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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(6): 2171-2178, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776796

ABSTRACT

Several receptors for the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), essential for the penetration of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, are located in the tissues of the endocrine glands. Therefore, it has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in the development of hormonal disturbances. To date, several cases of endocrine disturbances related to the dysfunction of all endocrine glands during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described. In this review, we discuss the endocrine system disturbances in patients with COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 syndrome. Based on the case reports described in the literature, patients with COVID-19 may develop endocrine disturbances that are immediately life-threatening. In addition, patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome may develop chronic endocrine disturbances. In summary, the diagnostics of endocrine system disturbances based on clinical symptoms should be taken into account in both patients with COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Endocrine System/metabolism , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 5106342, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: An outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 and spread globally, overwhelming the entire world. COVID-19 is a public health emergency of international concern. Due to its high morbidity and mortality rate, recognition of its risk and prognostic factors is important. We aimed to understand the relationship between metabolic and endocrine parameters and the prognosis of COVID-19. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a cross-sectional clinical study. A total of 70 patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled. Laboratory results at the first admission time (including complete blood count, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, blood glucose, calcium, phosphate, albumin, creatinine, magnesium, lipid profiles, liver enzymes, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and vitamin D) and outcome data were recorded. We divided patients into (1) intensive care unit- (ICU-) admitted and non-ICU-admitted and (2) survivors and nonsurvivors for estimation of severity and prognosis. We determined the risk factors associated with critical illness and poor prognosis. RESULTS: Patients with higher white blood cell (WBC) count and phosphate levels had significantly higher ICU admission rates. According to univariate analysis, serum levels of T3, phosphate, and WBC as well as the duration of hospitalization were associated with mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that only WBC and duration of hospitalization were independent predictors for mortality rate in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that longer duration of hospitalization and higher WBC count are associated with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Endocrine System/metabolism , Leukocyte Count , Phosphates/blood , Aged , Biomarkers , Blood Chemical Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endocrine System/virology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572493

ABSTRACT

The last two years, despite the very serious COronaVIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been quite productive in the field of molecular endocrinology and metabolism and our journal section has contributed extensively on that [...].


Subject(s)
Endocrine System/metabolism , Endocrinology/trends , Endocrine System/physiology , Humans
4.
Endocrinology ; 163(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430504

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to exert a significant impact on global health care systems, causing devastating mortality and morbidity. As time passes and our understanding of this novel respiratory virus deepens, it is increasingly clear that its effects extend beyond that of the respiratory system. The coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, obtains cellular access through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in a process requiring the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) protein. Both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are widely expressed in many endocrine glands. This, along with several case reports of thyroid and pituitary disruption in patients with COVID-19, has resulted in significant interest in its impact on the endocrine system. Indeed, as mortality is abated by the increasing availability of effective vaccines, there is increasing focus on the long-term effects on health in COVID-19 survivors. This review summarizes data investigating the effects of COVID-19 on each of the endocrine axes to guide appropriate investigations and optimal management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Endocrine System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
5.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(7): 1242-1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394672

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a big family of viruses that can infect mammalians and birds. In humans they mainly cause respiratory tract infections, with a large spectrum of severity, from mild, self-limited infections to highly lethal forms as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Scanty data are reported for the involvement of endocrine glands in human coronaviruses, in particular SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize endocrinological involvement in human coronaviruses, including data on animal coronaviruses. Avians, ferrets and bovine are affected by specific coronavirus syndromes, with variable involvement of endocrine glands. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a target receptor, so ACE2 plays a central role in viral transmission and initial organ involvement. Autoptic studies on SARS patients revealed that thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary gland, endocrine pancreas and especially adrenals and testis could be impaired by different mechanisms (direct damage by SARS-CoV, inflammation, vascular derangement and autoimmune reactions) and few clinical studies have evidenced functional endocrine impairment. Only few data are available for COVID-19 and gonads and endocrine pancreas seem to be involved. International endocrinological societies have brought some recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic, but further studies need to be performed, especially to detect long-term hormonal sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Endocrine Glands/immunology , Endocrine System/immunology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/immunology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Vitam Horm ; 117: 253-318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330459

ABSTRACT

The immune and endocrine systems collectively control homeostasis in the body. The endocrine system ensures that values of essential factors and nutrients such as glucose, electrolytes and vitamins are maintained within threshold values. The immune system resolves local disruptions in tissue homeostasis, caused by pathogens or malfunctioning cells. The immediate goals of these two systems do not always align. The immune system benefits from optimal access to nutrients for itself and restriction of nutrient availability to all other organs to limit pathogen replication. The endocrine system aims to ensure optimal nutrient access for all organs, limited only by the nutrients stores that the body has available. The actual state of homeostatic parameters such as blood glucose levels represents a careful balance based on regulatory signals from the immune and endocrine systems. This state is not static but continuously adjusted in response to changes in the current metabolic needs of the body, the amount of resources it has available and the level of threats it encounters. This balance is maintained by the ability of the immune and endocrine systems to interact and co-regulate systemic metabolism. In context of metabolic disease, this system is disrupted, which impairs functionality of both systems. The failure of the endocrine system to retain levels of nutrients such as glucose within threshold values impairs functionality of the immune system. In addition, metabolic stress of organs in context of obesity is perceived by the immune system as a disruption in local homeostasis, which it tries to resolve by the excretion of factors which further disrupt normal metabolic control. In this chapter, we will discuss how the immune and endocrine systems interact under homeostatic conditions and during infection with a focus on blood glucose regulation. In addition, we will discuss how this system fails in the context of metabolic disease.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/immunology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Endocrine System/immunology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Infections/immunology , Infections/metabolism , Humans
7.
Endocrinology ; 161(10)2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626158

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for poor disease outcomes and mortality from COVID-19. The pathophysiologic mechanisms for these observations have not been fully elucidated. A critical interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) facilitates viral entry into the host cell. ACE2 is expressed in pancreatic islets, vascular endothelium, and adipose tissue, and the SARS-CoV-2 -ACE2 interaction in these tissues, along with other factors, governs the spectrum and the severity of clinical manifestations among COVID-19 patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory milieu observed in patients with metabolic syndrome may contribute toward COVID-19-mediated host immune dysregulation, including suboptimal immune responses, hyperinflammation, microvascular dysfunction, and thrombosis. This review describes the spectrum of clinical features, the likely pathophysiologic mechanisms, and potential implications for the management of metabolic syndrome in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Endocrine System/physiopathology , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Microvessels/physiopathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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