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Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(7): 1242-1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394672


Coronaviruses are a big family of viruses that can infect mammalians and birds. In humans they mainly cause respiratory tract infections, with a large spectrum of severity, from mild, self-limited infections to highly lethal forms as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Scanty data are reported for the involvement of endocrine glands in human coronaviruses, in particular SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize endocrinological involvement in human coronaviruses, including data on animal coronaviruses. Avians, ferrets and bovine are affected by specific coronavirus syndromes, with variable involvement of endocrine glands. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a target receptor, so ACE2 plays a central role in viral transmission and initial organ involvement. Autoptic studies on SARS patients revealed that thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary gland, endocrine pancreas and especially adrenals and testis could be impaired by different mechanisms (direct damage by SARS-CoV, inflammation, vascular derangement and autoimmune reactions) and few clinical studies have evidenced functional endocrine impairment. Only few data are available for COVID-19 and gonads and endocrine pancreas seem to be involved. International endocrinological societies have brought some recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic, but further studies need to be performed, especially to detect long-term hormonal sequelae.

COVID-19/metabolism , Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Endocrine Glands/immunology , Endocrine System/immunology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/immunology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 35(2): 197-205, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004777


The world is entering an era of disaster and chaos due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Since its first emergence in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 has swept through Asia and propagated throughout the world to Europe and North America. As of April 13, 1,773,084 people were infected and 111,652 people had died from COVID-19 globally, and new record levels of infection are being reported every day. Based on the data that have been amassed so far, the primary risk factors for a severe disease course or even mortality from COVID-19 are underlying diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. As the global prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, patients with endocrine diseases such as diabetes mellitus and those who are on long-term corticosteroid therapy due to adrenal insufficiency or hypopituitarism are at risk for a poor prognosis of COVID-19. As endocrinologists, we would like to briefly review the current knowledge about the relationship between COVID-19 and endocrine diseases and to discuss what we can do for the safety and health of our patients with endocrine diseases in this globally threatening situation.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Endocrinologists/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Endocrine ; 68(3): 467-470, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459439


The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is centralizing the interest of the scientific world. In the next months, long-term consequences on the endocrine system may arise following COVID-19. In this article, we hypothesized the effects of SARS-CoV-2 taking into account what learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that caused SARS in 2003.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endocrine Glands/virology , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2