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1.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S1): e20222140, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002823

ABSTRACT

Different neurological complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been widely documented. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare immune-mediated demyelinating disorder, described within the spectrum of neurological manifestations of COVID-19. Herein, we describe a case of adult-ADEM presenting with diplopia and slowly progressive ataxia developed one month after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute multifocal demyelinating lesions throughout the brain. Other possible etiologies have been ruled out. After treatment with high-dose steroids, we observed a progressive clinical and radiological improvement. A 4-months follow-up showed complete clinical recovery. Although extremely rare, ADEM could be associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Early recognition of this COVID-19 neurological complication, even in the absence of pulmonary involvement, is important to start a prompt immune-modulatory treatment and, consequently, ensure a good outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev Neurol ; 75(2): 45-48, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934993

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to grow all over the world since december of 2019. Although the main clinical manifestation is pulmonary disease, neurological manifestations are a prominent and increasingly recognized feature of the disease. The Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune disorder, most commonly triggered by a viral infection. There are a few case reports of ADEM associated with COVID-19, almost all of them associated pulmonary disease. We report the case of a young patient with diagnosis of ADEM with SARS-CoV-2 infection without clinical respiratory symptoms. CASE REPORT: A 20-year-old woman with no relevant medical history was brought to the emergency department with a progressive confusional state lasted for 7 days. Family reported the development of smell and taste deficit since two weeks before the onset of neurological symptoms. There were no complaints of pulmonary symptoms. At admission, she was drowsy and disoriented. Left homonymous hemianopsia and an ipsilateral Babinski sign was identified. A brain magnetic resonance image was done showing multiple hyperintense bilateral, asymmetric patchy and poorly marginated lesions with gadolinium enhancement. She was SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive on nasopharyngeal swab. Intravenous high-dose glucocorticoids were administered with marked clinical improvement. CONCLUSION: ADEM is an extremely uncommon complication of SARS-CoV-2infection. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis should be considered a potentially treatable cause of encephalopathy or multifocal neurological deficits in COVID-19 patients, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms.


TITLE: Encefalomielitis aguda diseminada asociada a infección por el SARS-CoV-2 sin afectación respiratoria.Introducción. COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) es la enfermedad secundaria a la infección por el coronavirus de tipo 2 o SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2), que se ha constituido como pandemia desde diciembre de 2019. Si bien la afectación más frecuente y grave es la pulmonar, las complicaciones neurológicas secundarias a la COVID-19 son cada vez más reconocidas. La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EMAD) es una enfermedad autoinmune poco frecuente, clásicamente secundaria a una infección viral previa o concomitante. Existen informes de EMAD asociada a la COVID-19, casi todos con afectación respiratoria asociada. Presentamos el caso de una mujer joven diagnosticada con EMAD secundaria a la infección por el SARS-CoV-2 sin afectación respiratoria. Caso clínico. Mujer de 20 años que consultó por cuadro de desorientación y alteración conductual de una semana de evolución. Destaca en la historia la presencia de anosmia y sensación febril dos semanas antes del inicio de los síntomas neurológicos. En el examen físico destacó somnolencia, desorientación, hemianopsia homónima izquierda y síndrome piramidal ipsilateral. Se realizó una resonancia magnética encefálica que mostró múltiples lesiones inflamatorias desmielinizantes bihemisféricas de la sustancia blanca sugerentes de EMAD. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa del SARS-CoV-2 en aspirado nasofaríngeo resultó positiva. Se descartaron otras causas de lesiones inflamatorias. Recibió esteroides con excelente respuesta. Conclusión. La EMAD es una complicación extremadamente rara en pacientes con COVID-19 que debe considerarse como una causa tratable de encefalopatía y/o déficits neurológicos multifocales en pacientes con infección activa o reciente por SARS-CoV-2 con o sin manifestaciones respiratorias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936574, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disorder of the central nervous system which has been associated with preceding infection as well as vaccinations. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with ADEM after receiving her initial vaccination for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This case highlights management of this acute condition. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old woman with history of hypertension and anxiety presented with progressive generalized weakness and difficulty with communication which began a few weeks ago, shortly after receiving the Pfizer vaccine for the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). On arrival, she was found to be encephalopathic and tachypneic, ultimately requiring emergent intubation. During her hospital course, an MRI of her brain was obtained which showed nonspecific acute versus subacute leukoencephalopathy involving the brainstem and deep white matter. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated protein but was otherwise unremarkable. Further testing to rule out tick-borne illnesses, viral etiology, and multiple sclerosis were negative. Electroencephalography showed nonspecific diffuse cerebral dysfunction but no seizures or epileptiform discharges. She was treated with 5 doses of methylprednisolone 1 g and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 2 g/kg over 5 days. She had marked improvement in her neurologic status after treatment. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, ADEM should be acknowledged as a rare but potential complication related to COVID-19 vaccination. A proper history and physical exam in addition to a thorough work-up are necessary for prompt recognition of this condition. Initial treatment should consist of steroids followed by IVIG versus plasmapheresis for those not responsive to steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/complications , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Leukoencephalopathies , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Tachypnea
5.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1151-1154, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861988

ABSTRACT

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), clinically defined by an acute polyfocal neurological syndrome usually with monophasic course. ADEM often occurs after infections, but 5%-10% of cases are preceded by vaccinations. Several cases of ADEM have been described after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, whereas no case has been reported after adenovirus-vectored or mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administration. Here we describe a case of ADEM presenting 2 weeks after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Patient clinical/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) status spontaneously improved and rapidly resolved with corticosteroids. A 4-month follow-up showed complete recovery and no relapses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Vaccine ; 40(24): 3305-3312, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Background incidence rates are critical in pharmacovigilance to facilitate identification of vaccine safety signals. We estimated background incidence rates of 11 adverse events of special interest related to COVID-19 vaccines in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases for hospitalizations and emergency department visits among Ontario residents. We estimated incidence rates of Bell's palsy, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, febrile convulsions, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, acute myocardial infarction, and anaphylaxis during five pre-pandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million across all age groups with 51% female. The pre-pandemic mean annual rates per 100,000 population during 2015-2019 were 191 for acute myocardial infarction, 43.9 for idiopathic thrombocytopenia, 28.8 for anaphylaxis, 27.8 for Bell's palsy, 25.0 for febrile convulsions, 22.8 for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 11.3 for myocarditis/pericarditis, 8.7 for pericarditis, 2.9 for myocarditis, 2.0 for Kawasaki disease, 1.9 for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 1.7 for transverse myelitis. Females had higher rates of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and anaphylaxis while males had higher rates of myocarditis, pericarditis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Bell's palsy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome increased with age. The mean rates of myocarditis and/or pericarditis increased with age up to 79 years; males had higher rates than females: from 12 to 59 years for myocarditis and ≥12 years for pericarditis. Febrile convulsions and Kawasaki disease were predominantly childhood diseases and generally decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates will permit estimating numbers of expected events for these conditions and facilitate detection of potential safety signals following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Bell Palsy/chemically induced , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/epidemiology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/chemically induced , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Myelitis, Transverse/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Seizures, Febrile/chemically induced , Seizures, Febrile/epidemiology
7.
Radiologe ; 62(4): 316-321, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare demyelinating disease that occurs predominantly in children. According to the guidelines, ADEM belongs to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-associated diseases and usually manifests after febrile infections (also after SARS-CoV-2) or postvaccinally. OBJECTIVES: Incidence, course and clinical, and as well, as radiological features and new developments and treatment of ADEM. METHODS: Analysis and review of the literature on ADEM and of notable cases and guidelines. RESULTS: The first signs of ADEM include fever, nausea and vomiting, headache and meningism as well as, by definition, encephalopathy, which usually manifests as drowsiness and confusion. The radiological diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, the asymmetrically distributed, diffuse and tumefactive lesions can be located supra- and infratentorially. In the acute phase, the lesions usually show contrast enhancement and restricted diffusion. Spinal involvement of the gray matter with the typical H­pattern with myelitis transversa is not uncommon. ADEM has mostly a monophasic course, with a recurrent form ("relapsing ADEM") in 1-20% of cases. For treatment, steroids and in severe cases immunosuppressive drugs are used. CONCLUSIONS: ADEM is generally a monophasic disease whose symptoms usually last for a few weeks or months. It is crucial to differentiate ADEM from other demyelinating diseases, like for example multiple sclerosis, in order not to delay the proper treatment.


Subject(s)
Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/therapy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/therapeutic use
9.
Neurol Sci ; 43(6): 3503-3507, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739352

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-ChAdOx1 vaccine (AZD1222) adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are uncommon. Recently described neurological events include thrombocytopenia with thrombosis syndrome (TTS) with cerebral venous thrombosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. There are very few AEFI reports following COVID vaccination from India, because of underreporting or other factors. A few cases of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) and post-vaccinal encephalitis have also been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 11 months, in 2 districts of Kerala, India, 8.19 million people were vaccinated with the ChAdOx1 vaccine. RESULTS: During this period, we encountered five cases of autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) AEFI following ChAdOX1 (Oxford/AstraZeneca, Covishield™) vaccination. These included three cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), one case of opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMAS), and one case of limbic encephalitis. The calculated crude incidence of post-ChAdOX1 autoimmune CNS AEFI was approximately 0.24 cases per million for encephalitis and 0.36 per million for ADEM. This was compared to the crude annual incidence of community-acquired ADEM worldwide (3.2-4 per million) and the crude annual incidence of community-acquired encephalitis in India (8.35-10 per million). CONCLUSION: There was no increase in the incidence of post-vaccination CNS AEFI (ADEM or encephalitis) as compared to the community incidence of ADEM or encephalitis. While this emphasizes the safety of ChAdOX1 nCoV-19 vaccination for COVID-19, it is important to recognize these post-vaccination autoimmune syndromes early to initiate immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Central Nervous System , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 54, 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We report a case of ADEM presenting with bilateral optic neuritis temporally associated with the ChAdOx1 vaccine against SARS-COVID19 virus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old female presented with bilateral optic neuritis following her first dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine. Initial MRI Brain showed evidence of demyelination within the subcortical white matter, with no radiological involvement of the optic nerves. Visual evoked potentials were consistent with bilateral optic neuritis which was confirmed radiologically on follow up MRI. She was treated with intravenous steroids with improvement both in symptoms and radiological appearance. A pseudo-relapse occurred which was treated with a further course of intravenous steroids followed by an oral taper. The clinical, radiological and serological results were most consistent with diagnosis of ADEM. CONCLUSIONS: ADEM is an exceedingly rare complication of ChAdOx1 vaccine despite millions of doses. While it is imperative clinicians remain aware of neurological complications of vaccines, the importance of vaccination to control a pandemic should not be undermined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Optic Neuritis , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Female , Humans , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , Optic Neuritis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
J Neurol ; 269(5): 2293-2300, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604983

ABSTRACT

Numerous reports support the possible occurrence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following COVID-19. Herein, we report a case of ADEM in a 53-year-old man 2 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We reviewed the reports of adult cases of ADEM and its variant acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (ANHLE) to check for possible prognostic factors and clinical/epidemiological peculiarities. We performed a descriptive analysis of clinical and cerebrospinal fluid data. Ordinal logistic regressions were performed to check the effect of clinical variables and treatments on ADEM/ANHLE outcomes. We also compared ADEM and ANHLE patients. We identified a total of 20 ADEM (9 females, median age 53.5 years) and 23 ANHLE (11 females, median age 55 years). Encephalopathy was present in 80% of ADEM and 91.3% of ANHLE patients. We found that the absence of encephalopathy predicts a better clinical outcome in ADEM (OR 0.027, 95% CI 0.001-0.611, p = 0.023), also when correcting for the other variables (OR 0.032, 95% CI 0.001-0.995, p = 0.05). Conversely, we identified no significant prognostic factor in ANHLE patients. ANHLE patients showed a trend towards a worse clinical outcome (lower proportion of good/complete recovery, 4.5% vs 16.7%) and higher mortality (36.4% vs 11.1%) as compared to ADEM. Compared to pre-pandemic ADEM, we observed a higher median age of people with post-COVID-19 ADEM and ANHLE, a shorter interval between infection and neurological symptoms, and a worse prognosis both in terms of high morbidity and mortality. Despite being affected by the retrospective nature of the study, these observations provide new insights into ADEM/ANHLE following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Female , Humans , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/epidemiology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 178(1-2): 144-150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536970

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in a spark in interest in the subject given the high exposure rate to viral antigens in the form of infections and vaccines. It is expected that acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) cases see a rise in incidence during this period. Given the plethora of Covid-19-related central nervous system (CNS) involvement, it is important to be aware of the varied presentations of ADEM. CASE REPORTS: In this paper, we report 3 cases of ADEM following Covid-19 infection. Patients presented with polyfocal neurological symptoms 6 to 18 days after respiratory symptoms onset. The diagnosis of Covid-19 was made based on nasal swab reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and chest computerized tomography (CT). DISCUSSION: These cases illustrate both classic and atypical presentations requiring exclusion of a spectrum of CNS conditions to be able to retain the diagnosis of ADEM. Consequently, we stress the importance of context, clinical examination and MRI findings in the differentials. In addition, we discuss workup, and particularly, the indication of brain biopsy. Also, the paper discusses options in therapy and the prognosis. The prognosis of covid-associated ADEM is dependent on the extent of pathology intrinsic to ADEM and the intrication of the prognosis of Covid-19 infection. CONCLUSION: The key message in these 3 cases is that clinicians should have a low threshold of suspicion of ADEM in the Covid-19 context, adopt appropriate workup strategies, and initiate adequate treatment for better outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 18(1): 74-79, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499517

ABSTRACT

This report describes the clinical context and autopsy findings in the first reported fatal case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), developed after being vaccinated using the Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. ADEM is a rare autoimmune disease, causing demyelination in the brain and spinal cord. A wide variety of precipitating factors can trigger ADEM, and it has long been known to be a rare adverse event following some types of vaccinations. Recently, ADEM has also been associated with COVID-19 infection and (very rarely) with COVID-19 vaccination. The reports of the latter however all pertain to living patients. Our case demonstrates that ADEM should be considered in patients developing neurological symptoms post COVID-19 vaccination, although that this adverse reaction is likely to remain extremely rare. Our report further emphasizes the added value of comprehensive post mortem investigation to confirm ante mortem diagnosis and to determine vaccination safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Brain , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1151-1154, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443750

ABSTRACT

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), clinically defined by an acute polyfocal neurological syndrome usually with monophasic course. ADEM often occurs after infections, but 5%-10% of cases are preceded by vaccinations. Several cases of ADEM have been described after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, whereas no case has been reported after adenovirus-vectored or mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administration. Here we describe a case of ADEM presenting 2 weeks after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Patient clinical/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) status spontaneously improved and rapidly resolved with corticosteroids. A 4-month follow-up showed complete recovery and no relapses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev Neurosci ; 33(4): 397-412, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430575

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence demonstrates the association of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or encephalomyelitis, with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to determine the profile and possible mechanisms behind CNS inflammatory diseases in the context of Covid-19. We conducted a systematic review of case reports on Covid-19-related encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, acute necrotizing encephalitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in adults, published before January 2021. A total of 182 cases (encephalitis = 109, meningoencephalitis = 26, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis = 35, acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic) encephalitis = 12) were included. While cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and increased protein level was present in less than 50%, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were abnormal in 78 and 93.2% of all cases, respectively. Viral particles were detected in cerebrospinal fluid of only 13 patients and autoantibodies were present in seven patients. All patients presented with altered mental status, either in the form of impaired consciousness or psychological/cognitive decline. Seizure, cranial nerve signs, motor, and reflex abnormalities were among associated symptoms. Covid-19-associated encephalitis presents with a distinctive profile requiring thorough diagnosis and thereby a comprehensive knowledge of the disease. The clinical profile of brain inflammation in Covid-19 exhibits majority of abnormal imaging and electroencephalography findings with mild/moderate pleocytosis or proteinorrhachia as prevalent as normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Oligoclonal bands and autoantibody assessments are useful in further evaluating neuro-covid patients, as supported by our pooled evidence. Despite the possibility that direct viral invasion cannot be easily estimated, it is still more likely that immune-mediated or autoimmune reactions play a more important role in SARS-CoV-2 neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Meningoencephalitis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Leukocytosis , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(10): 2000-2003, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384082

ABSTRACT

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease, and there are some data that link this event with various vaccinations. We report a young female admitted to the hospital with headache, fever, back pain, nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention. Two weeks prior, she received the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed distinctive for ADEM widespread demyelinating lesions. The patient was successfully treated with methylprednisolone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Young Adult
19.
J Neurol ; 269(3): 1071-1092, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377603

ABSTRACT

The literature on cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been rapidly increasing. However, the specific clinical features of ADEM associated with SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2-ADEM) have not been previously evaluated. We screened all articles resulting from a search of PubMed and Web of Science databases looking for reports of ADEM published between December 01, 2019, and June 5, 2021. Of the 48 ADEM cases identified from 37 studies, 34 (71%) had ADEM while 14 (29%) were of AHLE. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 83% (n = 19) of patients. 26 patients (54%) were male, and 18 patients (38%) were female, with a male to female sex ratio of 1.4:1; median age was 44 (1.4-71) years. 9 patients (19%, 9/48) were children. Of the 9 children patients, their median age was 9 years (range 1.4-13 years), 6 patients (67%) were female, and 2 patients (22%) were male, with a female to male sex ratio of 3:1.39 patients (81%) was performed CSF analysis. PCR for SARS-CoV-2 tested positive in 3 patients (14%, 3/22) on CSF sample. 31 (64%) of patients had a poor outcome on discharge from hospital. Five (10%) patients died in hospital. Compared to classic ADEM, SARS-CoV-2-ADEM have a more longer duration between the onset of the antecedent infective symptoms and the start of ADEM symptoms, the older age distribution of the patients, relatively poor outcome, a lower full recovery rate, a more frequently brain lesions involved the periventricular white matter and corpus callosum, and less frequently affected the deep gray matter. Taken together, the present comprehensive review reveals that although rare, ADEM can be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2-ADEM seems to share most features of classic ADEM, with moderate discrepancies from the classical ADEM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Nervous System Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/pathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(6)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of reports have described cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) following infection with COVID-19. Given their relatively rare occurrence, the primary objective of this systematic review was to synthesize their clinical features, response to treatments, and clinical outcomes to better understand the nature of this neurologic consequence of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Patients with a history of COVID-19 infection were included if their reports provided adequate detail to confirm a diagnosis of ADEM or AHLE by virtue of clinical features, radiographic abnormalities, and histopathologic findings. Cases purported to be secondary to vaccination against COVID-19 or occurring in the context of a preexisting relapsing CNS demyelinating disease were excluded. Case reports and series were identified via PubMed on May 17, 2021, and 4 additional cases from the authors' hospital files supplemented the systematic review of the literature. Summary statistics were used to describe variables using a complete case analysis approach. RESULTS: Forty-six patients (28 men, median age 49.5 years, 1/3 >50 years old) were analyzed, derived from 26 case reports or series originating from 8 countries alongside 4 patient cases from the authors' hospital files. COVID-19 infection was laboratory confirmed in 91% of cases, and infection severity necessitated intensive care in 67%. ADEM occurred in 31 cases, whereas AHLE occurred in 15, with a median presenting nadir modified Rankin Scale score of 5 (bedridden). Anti-MOG seropositivity was rare (1/15 patients tested). Noninflammatory CSF was present in 30%. Hemorrhage on brain MRI was identified in 42%. Seventy percent received immunomodulatory treatments, most commonly steroids, IV immunoglobulins, or plasmapheresis. The final mRS score was ≥4 in 64% of patients with adequate follow-up information, including 32% who died. DISCUSSION: In contrast to ADEM cases from the prepandemic era, reported post-COVID-19 ADEM and AHLE cases were often advanced in age at onset, experienced severe antecedent infection, displayed an unusually high rate of hemorrhage on neuroimaging, and routinely had poor neurologic outcomes, including a high mortality rate. Findings are limited by nonstandardized reporting of cases, truncated follow-up information, and presumed publication bias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/mortality , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/physiopathology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/mortality , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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