications related to COVID-19 in newborns. We present a case of severe encephalitis with cytotoxic brain edema in a newborn with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema/pathology , Brain Edema/virology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Acute Disease , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/virology , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Seizures/virology
7.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 338-349, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106727

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are reminiscent of those of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by cytokine release syndrome and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that is observed in patients with other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Neurologists face the challenge of assessing patients with pre-existing neurological diseases who have contracted SARS-CoV-2, patients with COVID-19 who present neurological emergencies, and patients who are carriers of the virus and have developed secondary neurological complications, either during the course of the disease or after it. Some authors and recent literature reports suggest that the presence of neurological manifestations in patients who are carriers of SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a greater severity of the disease.


Las manifestaciones clínicas de COVID-19 recuerdan las del síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda inducido por el síndrome de liberación de citocinas y la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocitica observada en pacientes con otros coronavirus como SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Los neurólogos tienen el reto de evaluar pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas preexistentes que contraen SARS-CoV-2, pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan emergencias neurológicas y pacientes portadores del virus que desarrollan complicaciones neurológicas secundarias, durante el curso de la enfermedad o posterior a la misma. Algunos autores y reportes en la literatura recientes sugieren que las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes portadores de SARS-CoV-2 pueden asociarse con mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Anosmia/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes/immunology , Organ Specificity , Viral Tropism
8.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(2): 127-134, 2021 Mar.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Spanish Society of Neurology has run a registry of patients with neurological involvement for the purpose of informing clinical neurologists. Encephalopathy and encephalitis were among the most frequently reported complications. In this study, we analyse the characteristics of these complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, observational, multicentre study of patients with symptoms compatible with encephalitis or encephalopathy, entered in the Spanish Society of Neurology's COVID-19 Registry from 17 March to 6 June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients with neurological symptoms were registered, including 51 cases of encephalopathy or encephalitis (21.9%). None of these patients were healthcare professionals. The most frequent syndromes were mild or moderate confusion (33%) and severe encephalopathy or coma (9.8%). The mean time between onset of infection and onset of neurological symptoms was 8.02 days. Lumbar puncture was performed in 60.8% of patients, with positive PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in only one case. Brain MRI studies were performed in 47% of patients, with alterations detected in 7.8% of these. EEG studies were performed in 41.3% of cases, detecting alterations in 61.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Encephalopathy and encephalitis are among the complications most frequently reported in the registry. More than one-third of patients presented mild or moderate confusional syndrome. The mean time from onset of infection to onset of neurological symptoms was 8 days (up to 24hours earlier in women than in men). EEG was the most sensitive test in these patients, with very few cases presenting alterations in neuroimaging studies. All patients treated with boluses of corticosteroids or immunoglobulins progressed favourably.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Coma/epidemiology , Coma/etiology , Coma/virology , Comorbidity , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Registries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology
10.
Rev Neurol ; 71(12): 431-437, 2020 12 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977846

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a collapse situation in many hospitals around the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the utility of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in the management of the neurological patient during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Clinical Neurophysiology Department of the Hospital Central de la Defensa Gomez Ulla was dissolved due to the hospital collapse situation. Therefore, the EEG was performed exceptionally in those cases with the greatest probability of providing a benefit in its management. We describe seven patients (four in ICU and three hospitalized) diagnosed with COVID-19, who underwent through an EEG. RESULTS: The EEG showed abnormalities in all cases, including one case of brain death. The EEG resulted in a change in clinical management in four of the patients (57%) and helped the clinician provide information to the family. In the other three cases, a toxic-metabolic origin was suspected before the EEG was performed, so it did not imply a change in the clinical management already proposed, although it facilitated a prognostic orientation. Slow polymorphic waves were evident in five cases. Five patients were unresponsive. Currently, one patient remain hospitalized and four have died. CONCLUSIONS: The EEG was useful and facilitated decision making in COVID-19 patients in whom it was requested. It guided the diagnosis in cases where CT was non-contributory and led to a change in therapeutic management in most patients. The most frequent findings were signs of encephalopathy and epileptiform discharges.


Utilidad y valor pronóstico del electroencefalograma en la COVID-19 y la encefalopatía: patrones electroencefalográficos en una serie de casos.Introducción. La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) causó el colapso de muchos hospitales. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la utilidad del electroencefalograma (EEG) en el tratamiento del paciente neurológico durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Pacientes y métodos. El Servicio de Neurofisiología Clínica del Hospital Central de la Defensa Gómez Ulla fue disuelto debido a la situación de saturación hospitalaria. En consecuencia, se realizó un EEG excepcionalmente a los pacientes a los que tenía mayor probabilidad de aportar un beneficio en su tratamiento. Se describen siete pacientes (cuatro en cuidados intensivos y tres hospitalizados) diagnosticados con COVID-19 a quienes se les realizó un EEG. Resultados. El EEG mostró anormalidades en todos los casos, incluyendo un caso de muerte cerebral. El EEG supuso un cambio en el tratamiento clínico en cuatro de los pacientes (57%) y ayudó al clínico a informar a la familia. En los otros tres casos, se sospechó un origen tóxico-metabólico previo al EEG, por lo que no implicó un cambio en el tratamiento ya propuesto, aunque facilitó una orientación pronóstica. Se evidenciaron ondas lentas polimorfas en cinco casos. Actualmente, un paciente permanece hospitalizado y cuatro han fallecido. Conclusiones. El EEG fue de utilidad y facilitó la toma de decisiones en los pacientes con COVID-19 en los que se solicitó. Orientó al diagnóstico en casos en los que la tomografía computarizada no contribuyó y supuso un cambio en el tratamiento terapéutico en la mayoría de los pacientes. Los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron signos de encefalopatía y descargas epileptiformes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Comorbidity , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Female , Heart Arrest , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Movement Disorders/etiology , Movement Disorders/physiopathology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
11.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(3): 944-949, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871560

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic viral infection caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, which is a global concern of the twenty-first century for its rapid spreading in a short period. Apart from its known acute respiratory involvements, the CNS manifestations of COVID-19 are common. These neurological symptoms are diverse and could range from mild nonspecific or specific symptoms such as the loss of various sensory perceptions, the worrying autoimmune Guillain-Barré syndrome, to the life-threatening acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and the CNS-mediated respiratory distress. An autopsy report documented the presence of SARS-CoV2 in brain tissues of a COVID-19 patient. However, there is no definite conclusion on the mechanisms of SARS-CoV2 neuroinvasion. These proposed mechanisms include the direct viral invasion, the systemic blood circulation, or the distribution of infected immune cells. Concerning these different neuropathophysiologies, COVID-19 patients who are presenting with either the early-onset, multiple, and severe CNS symptoms or rapid respiratory deterioration should be suspected for the direct viral neuroinvasion, and appropriate management options should be considered. This article reviews the neurological manifestations, the proposed neuroinvasive mechanisms, and the potential neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Brain/virology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Ethmoid Bone/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Neurological , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Organ Specificity , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110213, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730967

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, there was an outbreak of a new Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19 disease). Studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can cause infection in the central nervous system (CNS) and trigger neurological symptoms that include headache, nausea and vomiting, mental confusion and loss of smell or taste. These findings reveal that Coronaviruses have neurological tropism and neuroinvasive capacity. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain tissue possibly occurs through the systemic circulation as reported in patients affected by SARS-CoV. Evidence highlights similarity between the SARS-CoV genome and SARS-CoV-2 and that both interact with the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) located in the brain tissue of infected patients. Hence, the presence of ACE2 is likely in the CNS to mediate the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into neural tissue. Our hypothesis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can cause encephalitis through the production of inflammatory mediators and activation of immune system cells resulting from the interaction of the ACE2 receptor with the viral Spike protein that causes an increase in angiotensin II. This mechanism has the ability to activate immune system cells by exacerbating stimuli at the angiotensin 2 receptor (AT2R). Thus, it leads to a status of brain injury preceded by vascular damage and destruction of the blood-brain barrier, making it responsible for the installation of acute inflammation.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Models, Neurological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117085, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Several studies have been performed, focusing on understanding the acute respiratory syndrome and treatment strategies. However, there is growing evidence indicating neurological manifestations occur in patients with COVID-19. Similarly, the other coronaviruses (CoV) epidemics; severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) have been associated with neurological complications. METHODS: This systematic review serves to summarize available information regarding the potential effects of different types of CoV on the nervous system and describes the range of clinical neurological complications that have been reported thus far in COVID-19. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-five studies on CoV infections associated neurological manifestations in human were reviewed. Of those, 208 articles were pertinent to COVID-19. The most common neurological complaints in COVID-19 were anosmia, ageusia, and headache, but more serious complications, such as stroke, impairment of consciousness, seizures, and encephalopathy, have also been reported. CONCLUSION: There are several similarities between neurological complications after SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and COVID-19, however, the scope of the epidemics and number of patients are very different. Reports on the neurological complications after and during COVID-19 are growing on a daily basis. Accordingly, comprehensive knowledge of these complications will help health care providers to be attentive to these complications and diagnose and treat them timely.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Neuroimaging , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Stroke/etiology
14.
Elife ; 92020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690669

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has recently emerged as a serious jolt to human life and economy. Initial knowledge established pulmonary complications as the chief symptom, however, the neurological aspect of the disease is also becoming increasingly evident. Emerging reports of encephalopathies and similar ailments with the detection of the virus in the CSF has elicited an urgent need for investigating the possibility of neuroinvasiveness of the virus, which cannot be ruled out given the expression of low levels of ACE2 receptors in the brain. Sensory impairments of the olfactory and gustatory systems have also been reported in a large proportion of the cases, indicating the involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Hence, the possibility of neurological damage caused by the virus demands immediate attention and investigation of the mechanisms involved, so as to customize the treatment of patients presenting with neurological complications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ageusia/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Models, Neurological , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626360

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
19.
Neurotox Res ; 38(1): 1-7, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244976

ABSTRACT

As a severe and highly contagious infectious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several case reports have demonstrated that the respiratory system is the main target in patients with COVID-19, but the disease is not limited to the respiratory system. Case analysis indicated that the nervous system can be invaded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and that 36.4% of COVID-19 patients had neurological symptoms. Importantly, the involvement of the CNS may be associated with poor prognosis and disease worsening. Here, we discussed the symptoms and evidence of nervous system involvement (directly and indirectly) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible mechanisms. CNS symptoms could be a potential indicator of poor prognosis; therefore, the prevention and treatment of CNS symptoms are also crucial for the recovery of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dizziness/epidemiology , Dizziness/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/epidemiology , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Mood Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/virology , Olfactory Nerve/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Psychotherapy , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensation Disorders/epidemiology , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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