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1.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(8): 562-566, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978055

ABSTRACT

In the aftermath of the corona pandemic, long-COVID or post-acute COVID-19 syndrome still represents a great challenge, and this topic will continue to represent a significant health problem in the coming years. At present, the impact of long-COVID on our health system cannot be fully assessed but according to current studies, up to 40% of people who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 suffer from clinically relevant symptoms of long-COVID syndrome several weeks to months after the acute phase. The main symptoms are chronic fatigue, dyspnea, and various cognitive symptoms. Initial studies have shown that people with overweight and diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of developing long-COVID associated symptoms. Furthermore, repeated treatment of acute COVID-19 and long-COVID with steroids can contribute to long-term metabolic and endocrine disorders. Therefore, a structured program with rehabilitation and physical activity as well as optimal dietary management is of utmost importance, especially for patients with metabolic diseases and/or long-COVID. Furthermore, the removal of autoantibodies and specific therapeutic apheresis procedures could lead to a significant improvement in the symptoms of long-COVID in individual patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocrine System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Endocrine System Diseases/complications , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home isolation during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown strongly impacted everyday life, affecting, in particular, eating habits and everyday activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on behaviors and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) in children from Southern Poland. METHODS: The study included 206 participants (104 females and 102 males) with a complete analysis of 177 participants (96 females and 81 males) with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.6 years admitted to three pediatric endocrinology clinics (Rzeszów, Kraków, and Katowice) due to simple obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus, somatotropin pituitary deficiency on growth hormone replacement therapy, and other endocrine and metabolic disorders between June and September 2020. The study used a self-prepared questionnaire regarding eating habits, physical activity, screen time, and sleep before and during the lockdown. Anthropometric measurements were performed under clinical settings twice (before the pandemic in January-March 2020, and in June-September 2020). RESULTS: During the lockdown, BMI z-scores increased over the whole group, especially in obese children (0.073 ± 0.18, p = 0.002). The number of children who declared low and high physical activity of more than 60 min per day declined from 41.2% and 18.6% to 31.1% and 6.2% (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001), respectively; sleep times over 8 h increased (46.9% vs. 60.4% p = 0.007); screen times over 5 h daily increased (14.7% to 46.9%, p < 0.001). Eating habits did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily physical activity and sleep levels were affected by the pandemic leading to the increase of BMI, especially in obese patients with endocrine disorders. During the COVID-19 pandemic, forward-thinking strategies must be developed to prevent childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Life Style , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(6): 1433-1438, 2021 Nov.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1558968

ABSTRACT

The elderly age and endocrine diseases are among death risk factors at contamination with new coronavirus infection. To reply the question of how the influence of these risk factors is summing up, differences were determined concerning patterns of changes in structure of mortality of endocrine system diseases, nutrition disorders and metabolic disturbances in individuals of able-bodied age and older against the background of COVID-19 pandemic. on the basis of information from the Moscow database of deaths of endocrine system diseases, nutrition disorders and metabolic disturbances, the changes in contribution of individual diseases to the death causes structure in 2019-2021 were analyzed. The groups of individuals of able-bodied age and older were compared. It was established that in both groups rate of indicating SARS-CoV-2 virus infection as concomitant disease decreased while rate of indicating concomitant diseases at death of COVID-19 increased. The group differences in changes of structure of death causes were established in 2021. The percentage of undetermined forms of diabetes and obesity in structure of death causes increased in the elderly, while in individuals of able-bodied age increased. The percentage of obesity as concomitant disease of death of COVID-19 in individuals of able-bodied age increased and did no change were detected in the elderly group. The input of poly-glandular dysfunction as consequence of old infection into mortality is five times higher among individuals of able-bodied age. On the basis of received results, assumption was made SARS-CoV-2 virus contamination ruinously affects development of pathological process under endocrine diseases regardless of age, while age affects spreading of endocrine diseases and degree of resistance to development of infectious process directly. The differences in patterns of changes of structure of death causes of population of able-bodied age and older are associated with low quality of diagnostics of death causes in individuals of elder age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocrine System Diseases , Nutrition Disorders , Aged , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 735554, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528817

ABSTRACT

Background: Frequency, dimensions, management, and outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic in children with endocrine disorders and diabetes were assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional electronic survey was distributed to the global network of endocrine societies. Respondents' professional and practice profiles, clinic sizes, their country of practice, and the impact of COVID-19 on endocrine diseases were investigated. Results: Respondents from 131 pediatric endocrine centers in 51 countries across all continents completed the survey. Routine check-ups and education were altered in most pediatric endocrine clinics. Over 20% of clinics experienced a shortage of critical medications or essential supplies. ICU treatment was required for patients with diabetes and COVID-19 in 21.2% of centers. In diabetes, 44% of respondents reported increased diabetic ketoacidosis episodes in newly diagnosed cases and 30% in established cases. Biopsychosocial and behavioral changes were explicitly reported to be occurring among pediatric patients with endocrine disorders. Conclusions: This large global survey conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic highlights that diabetes is more challenging to manage than any other pediatric endocrine disorder, with an increased risk of morbidity. Psychological distress due to COVID-19 needs to be recognized and addressed. The importance of close contact with healthcare professionals should be emphasized, and medical supplies should be readily available to all patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Disease Management , Internationality , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/trends , Female , Health Personnel/trends , Humans , Male , Online Systems
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 694325, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394753

ABSTRACT

Endocrine diseases have a considerable impact on public health from an epidemiological point of view and because they may cause long-term disability, alteration of the quality-of-life of the affected patients, and are the fifth leading cause of death. In this extensive review of the literature, we have evaluated the prevalence of the different disorders of endocrine interest in the world and Italy, highlighting their epidemiological, clinical, and economic impact.


Subject(s)
Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
6.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(7): 1242-1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394672

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a big family of viruses that can infect mammalians and birds. In humans they mainly cause respiratory tract infections, with a large spectrum of severity, from mild, self-limited infections to highly lethal forms as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Scanty data are reported for the involvement of endocrine glands in human coronaviruses, in particular SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize endocrinological involvement in human coronaviruses, including data on animal coronaviruses. Avians, ferrets and bovine are affected by specific coronavirus syndromes, with variable involvement of endocrine glands. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a target receptor, so ACE2 plays a central role in viral transmission and initial organ involvement. Autoptic studies on SARS patients revealed that thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary gland, endocrine pancreas and especially adrenals and testis could be impaired by different mechanisms (direct damage by SARS-CoV, inflammation, vascular derangement and autoimmune reactions) and few clinical studies have evidenced functional endocrine impairment. Only few data are available for COVID-19 and gonads and endocrine pancreas seem to be involved. International endocrinological societies have brought some recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic, but further studies need to be performed, especially to detect long-term hormonal sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Endocrine Glands/immunology , Endocrine System/immunology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/immunology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 757-765, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359308

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients' health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endocrine System Diseases , Endocrinologists/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/immunology , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 645787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317220

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Evidence on new-onset endocrine dysfunction and identifying whether the degree of this dysfunction is associated with the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19 is scarce. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients enrolled at PGIMER Chandigarh were stratified on the basis of disease severity as group I (moderate-to-severe disease including oxygen saturation <94% on room air or those with comorbidities) (n= 35) and group II (mild disease, with oxygen saturation >94% and without comorbidities) (n=49). Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal, thyroid, gonadal axes, and lactotroph function were evaluated. Inflammatory and cell-injury markers were also analysed. Results: Patients in group I had higher prevalence of hypocortisolism (38.5 vs 6.8%, p=0.012), lower ACTH (16.3 vs 32.1pg/ml, p=0.234) and DHEAS (86.29 vs 117.8µg/dl, p= 0.086) as compared to group II. Low T3 syndrome was a universal finding, irrespective of disease severity. Sick euthyroid syndrome (apart from low T3 syndrome) (80.9 vs 73.1%, p= 0.046) and atypical thyroiditis (low T3, high T4, low or normal TSH) (14.3 vs 2.4%, p= 0.046) were more frequent in group I than group II. Male hypogonadism was also more prevalent in group I (75.6% vs 20.6%, p=0.006) than group II, with higher prevalence of both secondary (56.8 vs 15.3%, p=0.006) and primary (18.8 vs 5.3%, p=0.006) hypogonadism. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 42.4% of patients without significant difference between both groups. Conclusion: COVID-19 can involve multiple endocrine organs and axes, with a greater prevalence and degree of endocrine dysfunction in those with more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endocrine System Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 154(2): 204-211, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some maternal characteristics indicate worse prognosis in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of endocrine disorders in pregnancies involving COVID-19, and its impact on maternal outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Search terms were "pregnancy" and "COVID-19". SELECTION: PubMed, Embase, medRxiv, and Cochrane worksheet from February to July 2020 were searched. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Articles describing endocrine disorders in pregnancies with and without COVID-19 involvement were considered. We performed meta-analyses of prevalence using random-effect models and estimated relative risk and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of maternal outcomes relative to presence of endocrine disorders. MAIN RESULTS: Articles included (n = 141) were divided into three data sets: individual (119 articles, 356 women), case series (17 articles, 1064 women), and national registries (7 articles, 10 178 women). Prevalence of obesity ranged from 16% to 46% and hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP) ranged from 8% to 12%. In data set 1, HIP and obesity were risk factors for severe disease in crude and age-adjusted models, although not for intensive care unit admission. In data from two national registries, risk of dying was 5.62 (95% CI 0.30-105.95) in women with diabetes and 2.26 (95% CI 1.03-4.96) in those with obesity. CONCLUSION: Obesity and HIP were prevalent in pregnant women with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): C1-C7, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298092

ABSTRACT

Changes that COVID-19 induced in endocrine daily practice as well as the role of endocrine and metabolic comorbidities in COVID-19 outcomes were among the striking features of this last year. The aim of this statement is to illustrate the major characteristics of the response of European endocrinologists to the pandemic including the disclosure of the endocrine phenotype of COVID-19 with diabetes, obesity and hypovitaminosis D playing a key role in this clinical setting with its huge implication for the prevention and management of the disease. The role of the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) as a reference point of the endocrine community during the pandemic will also be highlighted, including the refocusing of its educational and advocacy activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Endocrinologists/organization & administration , Endocrinology/organization & administration , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Networks/organization & administration , Community Networks/trends , Delivery of Health Care/history , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/etiology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Endocrinologists/history , Endocrinologists/trends , Endocrinology/history , Endocrinology/trends , Europe/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Phenotype , Physician's Role , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/history , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Societies, Medical/history , Societies, Medical/organization & administration , Societies, Medical/trends , Telemedicine/history , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/trends
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(12): e4887-e4902, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175358

ABSTRACT

Unacceptable healthcare disparities in endocrine disease have persisted for decades, and 2021 presents a difficult evolving environment. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the gross structural inequities that drive health disparities, and antiracism demonstrations remind us that the struggle for human rights continues. Increased public awareness and discussion of disparities present an urgent opportunity to advance health equity. However, it is more complicated to change the behavior of individuals and reform systems because societies are polarized into different factions that increasingly believe, accept, and live different realities. To reduce health disparities, clinicians must (1) truly commit to advancing health equity and intentionally act to reduce health disparities; (2) create a culture of equity by looking inwards for personal bias and outwards for the systemic biases built into their everyday work processes; (3) implement practical individual, organizational, and community interventions that address the root causes of the disparities; and (4) consider their roles in addressing social determinants of health and influencing healthcare payment policy to advance health equity. To care for diverse populations in 2021, clinicians must have self-insight and true understanding of heterogeneous patients, knowledge of evidence-based interventions, ability to adapt messaging and approaches, and facility with systems change and advocacy. Advancing health equity requires both science and art; evidence-based roadmaps and stories that guide the journey to better outcomes, judgment that informs how to change the behavior of patients, providers, communities, organizations, and policymakers, and passion and a moral mission to serve humanity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Healthcare Disparities , Patient Care , Racism , Biomedical Research/ethics , Biomedical Research/legislation & jurisprudence , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/mortality , Health Equity/organization & administration , Health Equity/trends , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy/trends , Healthcare Disparities/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care/ethics , Patient Care/standards , Patient Care/trends , Racism/prevention & control , Racism/trends , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(8): 1553-1570, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new harmful respiratory disease, called COVID-19 emerged in China in December 2019 due to the infection of a novel coronavirus, called SARS-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the betacoronavirus genus, including SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 shares almost 80% of the genome with SARS-CoV-1 and 50% with MERS-CoV. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 proteins share a high degree of homology (approximately 95%) with SARS-CoV-1 proteins. Hence, the mechanisms of SARS-Cov-1 and SARS-Cov-2 infection are similar and occur via binding to ACE2 protein, which is widely distributed in the human body, with a predominant expression in endocrine tissues including testis, thyroid, adrenal and pituitary. PURPOSE: On the basis of expression pattern of the ACE2 protein among different tissues, similarity between SARS-Cov-1 and SARS-Cov-2 and the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, we aimed at discussing, after almost one-year pandemic, about the relationships between COVID-19 infection and the endocrine system. First, we discussed the potential effect of hormones on the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection; second, we examined the evidences regarding the effect of COVID-19 on the endocrine system. When data were available, a comparative discussion between SARS and COVID-19 effects was also performed. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search within Pubmed was performed. This review has been conducted according to the PRISMA statements. RESULTS: Among 450, 100 articles were selected. Tissue and vascular damages have been shown on thyroid, adrenal, testis and pituitary glands, with multiple alterations of endocrine function. CONCLUSION: Hormones may affect patient susceptibility to COVID-19 infection but evidences regarding therapeutic implication of these findings are still missing. SARS and COVID-19 may affect endocrine glands and their dense vascularization, impairing endocrine system function. A possible damage of endocrine system in COVID-19 patients should be investigated in both COVID-19 acute phase and recovery to identify both early and late endocrine complications that may be important for patient's prognosis and well-being after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endocrine Glands/physiology , Endocrine Glands/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Susceptibility , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/virology , Hormones/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106692, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064696

ABSTRACT

Despite a growing body of research examining correlates and consequences of COVID-19, few findings have been published among military veterans. This limitation is particularly concerning as preliminary data indicate that veterans may experience a higher rate of mortality compared to their civilian counterparts. One factor that may contribute to increased rates of death among veterans with COVID-19 is tobacco use. Indeed, findings from a recent meta-analysis highlight the association between lifetime smoking status and COVID-19 progression to more severe or critical conditions including death. Notably, prevalence rates of tobacco use are higher among veterans than civilians. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine demographic and medical variables that may contribute to likelihood of death among veterans testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we examined the unique influence of lifetime tobacco use on veteran mortality when added to the complete model. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 440 veterans (80.5% African American/Black) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (7.3% deceased) at a large, southeastern Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital between March 11, 2020 and April 23, 2020, with data analysis occurring from May 26, 2020 to June 5, 2020. Older age, male gender, immunodeficiency, endocrine, and pulmonary diseases were positively related to the relative risk of death among SARS-CoV-2 positive veterans, with lifetime tobacco use predicting veteran mortality above and beyond these variables. Findings highlight the importance of assessing for lifetime tobacco use among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and the relative importance of lifetime tobacco use as a risk factor for increased mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitals, Veterans , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
14.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 35(2): 197-205, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004777

ABSTRACT

The world is entering an era of disaster and chaos due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Since its first emergence in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 has swept through Asia and propagated throughout the world to Europe and North America. As of April 13, 1,773,084 people were infected and 111,652 people had died from COVID-19 globally, and new record levels of infection are being reported every day. Based on the data that have been amassed so far, the primary risk factors for a severe disease course or even mortality from COVID-19 are underlying diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. As the global prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, patients with endocrine diseases such as diabetes mellitus and those who are on long-term corticosteroid therapy due to adrenal insufficiency or hypopituitarism are at risk for a poor prognosis of COVID-19. As endocrinologists, we would like to briefly review the current knowledge about the relationship between COVID-19 and endocrine diseases and to discuss what we can do for the safety and health of our patients with endocrine diseases in this globally threatening situation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Endocrinologists/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 66(1): 7-13, 2020 08 04.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-859136

ABSTRACT

Many endocrinopathies have chronic course; patients with endocrinopathies (above all diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases) who receive outpatient care on a regular basis amount up to 80% of patients with chronic diseases. Endocrinologists most likely play the role of general practitioners for these patients; therefore, they should quickly and efficiently explain the patients with diabetes, thyroid, hypophysis and adrenal diseases how to behave in new setting of COVID19 pandemic (coronavirus infection). The most severe course of the infection can be observed in patients older than 65 years with chronic diseases, especially endocrinopathies. This review sums up the currently available data on the disease pathogenesis and progression. It also provides information about patient responsibility to prevent infection, special aspects of communication between the patient and the physician in the setting of self-isolation and quarantine, additional care needed in case of COVID19 in patients with most severe endocrinopathies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Endocrine System Diseases/complications , Endocrine System Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physicians , Risk Factors
16.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(7): 471-484, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591840

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the WHO and has affected millions of patients around the world. COVID-19 disproportionately affects persons with endocrine conditions, thus putting them at an increased risk for severe disease. We discuss the mechanisms that place persons with endocrine conditions at an additional risk for severe COVID-19 and review the evidence. We also suggest precautions and management of endocrine conditions in the setting of global curfews being imposed and offer practical tips for uninterrupted endocrine care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endocrine System Diseases/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 767-771, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting nationwide lockdowns have posed a major challenge to the management of pre-existing and newly diagnosed endocrine disorders. Herein, we have summarized the management approaches of common endocrine disorders amid the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: We have performed an extensive literature search for articles in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases till 25 May 2020, with the following keywords: "COVID-19", "diabetes mellitus", "thyroid disorders", "primary adrenal insufficiency", "Cushing's syndrome", "pituitary tumors", "vitamin D″", "osteoporosis", "primary hyperparathyroidism", "hypoparathyroidism", "management", "treatment" and "guidelines" with interposition of the Boolean operator "AND". RESULTS: We have summarized the most feasible strategies for the management of diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, primary adrenal insufficiency (including congenital adrenal hyperplasia), Cushing's syndrome, pituitary tumors, osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism amid the constraints laid down by the raging pandemic. In general, medical management should be encouraged and surgical interventions should be deferred whenever possible. Ongoing medications should be continued. Sick-day rules should be sincerely adhered to. Regular contact with physicians can be maintained through teleconsultations and virtual clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the burden of endocrine disorders in the general population, their management needs to be prioritized amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Endocrinology/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endocrine System Diseases/complications , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrinology/organization & administration , Endocrinology/trends , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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