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J Integr Neurosci ; 21(3): 77, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876488


BACKGROUND: Though primarily a pulmonary disease, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus can generate devastating disease states that affect multiple organ systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The various neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 range in severity from mild symptoms such as headache, or myalgias to more severe symptoms such as stroke, psychosis, and anosmia. While some of the COVID-19 associated neurological complications are mild and reversible, a significant number of patients suffer from stroke. Studies have shown that COVID-19 infection triggers a wave of inflammatory cytokines that induce endothelial cell dysfunction and generate coagulopathy that increases the risk of stroke or thromboses. Inflammation of the endothelium following infection may also destabilize atherosclerotic plaque and induce thrombotic stroke. Although uncommon, there have also been reports of hemorrhagic stroke associated with COVID-19. The proposed mechanisms include a blood pressure increase caused by infection leading to a reduction in angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) levels that results in an imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system ultimately manifesting inflammation and vasoconstriction. Coagulopathy, as demonstrated by elevated prothrombin time (PT), has also been posited as a factor contributing to hemorrhagics stroke in patients with COVID-19. Other neurological conditions associated with COVID-19 include encephalopathy, anosmia, encephalitis, psychosis, brain fog, headache, depression, and anxiety. Though there are several hypotheses reported in the literature, a unifying pathophysiological mechanism of many of these disorders remains unclear. Pulmonary dysfunction leading to poor oxygenation of the brain may explain encephalopathy and other disorders in COVID-19 patients. Alternatively, a direct invasion of the CNS by the virus or breach of the blood-brain barrier by the systemic cytokines released during infection may be responsible for these conditions. Notwithstanding, the relationship between the inflammatory cytokine levels and conditions such as depression and anxiety is contradictory and perhaps the social isolation during the pandemic may in part be a contributing factor to some of the reported CNS disorders. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we review the current literature pertaining to some of the most significant and common neurological disorders such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, encephalopathy, encephalitis, brain fog, Long COVID, headache, Guillain-Barre syndrome, depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders in the setting of COVID-19. We summarize some of the most relevant literature to provide a better understanding of the mechanistic details regarding these disorders in order to help physicians monitor and treat patients for significant COVID-19 associated neurologic impairments. METHODS: A literature review was carried out by the authors using PubMed with the search terms "COVID-19" and "Neurology", "Neurological Manifestations", "Neuropsychiatric Manifestations", "Stroke", "Encephalopathy", "Headache", "Guillain-Barre syndrome", "Depression", "Anxiety", "Encephalitis", "Seizure", "Spasm", and "ICUAW". Another search was carried out for "Long-COVID" and "Post-Acute COVID-19" and "Neurological Manifestations" or "Neuropsychiatric Manifestations". Articles such as case reports, case series, and cohort studies were included as references. No language restrictions were enforced. In the case of anxiety and depression, attempts were made to focus mainly on articles describing these conditions in infected patients. RESULTS: A total of 112 articles were reviewed. The incidence, clinical outcomes, and pathophysiology of selected neurological disorders are discussed below. Given the recent advent of this disease, the incidence of certain neurologic sequelae was not always available. Putative mechanisms for each condition in the setting of COVID-19 are outlined.

COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Encephalitis/virology , Headache/virology , Hemorrhagic Stroke/virology , Humans , Inflammation , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/virology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810316


SARS-CoV-2 causes acute respiratory disease, but many patients also experience neurological complications. Neuropathological changes with pronounced neuroinflammation have been described in individuals after lethal COVID-19, as well as in the CSF of hospitalized patients with neurological complications. To assess whether neuropathological changes can occur after a SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to mild-to-moderate disease, we investigated the brains of four rhesus and four cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary disease and without overt clinical symptoms. Postmortem analysis demonstrated the infiltration of T-cells and activated microglia in the parenchyma of all infected animals, even in the absence of viral antigen or RNA. Moreover, intracellular α-synuclein aggregates were found in the brains of both macaque species. The heterogeneity of these manifestations in the brains indicates the virus' neuropathological potential and should be considered a warning for long-term health risks, following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19 , Encephalitis , alpha-Synuclein , Animals , Encephalitis/metabolism , Encephalitis/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Protein Aggregates , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 619-630, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728290


The recent pandemic outbreak of coronavirus is pathogenic and a highly transmittable viral infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). In this time of ongoing pandemic, many emerging reports suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 has inimical effects on neurological functions, and even causes serious neurological damage. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 include headache, dizziness, depression, anosmia, encephalitis, stroke, epileptic seizures, and Guillain-Barre syndrome along with many others. The involvement of the CNS may be related with poor prognosis and disease worsening. Here, we review the evidence of nervous system involvement and currently known neurological manifestations in COVID-19 infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. We prioritize the 332 human targets of SARS-CoV-2 according to their association with brain-related disease and identified 73 candidate genes. We prioritize these 73 genes according to their spatio-temporal expression in the different regions of brain and also through evolutionary intolerance analysis. The prioritized genes could be considered potential indicators of COVID-19-associated neurological symptoms and thus act as a possible therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of CNS manifestations associated with COVID-19 patients.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Depression , Dizziness/complications , Dizziness/genetics , Dizziness/pathology , Dizziness/virology , Encephalitis/complications , Encephalitis/genetics , Encephalitis/pathology , Encephalitis/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/genetics , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Headache/complications , Headache/genetics , Headache/pathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins/classification , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/genetics , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Interaction Mapping , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/genetics , Seizures/pathology , Seizures/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/complications , Stroke/genetics , Stroke/pathology , Stroke/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
Medwave ; 20(7): e7984, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724227


There are limited reports of neurological symptoms in the pediatric population with COVID-19. We report a 13-year-old girl with three days of illness characterized by headache, non-explosive vomiting, fever, and sudden-onset sensory disorder associated with difficulty in standing and hemiparesis in limbs without evidence of meningeal signs. Brain tomography revealed diffuse brain edema, and the cerebrospinal fluid study was consistent with a viral infection. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on serology. The patient had an untoward clinical course despite treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and corticosteroids, dying on the third day of hospitalization. Encephalitis in a patient with COVID-19 is not frequently reported in the pediatric population. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients who arrives at the emergency with a sensory disorder or neurological symptomatology in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Existen limitados reportes de síntomas neurológicos en la población pediátrica con COVID-19. Reportamos el caso de una niña de 13 años con tres días de enfermedad caracterizada por cefalea, vómitos no explosivos, fiebre y trastorno del sensorio de inicio brusco asociado a dificultad para la bipedestación y hemiparesia en extremidades, sin evidencia de signos meníngeos. La tomografía cerebral reveló edema cerebral difuso y el estudio de líquido cefalorraquídeo era concordante con una infección viral. El diagnóstico de COVID-19 fue mediante pruebas serológicas. La paciente tuvo una evolución clínica desfavorable a pesar del tratamiento con hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina y corticoides, falleciendo al tercer día de hospitalización. La encefalitis en un paciente con COVID-19 es una asociación poco descrita en la población pediátrica. Esta infección debe ser considerado como diagnóstico diferencial en los pacientes que llegan a la emergencia con trastorno de sensorio o sintomatología neurológica en el contexto de la actual pandemia.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Encephalitis/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment