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Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(7): 1242-1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394672


Coronaviruses are a big family of viruses that can infect mammalians and birds. In humans they mainly cause respiratory tract infections, with a large spectrum of severity, from mild, self-limited infections to highly lethal forms as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Scanty data are reported for the involvement of endocrine glands in human coronaviruses, in particular SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize endocrinological involvement in human coronaviruses, including data on animal coronaviruses. Avians, ferrets and bovine are affected by specific coronavirus syndromes, with variable involvement of endocrine glands. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a target receptor, so ACE2 plays a central role in viral transmission and initial organ involvement. Autoptic studies on SARS patients revealed that thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary gland, endocrine pancreas and especially adrenals and testis could be impaired by different mechanisms (direct damage by SARS-CoV, inflammation, vascular derangement and autoimmune reactions) and few clinical studies have evidenced functional endocrine impairment. Only few data are available for COVID-19 and gonads and endocrine pancreas seem to be involved. International endocrinological societies have brought some recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic, but further studies need to be performed, especially to detect long-term hormonal sequelae.

COVID-19/metabolism , Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Endocrine Glands/immunology , Endocrine System/immunology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/immunology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Vitam Horm ; 117: 253-318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330459


The immune and endocrine systems collectively control homeostasis in the body. The endocrine system ensures that values of essential factors and nutrients such as glucose, electrolytes and vitamins are maintained within threshold values. The immune system resolves local disruptions in tissue homeostasis, caused by pathogens or malfunctioning cells. The immediate goals of these two systems do not always align. The immune system benefits from optimal access to nutrients for itself and restriction of nutrient availability to all other organs to limit pathogen replication. The endocrine system aims to ensure optimal nutrient access for all organs, limited only by the nutrients stores that the body has available. The actual state of homeostatic parameters such as blood glucose levels represents a careful balance based on regulatory signals from the immune and endocrine systems. This state is not static but continuously adjusted in response to changes in the current metabolic needs of the body, the amount of resources it has available and the level of threats it encounters. This balance is maintained by the ability of the immune and endocrine systems to interact and co-regulate systemic metabolism. In context of metabolic disease, this system is disrupted, which impairs functionality of both systems. The failure of the endocrine system to retain levels of nutrients such as glucose within threshold values impairs functionality of the immune system. In addition, metabolic stress of organs in context of obesity is perceived by the immune system as a disruption in local homeostasis, which it tries to resolve by the excretion of factors which further disrupt normal metabolic control. In this chapter, we will discuss how the immune and endocrine systems interact under homeostatic conditions and during infection with a focus on blood glucose regulation. In addition, we will discuss how this system fails in the context of metabolic disease.

Blood Glucose/immunology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Endocrine System/immunology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Infections/immunology , Infections/metabolism , Humans