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1.
BMJ ; 376: e068373, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between covid-19 vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and risk of immune mediated neurological events. DESIGN: Population based historical rate comparison study and self-controlled case series analysis. SETTING: Primary care records from the United Kingdom, and primary care records from Spain linked to hospital data. PARTICIPANTS: 8 330 497 people who received at least one dose of covid-19 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or Ad.26.COV2.S between the rollout of the vaccination campaigns and end of data availability (UK: 9 May 2021; Spain: 30 June 2021). The study sample also comprised a cohort of 735 870 unvaccinated individuals with a first positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test result for SARS-CoV-2 from 1 September 2020, and 14 330 080 participants from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes were incidence of Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transverse myelitis. Incidence rates were estimated in the 21 days after the first vaccine dose, 90 days after a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, and between 2017 and 2019 for background rates in the general population cohort. Indirectly standardised incidence ratios were estimated. Adjusted incidence rate ratios were estimated from the self-controlled case series. RESULTS: The study included 4 376 535 people who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 3 588 318 who received BNT162b2, 244 913 who received mRNA-1273, and 120 731 who received Ad26.CoV.2; 735 870 people with SARS-CoV-2 infection; and 14 330 080 people from the general population. Overall, post-vaccine rates were consistent with expected (background) rates for Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Self-controlled case series was conducted only for Bell's palsy, given limited statistical power, but with no safety signal seen for those vaccinated. Rates were, however, higher than expected after SARS-CoV-2 infection. For example, in the data from the UK, the standardised incidence ratio for Bell's palsy was 1.33 (1.02 to 1.74), for encephalomyelitis was 6.89 (3.82 to 12.44), and for Guillain-Barré syndrome was 3.53 (1.83 to 6.77). Transverse myelitis was rare (<5 events in all vaccinated cohorts) and could not be analysed. CONCLUSIONS: No safety signal was observed between covid-19 vaccines and the immune mediated neurological events of Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transverse myelitis. An increased risk of Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome was, however, observed for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Encephalomyelitis/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Myelitis, Transverse/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Routinely Collected Health Data , Spain , United Kingdom , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(1): 133-137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes a wide range of diseases with varying pathophysiology in children and adults. Although the disease mainly affects the respiratory tract, neurological involvement is also reported in the literature. The most common neurological complaints due to COVID-19 are headache, dizziness and anosmia. Acute necrotizing myelitis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), acute axonal neuropathy, acute transverse myelitis, and Guillian-Barre syndrome have been reported as neurological dysfunctions associated with COVID-19. CASE: A ten-year-old male patient presented with complaints of fever, headache and generalized muscle pain. The patient developed inability to walk and significant muscle weakness during the disease course, and he was diagnosed with ADEM and transverse myelitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As the etiological agent, COVID-19 was detected in both the respiratory panel sample and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Pulse steroid, IVIG, and plasmapheresis treatment were administered. He started to stand with support during follow-up. CONCLUSION: We presented a case of COVID-19 related ADEM and transverse myelitis who responded to pulse steroid, IVIG, and plasmapheresis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis , Myelitis, Transverse , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Encephalomyelitis/complications , Encephalomyelitis/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis/therapy , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy
3.
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(34)2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360221

ABSTRACT

Although most patients recover from acute COVID-19, some experience postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (PASC). One subgroup of PASC is a syndrome called "long COVID-19," reminiscent of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). ME/CFS is a debilitating condition, often triggered by viral and bacterial infections, leading to years-long debilitating symptoms including profound fatigue, postexertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive deficits, and orthostatic intolerance. Some are skeptical that either ME/CFS or long COVID-19 involves underlying biological abnormalities. However, in this review, we summarize the evidence that people with acute COVID-19 and with ME/CFS have biological abnormalities including redox imbalance, systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation, an impaired ability to generate adenosine triphosphate, and a general hypometabolic state. These phenomena have not yet been well studied in people with long COVID-19, and each of them has been reported in other diseases as well, particularly neurological diseases. We also examine the bidirectional relationship between redox imbalance, inflammation, energy metabolic deficits, and a hypometabolic state. We speculate as to what may be causing these abnormalities. Thus, understanding the molecular underpinnings of both PASC and ME/CFS may lead to the development of novel therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Encephalomyelitis/metabolism , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Encephalomyelitis/immunology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/immunology , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction
7.
Mult Scler ; 27(6): 973-976, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223688

ABSTRACT

Neurologic complications are being recognized as important outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pathogenesis is varied and incompletely understood, and may include neuroinvasion, indirect post-infectious neuroinflammation, and cerebrovascular pathologies. We present a case of COVID-19-related encephalomyeloradiculitis with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders that was associated with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. Our case suggests post-infectious autoimmunity as a mechanism in at least a subset of patients with COVID-19-related neurologic disease.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 4/immunology , Autoantibodies/analysis , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalomyelitis/etiology , Radiculopathy/etiology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnostic imaging , Neuromyelitis Optica/etiology , Plasma Exchange , Radiculopathy/diagnostic imaging , Radiculopathy/immunology , Spine/diagnostic imaging
8.
Clin Immunol ; 226: 108694, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086837

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spotlighted the link between viral infection and autoimmunity. In this review, we focus on coronavirus-induced autoimmunity based on evidence from experimental animal models, SARS-CoV infection with in vitro studies of molecular mimicry and COVID-19 with several clinical reports of autoimmune manifestations of this disease. Further studies will be needed to better characterize the role of SARS-CoV-2 in the development of autoimmunity.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Encephalomyelitis/immunology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Humans , Molecular Mimicry/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Retinal Diseases/immunology , Retinal Diseases/virology
9.
J Virol ; 94(24)2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941660

ABSTRACT

Intracranial (i.c.) infection of susceptible C57BL/6 mice with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) (a member of the Coronaviridae family) results in acute encephalomyelitis and viral persistence associated with an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. The present study was undertaken to better understand the molecular pathways evoked during innate and adaptive immune responses as well as the chronic demyelinating stage of disease in response to JHMV infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Using single-cell RNA sequencing analysis (scRNAseq) on flow-sorted CD45-positive (CD45+) cells enriched from brains and spinal cords of experimental mice, we demonstrate the heterogeneity of the immune response as determined by the presence of unique molecular signatures and pathways involved in effective antiviral host defense. Furthermore, we identify potential genes involved in contributing to demyelination as well as remyelination being expressed by both microglia and macrophages. Collectively, these findings emphasize the diversity of the immune responses and molecular networks at defined stages following viral infection of the CNS.IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the molecular signatures of immune cells within the CNS at defined times following infection with a neuroadapted murine coronavirus using scRNAseq. This approach has revealed that the immunological landscape is diverse, with numerous immune cell subsets expressing distinct mRNA expression profiles that are, in part, dictated by the stage of infection. In addition, these findings reveal new insight into cellular pathways contributing to control of viral replication as well as to neurologic disease.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Infections/immunology , Central Nervous System Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Animals , Central Nervous System Infections/genetics , Central Nervous System Infections/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Encephalomyelitis/genetics , Encephalomyelitis/immunology , Encephalomyelitis/pathology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , H-2 Antigens/genetics , H-2 Antigens/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Immunity, Innate , Mice , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis
11.
J Virol ; 94(20)2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840609

ABSTRACT

Alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/ß) signaling through the IFN-α/ß receptor (IFNAR) is essential to limit virus dissemination throughout the central nervous system (CNS) following many neurotropic virus infections. However, the distinct expression patterns of factors associated with the IFN-α/ß pathway in different CNS resident cell populations implicate complex cooperative pathways in IFN-α/ß induction and responsiveness. Here we show that mice devoid of IFNAR1 signaling in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) expressing neurons (CaMKIIcre:IFNARfl/fl mice) infected with a mildly pathogenic neurotropic coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus A59 strain [MHV-A59]) developed severe encephalomyelitis with hind-limb paralysis and succumbed within 7 days. Increased virus spread in CaMKIIcre:IFNARfl/fl mice compared to IFNARfl/fl mice affected neurons not only in the forebrain but also in the mid-hind brain and spinal cords but excluded the cerebellum. Infection was also increased in glia. The lack of viral control in CaMKIIcre:IFNARfl/fl relative to control mice coincided with sustained Cxcl1 and Ccl2 mRNAs but a decrease in mRNA levels of IFNα/ß pathway genes as well as Il6, Tnf, and Il1ß between days 4 and 6 postinfection (p.i.). T cell accumulation and IFN-γ production, an essential component of virus control, were not altered. However, IFN-γ responsiveness was impaired in microglia/macrophages irrespective of similar pSTAT1 nuclear translocation as in infected controls. The results reveal how perturbation of IFN-α/ß signaling in neurons can worsen disease course and disrupt complex interactions between the IFN-α/ß and IFN-γ pathways in achieving optimal antiviral responses.IMPORTANCE IFN-α/ß induction limits CNS viral spread by establishing an antiviral state, but also promotes blood brain barrier integrity, adaptive immunity, and activation of microglia/macrophages. However, the extent to which glial or neuronal signaling contributes to these diverse IFN-α/ß functions is poorly understood. Using a neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus encephalomyelitis model, this study demonstrated an essential role of IFN-α/ß receptor 1 (IFNAR1) specifically in neurons to control virus spread, regulate IFN-γ signaling, and prevent acute mortality. The results support the notion that effective neuronal IFNAR1 signaling compensates for their low basal expression of genes in the IFN-α/ß pathway compared to glia. The data further highlight the importance of tightly regulated communication between the IFN-α/ß and IFN-γ signaling pathways to optimize antiviral IFN-γ activity.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/virology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Animals , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/genetics , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism , Central Nervous System/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Encephalomyelitis/immunology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Mice, Mutant Strains , Microglia/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Neurons/virology , Neutrophil Infiltration , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , Virus Replication
12.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 44: 102324, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613379

ABSTRACT

After the novel coronavirus disease outbreak first began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the viral epidemic has quickly spread across the world, and it is now a major public health concern. Here we present a 21-year-old male with encephalomyelitis following intermittent vomiting and malaise for 4 days. He reported upper respiratory signs and symptoms 2 weeks before this presentation. Two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses were notable for mononuclear pleocytosis, elevated protein (more than 100 mg/dl), and hypoglycorrhachia. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed bilateral posterior internal capsule lesions extending to the ventral portion of the pons and a marbled splenium hyperintensity pattern. Cervical and thoracic MRI showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), none of which were enhanced with gadolinium. Both the AQP4 and MOG antibodies were negative. Spiral chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed to COVID-19 as did the high IgG level against coronavirus, but the oropharyngeal swabs were negative. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have not been adequately studied. Some COVID-19 patients, especially those suffering from a severe disease, are highly likely to have central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. Our case is a post-COVID-19 demyelinating event in the CNS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Adult , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Young Adult
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